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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817799/human-astrocyte-maturation-captured-in-3d-cerebral-cortical-spheroids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Steven A Sloan, Spyros Darmanis, Nina Huber, Themasap A Khan, Fikri Birey, Christine Caneda, Richard Reimer, Stephen R Quake, Ben A Barres, Sergiu P Paşca
There is significant need to develop physiologically relevant models for investigating human astrocytes in health and disease. Here, we present an approach for generating astrocyte lineage cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitecture using human cerebral cortical spheroids (hCSs) derived from pluripotent stem cells. We acutely purified astrocyte-lineage cells from hCSs at varying stages up to 20 months in vitro using immunopanning and cell sorting and performed high-depth bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing to directly compare them to purified primary human brain cells...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817792/making-human-stars-a-new-method-to-generate-human-astrocytes
#2
Nicola J Allen
Human astrocytes are increasingly appreciated as important contributors to brain function in health and disease, but techniques to study them are limited. In this issue of Neuron, Sloan and colleagues (2017) describe a new 3D culture model that generates mature human astrocytes, opening the door to future studies of their function.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817771/ice-templated-and-cross-linked-amyloid-fibril-aerogel-scaffolds-for-cell-growth
#3
Gustav Nyström, Wye-Khay Fong, Raffaele Mezzenga
Amyloid fibrils prepared from β-lactoglobulin were used to form freeze-dried and cross-linked aerogels. By varying the fibril concentration and freezing gradient, it was possible to control the pore structure and elastic modulus of the aerogels over one order of magnitude from ~2 to ~200 kPa. Using butane tetracarboxylic acid as cross-linker these aerogels maintained their monolithic shape in aqueous conditions displaying elastic behavior and a modulus in the range of 4-40 kPa. When explored as scaffolds for cell growth, the amyloid fibril aerogels demonstrated biocompatibility and led to the successful penetration and permeation of two epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) throughout the scaffold...
August 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817741/reconstruction-of-a-severely-atrophied-alveolar-ridge-by-computer-aided-gingival-simulation-and-3d-printed-surgical-guide-a-case-report
#4
In-Seok Song, Mi-Ran Lee, Jae-Jun Ryu, Ui-Lyong Lee
Dental implants positioned in severely atrophied anterior maxillae require esthetic or functional compromises. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a severely atrophied alveolar ridge with a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) surgical guide. A 50-year-old woman had a severely atrophied anterior maxilla with unfavorably positioned dental implants. Functional and esthetic prosthodontic restoration was difficult to achieve. An anterior segmental osteotomy was planned to reposition the dental implants...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817694/a-new-holistic-3d-non-invasive-analysis-of-cellular-distribution-and-motility-on-fibroin-alginate-microcarriers-using-light-sheet-fluorescent-microscopy
#5
Serena Duchi, Filippo Piccinini, Michela Pierini, Alessandro Bevilacqua, Maria Luisa Torre, Enrico Lucarelli, Spartaco Santi
Cell interaction with biomaterials is one of the keystones to developing medical devices for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials are the scaffolds that give three-dimensional support to the cells, and are vectors that deliver the cells to the injured tissue requiring repair. Features of biomaterials can influence the behaviour of the cells and consequently the efficacy of the tissue-engineered product. The adhesion, distribution and motility of the seeded cells onto the scaffold represent key aspects, and must be evaluated in vitro during the product development, especially when the efficacy of a specific tissue-engineered product depends on viable and functional cell loading...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817682/experimental-study-of-tuberculosis-from-animal-models-to-complex-cell-systems-and-organoids
#6
REVIEW
Kaori L Fonseca, Pedro N S Rodrigues, I Anna S Olsson, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease to mankind that has killed more people than any other infectious disease. Despite many efforts and successes from the scientific and health communities, the prospect of TB elimination remains distant. On the one hand, sustainable public health programs with affordable and broad implementation of anti-TB measures are needed. On the other hand, achieving TB elimination requires critical advances in three areas: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. It is also well accepted that succeeding in advancing these areas requires a deeper knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during infection, and for that, better experimental models are needed...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817607/computer-aided-position-planning-of-miniplates-to-treat-facial-bone-defects
#7
Jan Egger, Jürgen Wallner, Markus Gall, Xiaojun Chen, Katja Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Knut Reinbacher, Dieter Schmalstieg
In this contribution, a software system for computer-aided position planning of miniplates to treat facial bone defects is proposed. The intra-operatively used bone plates have to be passively adapted on the underlying bone contours for adequate bone fragment stabilization. However, this procedure can lead to frequent intra-operatively performed material readjustments especially in complex surgical cases. Our approach is able to fit a selection of common implant models on the surgeon's desired position in a 3D computer model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817236/a-new-cul4b-variant-associated-with-a-mild-phenotype-and-an-exceptional-pattern-of-leukoencephalopathy
#8
Susann Weissbach, Marie-Christine Reinert, Janine Altmüller, Ralph Krätzner, Holger Thiele, Thorsten Rosenbaum, Peter Nürnberg, Jutta Gärtner
Cabezas type of X-linked syndromic intellectual disability (MRXSC; MIM300354) is a rare X-linked recessive intellectual disability characterized primarily by intellectual disability, short stature, hypogonadism, and gait abnormalities. It is caused by a wide spectrum of hemizygous variants in CUL4B. In a 10-year-old boy with an exceptional leukoencephalopathy pattern, we identified a new missense variant p.Leu329Gln in CUL4B using "Mendeliome" sequencing. However, his phenotype does not include the severe characteristics currently known for MRXSC...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817195/vertical-off-centering-affects-organ-dose-in-chest-ct-evidence-from-monte-carlo-simulations-in-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#9
Natalia Saltybaeva, Hatem Alkadhi
PURPOSE: The objective of our study was to assess the effect of patient vertical off-centering on organ dose in chest CT with tube current modulation. METHODS: For this purpose, anthropomorphic phantoms representing adult male, female and overweight male were scanned on 192-slice CT scanner at eleven different vertical positions (maximal off-centering ± 5 cm). Monte Carlo simulations were performed for each of the investigated setup, using tube current values extracted from the raw data, in order to obtain 3D dose distributions...
August 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817094/combined-dynamic-time-warping-with-multiple-sensors-for-3d-gesture-recognition
#10
Hyo-Rim Choi, TaeYong Kim
Cyber-physical systems, which closely integrate physical systems and humans, can be applied to a wider range of applications through user movement analysis. In three-dimensional (3D) gesture recognition, multiple sensors are required to recognize various natural gestures. Several studies have been undertaken in the field of gesture recognition; however, gesture recognition was conducted based on data captured from various independent sensors, which rendered the capture and combination of real-time data complicated...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817080/feasibility-study-of-an-optical-caustic-plasmonic-light-scattering-sensor-for-human-serum-anti-dengue-protein-e-antibody-detection
#11
Antonio A García, Lina S Franco, Miguel A Pirez-Gomez, José L Pech-Pacheco, Jorge F Mendez-Galvan, Carlos Machain-Williams, Lourdes Talavera-Aguilar, José H Espinosa-Carrillo, Miriam M Duarte-Villaseñor, Christian Be-Ortiz, Luz E Espinosa-de Los Monteros, Ariel Castillo-Pacheco, Julian E Garcina-Rejon
Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20-200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory...
August 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816826/tissue-engineered-bone-differentiated-from-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-inhibit-posterolateral-fusion-in-an-athymic-rat-model
#12
Comron Saifi, Jonahtan Bernhard, Jamal N Shillingford, Petros Petridis, Samuel Robinson, X Edward Guo, Mark Weidenbaum, Ronald A Lehman, Howard S An, Lawrence G Lenke, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Joseph L Laratta
STUDY DESIGN: Biological augmentation spinal arthrodesis trial in athymic rats OBJECTIVE.: To assess the efficacy of tissue-engineered bone to promote L4-L5 intertransverse process fusion in an athymic rat model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Each year in the United States, over 400,000 spinal fusion surgeries are performed requiring bone graft. The current gold standard for posterolateral lumbar fusion is autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), but the harvesting of ICBG is associated with increased operative time and significant complications...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816672/templateless-non-rigid-reconstruction-and-motion-tracking-with-a-single-rgb-d-camera
#13
Kangkan Wang, Guofeng Zhang, Shihong Xia
We present a novel templateless approach for nonrigid reconstruction and motion tracking using a single RGB-D camera. Without any template prior, our system achieves accurate reconstruction and tracking for considerably deformable objects. To robustly register the input sequence of partial depth scans with dynamic motion, we propose an efficient local-toglobal hierarchical optimization framework inspired by the idea of traditional structure-from-motion. Our proposed framework mainly consists of two stages, local nonrigid bundle adjustment and global optimization...
August 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816663/specificity-and-latent-correlation-learning-for-action-recognition-using-synthetic-multi-view-data-from-depth-maps
#14
Bin Liang, Lihong Zheng
This paper presents a novel approach to action recognition using synthetic multi-view data from depth maps. Specifically, multiple views are firstly generated by rotating 3D point clouds from depth maps. A pyramid multi-view depth motion template (MVDMT) is then adopted for multi-view action representation, characterizing the multi-scale motion and shape patterns in 3D. Empirically, despite the view-specific information, the latent information between multiple views often provides important cues for action recognition...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816661/a-3d-reconstruction-strategy-of-vehicle-outline-based-on-single-pass-single-polarization-csar-data
#15
Leping Chen, Daoxiang An, Xiaotao Huang, Zhimin Zhou
In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming and time-expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816656/tracking-by-detection-of-3d-human-shapes-from-surfaces-to-volumes
#16
Chun-Hao Huang, Benjamin Allain, Edmond Boyer, Jean-Sebastien Franco, Federico Tombari, Nassir Navab, Slobodan Ilic
3D Human shape tracking consists in fitting a template model to temporal sequences of visual observations. It usually comprises an association step, that finds correspondences between the model and the input data, and a deformation step, that fits the model to the observations given correspondences. Most current approaches follow the Iterative-Closest-Point (ICP) paradigm, where the association step is carried out by searching for the nearest neighbors. It fails when large deformations occur and errors in the association tend to propagate over time...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816615/in-stent-hypodense-area-at-two-weeks-following-carotid-artery-stenting-predicts-neointimal-hyperplasia-after-two-years
#17
Kentaro Yamashita, Jouji Kokuzawa, Tatsuya Kuroda, Satoru Murase, Morio Kumagai, Yasuhiko Kaku
Introduction It has not been reported how long the follow-up study after carotid artery stenting (CAS) should be continued. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the dynamic change of the in-stent neointimal layer and residual arterial lumen by two years following CAS using three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D CTA) with volume rendering. Methods Thirty-six stented carotid arteries in 34 consecutive patients were examined by 3D CTA with volume rendering at two weeks and 3, 6, 12, 24 months of follow-up...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816441/an-integrated-design-material-and-fabrication-platform-for-engineering-biomechanically-and-biologically-functional-soft-tissues
#18
Onur Bas, Davide D'Angella, Jeremy G Baldwin, Nathan J Castro, Felix M Wunner, Navid T Saidy, Stefan Kollmannsberger, Alessandro Reali, Ernst Rank, Elena M De-Juan-Pardo, Dietmar W Hutmacher
We present a design rationale for stretchable soft network composites for engineering tissues which predominantly function under high tensile loads. The convergence of 3D-printed fibers selected from a design library and biodegradable interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) result in biomimetic tissue engineered constructs (bTECs) with fully tunable properties that can match specific tissue requirements. We present our technology platform using an exemplary soft network composite model that is characterized to be flexible, yet ~125 times stronger (E = 3...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816436/integrated-distance-based-origami-paper-analytical-device-id-opad-for-one-step-visualized-analysis
#19
Tian Tian, Yuan An, Yiping Wu, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Chaoyong James Yang
An integrated distance-based origami paper analytical device (ID-oPAD) is developed for simple, user-friendly and visual detection of targets of interest. The platform enables complete integration of target recognition, signal amplification and visual signal output, based on aptamer/invertase functionalized sepharose beads, cascaded enzymatic reactions and a 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical device with distance-based readout, respectively. The invertase-DNA conjugate is released upon target addition, after which it permeates through the cellulose and flows down into the bottom detection zone, while sepharose beads with larger size are excluded and stay in the upper zone...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816413/porcine-spermatogonial-stem-cells-self-renew-effectively-in-a-three-dimensional-culture-microenvironment
#20
Ji Eun Park, Min Hee Park, Min Seong Kim, Yeo Reum Park, Jung Im Yun, Hee Tae Cheong, Minseok Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Eunsong Lee, Seung Tae Lee
Generally, self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is maintained in vivo in a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment consisting of the seminiferous tubule basement membrane, indicating the importance of the 3D microenvironment for in vitro culture of SSCs. Here, we report a 3D culture microenvironment that effectively maintains porcine SSC self-renewal during culture. Porcine SSCs were cultured in an agarose-based 3D hydrogel and in 2D culture plates either with or without feeder cells. Subsequently, the effects of 3D culture on the maintenance of undifferentiated SSCs were identified by analyzing cell colony formation and morphology, AP activity, and transcriptional and translational regulation of self-renewal-related genes and the effects on proliferation by analyzing cell viability and single cell-derived colony number...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
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