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Deepak Reddy Gade, Amareswararao Makkapati, Rajesh Babu Yarlagadda, Godefridus J Peters, B S Sastry, V V S Rajendra Prasad
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer treatment. Acridones have the potential to reverse MDR and sensitize cells. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the chemosensitization potential of acridones by employing various molecular modelling techniques. Pharmacophore modeling was performed for the dataset of chemosensitizing acridones earlier proved for cytotoxic activity against MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Gaussian-based QSAR studies also performed to predict the favored and disfavored region of the acridone molecules...
February 24, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
X Bai, B Tie, J-H Schmitt, D Aubry
The correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation and polycrystalline microstructures has significant implications in nondestructive evaluation. An original numerical approach using the finite element method to quantify in both time and frequency domains the ultrasonic noise scattering due to the elastic heterogeneity of polycrystalline microstructures is presented. Based on the reciprocity theorem, it allows the scattering evaluation using mechanical data recorded only on the boundary of polycrystal instead of within its volume and is applicable to any polycrystalline aggregate regardless of its crystallographic or morphological characteristics...
February 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Robert L McMasters, Reza Mohammadi
HYPOTHESIS: Recently, it has been shown that the contact time of impacting water droplets on a superhydrophobic cylindrical surface decreases when its radius becomes comparable to that of the droplet, yet the correlation of this reduction with the impact velocity is unclear. Moreover, on a flat surface, experiments involving the addition of a single macrotexture, along with covering the surface with macroscopic cylindrical ridges (ribbed pattern), have been reported to shorten the contact time...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
David Hasler, Dominik Obrist
The flow field past a prosthetic aortic valve comprises many details that indicate whether the prosthesis is functioning well or not. It is, however, not yet fully understood how an optimal flow scenario would look, i.e. which subtleties of the fluid dynamics in place are essential regarding the durability and compatibility of a prosthetic valve. In this study, we measured and analyzed the 3D flow field in the vicinity of a bio-prosthetic heart valve in function of the aortic root size. The measurements were conducted within aortic root phantoms of different size, mounted in a custom-built hydraulic setup, which mimicked physiological flow conditions in the aorta...
2018: PloS One
Tatsuya Soeno, Tomoharu Mochizuki, Osamu Tanifuji, Hiroshi Koga, Takayuki Murayama, Hiroki Hijikata, Yuki Takahashi, Naoto Endo
INTRODUCTION: Instability after total knee arthroplasty is a critical problem. The purpose of this study was to clarify the stability of implanted knees during walking by comparing differences in dynamic instability during knee acceleration between individuals with or without previously experienced subjective instability, as measured by self-reported questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 92 knees with medial pivot implants. Mean patient age and follow-up duration were 78...
2018: PloS One
Sen Wang, Xinxin Zuo, Chao Du, Runxiao Wang, Jiangbin Zheng, Ruigang Yang
This paper deals with the 3D reconstruction problem for dynamic non-rigid objects with a single RGB-D sensor. It is a challenging task as we consider the almost inevitable accumulation error issue in some previous sequential fusion methods and also the possible failure of surface tracking in a long sequence. Therefore, we propose a global non-rigid registration framework and tackle the drifting problem via an explicit loop closure. Our novel scheme starts with a fusion step to get multiple partial scans from the input sequence, followed by a pairwise non-rigid registration and loop detection step to obtain correspondences between neighboring partial pieces and those pieces that form a loop...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Jung-Un Kim, Hang-Bong Kang
In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Kazuma Takashima, Takashi Sakai, Hidetoshi Hamada, Masaki Takao, Nobuhiko Sugano
BACKGROUND: Many studies have confirmed that the size and location of necrotic lesions are major factors that affect the prevalence of collapse and prognosis in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Although several classification systems categorize and quantify ONFH, there is no agreement on which one is most useful for the purpose. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We compared the Steinberg, modified Kerboul, and Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) classifications of ONFH in terms of (1) the correlation among the three different classification systems...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Kurtis H Dekker, Rubin Hazarika, Matheus A Silveira, Kevin J Jordan
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanning of radiochromic gel dosimeters, using a CCD camera and a low stray light convergent source, provides fast, truly 3D radiation dosimetry with high accuracy. However, a key limiting factor in radiochromic gel dosimetry at large (⩾10 cm diameter) volumes is the initial attenuation of the dosimeters. It is not unusual to observe a 5-10×  difference in signal intensity through the dosimeter center versus through the surrounding medium in pre-irradiation images...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Brodie Pearson, Baylor Fox-Kemper
Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O(10  km). As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality-robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Susana García-Gutiérrez, José M Quintana López, Ane Antón-Ladislao, María Soledad Gallardo Rebollal, Irene Rilo Miranda, Miren Morillas Bueno, Nekane Murga Eizagaetxebarria, Ricardo Palenzuela Arocena, Esther Pulido, Irantzu Barrio Beraza, Urko Aguirre Larracoechea, Inmaculada Arostegui
OBJECTIVES: To validate the EAHFE-3D scale, based on the Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments registry, in a cohort of patients attended for acute heart failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study of a multipurpose cohort of patients with acute heart failure in 3 hospitals in the Basque Country between 2011 and 2013. We extracted age, baseline New York Heart Association functional class, systolic blood pressure, baseline arterial oxygen saturation, sodium level in blood, and emergency department treatments (noninvasive mechanical ventilation, use of inotropic agents and vasopressors) in order to calculate each patient's EAHFE-3D score...
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Jejoong Yoo, Aleksei Aksimentiev
In contrast to ordinary polymers, the vast majority of biological macromolecules adopt highly ordered three-dimensional structures that define their functions. The key to folding of a biopolymer into a unique 3D structure or to an assembly of several biopolymers into a functional unit is a delicate balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that also makes such self-assembly reversible under physiological conditions. The all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) method has emerged as a powerful tool for studies of individual biomolecules and their functional assemblies, encompassing systems of ever increasing complexity...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Maud Martin, Alexandra Veloso, Jingchao Wu, Eugene A Katrukha, Anna Akhmanova
Microtubules control different aspects of cell polarization. In cells with a radial microtubule system, a pivotal role in setting up asymmetry is attributed to the relative positioning of the centrosome and the nucleus. Here, we show that centrosome loss had no effect on the ability of endothelial cells to polarize and move in 2D and 3D environments. In contrast, non-centrosomal microtubules stabilized by the microtubule minus-end-binding protein CAMSAP2 were required for directional migration on 2D substrates and for the establishment of polarized cell morphology in soft 3D matrices...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Zhen Li, Shouzhen Jiang, Yanyan Huo, Tingyin Ning, Aihua Liu, Chao Zhang, Yuan He, Minghong Wang, Chonghui Li, Baoyuan Man
We report a three-dimensional (3D) SERS substrate with different numbers of silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) layers using multilayer graphene oxide (GO) as a spacer. The SERS performance of the 3D nanostructure was investigated and it was found that the SERS effect increased as the number of Ag NP layers increased, and showed almost no change for more than four layers. We found that the SERS performance of the 3D nanostructures can be mainly attributed to the topmost hot spots which are closely related to the Ag NP layers in the 3D nanostructure...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Kenneth T Lewis, Ormond A MacDougald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Laura Fangmann, Steffen Teller, Pavel Stupakov, Helmut Friess, Güralp O Ceyhan, Ihsan Ekin Demir
In pancreatic cancer, neural invasion is one of the most common paths of cancer dissemination. Classically, cancer cells actively invade nerves and cause local recurrence and pain. Three-dimensional (3D) neural migration assay has become a standard tool for scientists to study neural invasion by confronting the involved cell types. This protocol introduces Schwann cells, i.e., the most prevalent cell type in peripheral nerves, in a novel heterotypic, glia-cancer-neuron, 3D migration assay for assessing their relevance in the early pathogenesis of neural invasion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ilhem Bouderbala, Nadjia El Saadi, Alassane Bah, Pierre Auger
In this paper, we develop a 3D-individual-based model (IBM) to understand effect of various small-scale mechanisms in phytoplankton cells, on the cellular aggregation process. These mechanisms are: spatial interactions between cells due to their chemosensory abilities (chemotaxis), a molecular diffusion and a demographical process. The latter is considered as a branching process with a density-dependent death rate to take into account the local competition on resources. We implement the IBM and simulate various scenarios under real parameter values for phytoplankton cells...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Suhanyaa Nitkunanantharajah, Christoph Hennersperger, Xose Luis Dean-Ben, Daniel Razansky, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Optoacoustic imaging provides high spatial resolution and the possibility to image specific functional parameters in real-time, therefore positioning itself as a promising modality for various applications. However, despite these advantages, the applicability of real-time optoacoustic imaging is generally limited due to a relatively small field of view. METHODS: With this work, we aim at presenting a path towards panoramic optoacoustic tomographic imaging without requiring additional sensors or position trackers...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
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