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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#1
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas as well as thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941360/the-study-on-six-green-insensitive-high-energetic-coordination-polymers-based-on-alkali-alkali-earth-metals-and-4-5-bis-tetrazol-5-yl-2h-1-2-3-triazole
#2
Dong Chen, Dong Jing, Qi Zhang, Xianggui Xue, Shaohua Gou, Hongzhen Li, Fude Nie
Constructing insensitive high-performance ECPs with alkali/alkali-earth metal ions and nitrogen-rich organic backbone has been proved a feasible strategy in this work. Six diverse dimensional novel ECPs (Compounds 1-6) were successfully synthesized from Na(I), Cs(I), Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II) ions and a nitrogen-rich triheterocyclic 4,5-Bis(tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole (H3BTT). All compounds show outstanding stability and low sensitivity, the thermal stability of these ECPs are significantly improved as the structural reinforcement increased from 1D to 3D, in which the decomposition temperature of 3D Ba(II) based compound 6 is as high as 397 oC...
September 23, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938372/3d-photography-at-your-fingertips
#3
Oren M Tepper, Jason Weissler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938321/the-pierre-robin-mandible-is-hypoplastic-and-morphologically-abnormal
#4
Elizabeth G Zellner, Russell R Reid, Derek M Steinbacher
BACKGROUND: For Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) patients, there is incomplete characterization of 3D differences and effects of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) on the mandible compared to normal controls. METHODS: PRS infants who underwent MDO at 2 craniofacial referral centerals with pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were identified. A group of age-matched control patients with CTs were identified in the PACS database. Demographic and perioperative data were recorded...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938228/sex-determination-from-chest-measurements-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-adults-using-multislice-computed-tomography
#5
Ragaa T Darwish, Manal H Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz M El Nekiedy, Zahraa K Sobh
BACKGROUND: In forensic sciences to determine one's sex is quite important during the identity defining stage. The reliability of sex determination depends on the completeness of the remains and the degree of sexual dimorphism inherent in the population. Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice for two- and three-dimensional documentation and analysis of many autopsy findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to assess the reliability of Three-dimensional Multislice Computed Tomography (3D MSCT) to determine sexual dimorphism from certain chest measurements; sternum and fourth rib using the 3D MSCT and to develop equations for sex determination from these bones among adult Egyptians sample...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938095/dynamic-looping-interactions-setting-the-3d-stage-for-the-macrophage
#6
Mayuri Rege, Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins
The mechanisms by which 3D chromatin looping interactions mediate cell type-specific gene expression are an active area of investigation. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Phanstiel et al. (2017) annotate five classes of loops during macrophage development and predict candidate factors involved in their regulation.
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937836/optimizing-a-3d-model-system-for-molecular-manipulation-of-tenogenesis
#7
Chun Chien, Brian Pryce, Sara F Tufa, Douglas R Keene, Alice H Huang
PURPOSE: Tendon injuries are clinically challenging due to poor healing. A better understanding of the molecular events that regulate tendon differentiation would improve current strategies for repair. The mouse model system has been instrumental to tendon studies and several key molecules were initially established in mouse. However, the study of gene function has been limited by the absence of a standard in vitro tendon system for efficiently testing multiple mutations, physical manipulations, and mis-expression...
September 22, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937756/direct-comparison-of-c-h-bond-amination-efficacy-through-manipulation-of-nitrogen-valence-centered-redox-imido-versus-iminyl
#8
Matthew J T Wilding, Diana A Iovan, Alexandra T Wrobel, James T Lukens, Samantha N MacMillan, Kyle M Lancaster, Theodore A Betley
Reduction of previously reported iminyl radical (ArL)FeCl(•N(C6H4-p-tBu)) (2) with potassium graphite furnished the corresponding high-spin (S = 5/2) imido (ArL)Fe(N(C6H4-p-tBu)) (3) (ArL = 5-mesityl-1,9-(2,4,6-Ph3C6H2)dipyrrin). Oxidation of the three-coordinate imido (ArL)Fe(NAd) (5) with chlorotriphenylmethane afforded (ArL)FeCl(•NAd) (6) with concomitant expulsion of Ph3C(C6H5)CPh2. The respective alkyl/aryl imido/iminyl pairs (3, 2; 5, 6) have been characterized by EPR, zero-field 57Fe Mössbauer, magnetometry, single crystal X-ray diffraction, XAS, and EXAFS for 6...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937744/methane-c-h-activation-via-3d-metal-methoxide-complexes-with-potentially-redox-noninnocent-pincer-ligands-a-density-functional-theory-study
#9
Ahmad Najafian, Thomas R Cundari
This paper reports a density functional theory study of 3d transition-metal methoxide complexes with potentially redox-noninnocent pincer supporting ligands for methane C-H bond activation to form methanol (LnM-OMe + CH4 → LnM-Me + CH3OH). The three types of tridentate pincer ligands [terpyridine (NNN), bis(2-pyridyl)phenyl-C,N,N' (NCN), and 2,6-bis(2-phenyl)pyridine-N,C,C' (CNC)] and different first-row transition metals (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are used to elucidate the reaction mechanism as well as the effect of the metal identity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of a methane activation reaction...
September 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937740/ab-initio-study-of-the-atomic-level-structure-of-the-rutile-tio2-110-titanium-nitride-tin-interface
#10
Jose Julio Gutierrez Moreno, Michael Nolan
Titanium nitride (TiN) is widely used in industry as a protective coating due to its hardness and resistance to corrosion and can spontaneously form a thin oxide layer when it is exposed to air, which could modify the properties of the coating. With limited understanding of the TiO2 - TiN interfacial system at present, this work aims to describe the structural and electronic properties of oxidized TiN based on a density functional theory (DFT) study of the rutile TiO2 (110) - TiN (100) interface model system, also including Hubbard +U correction on Ti 3d states...
September 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937649/synthesis-and-enhanced-ethanol-gas-sensing-properties-of-the-g-c%C3%A2-n%C3%A2-nanosheets-decorated-tin-oxide-flower-like-nanorods-composite
#11
Yan Wang, Jianliang Cao, Cong Qin, Bo Zhang, Guang Sun, Zhanying Zhang
Flower-like SnO₂/g-C₃N₄ nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method by using SnCl₄·5H₂O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) techniques. SnO₂ displays the unique 3D flower-like microstructure assembled with many uniform nanorods with the lengths and diameters of about 400-600 nm and 50-100 nm, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937643/design-and-additive-manufacturing-of-3d-phononic-band-gap-structures-based-on-gradient-based-optimization
#12
Maximilian Wormser, Fabian Wein, Michael Stingl, Carolin Körner
We present a novel approach for gradient based maximization of phononic band gaps. The approach is a geometry projection method combining parametric shape optimization with density based topology optimization. By this approach, we obtain, in a two dimension setting, cellular structures exhibiting relative and normalized band gaps of more than 8 and 1.6, respectively. The controlling parameter is the minimal strut size, which also corresponds with the obtained stiffness of the structure. The resulting design principle is manually interpreted into a three dimensional structure from which cellular metal samples are fabricated by selective electron beam melting...
September 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937605/production-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-hydroxyapatite-composite-scaffolds-with-a-tailored-macro-micro-porous-structure-high-mechanical-properties-and-excellent-bioactivity
#13
Jong-Woo Kim, Kwan-Ha Shin, Young-Hag Koh, Min Jin Hah, Jiyoung Moon, Hyoun-Ee Kim
We produced poro-us poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite scaffolds for bone regeneration, which can have a tailored macro/micro-porous structure with high mechanical properties and excellent in vitro bioactivity using non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS)-based 3D plotting. This innovative 3D plotting technique can create highly microporous PCL/HA composite filaments by inducing unique phase separation in PCL/HA solutions through the non-solvent-solvent exchange phenomenon. The PCL/HA composite scaffolds produced with various HA contents (0 wt %, 10 wt %, 15 wt %, and 20 wt %) showed that PCL/HA composite struts with highly microporous structures were well constructed in a controlled periodic pattern...
September 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937545/non-contrast-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-and-accelerated-3-dimensional-radial-acquisition-intracranial-3-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-angiography-for-the-detection-and-classification-of-intracranial-arteriovenous-shunts
#14
Tilman Schubert, Zachary Clark, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Ryan Zea, Oliver Wieben, Huimin Wu, Patrick A Turski, Kevin M Johnson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with 3-dimensional (3D) radial acquisition for the detection of intracranial arteriovenous (AV) shunts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 patients who underwent PCASL-MRA, clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MRA exam, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were included in this retrospective analysis...
September 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937285/assessment-of-automatic-segmentation%C3%A2-of-teeth-using%C3%A2-a-watershed-based-method
#15
Antoine Galibourg, Jean Dumoncel, Norbert Telmon, Adèle Calvet, Jérôme Michetti, Delphine Maret
OBJECTIVES: Tooth 3D automatic segmentation (AS) is being actively developed in research and clinical fields. Here, we assess the effect of automatic segmentation using a watershed-based method on the accuracy and reproducibility of 3D reconstructions in volumetric measurements by comparing it with a semi-automatic (SAS) method that has already been validated. METHODS: The study sample comprised 52 teeth, scanned with micro computed tomography (micro CT) (41µm voxel size) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) (76 ; 200 and 300 µm voxel size)...
September 21, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937281/tracking-by-detection-of-surgical-instruments-in-minimally-invasive-surgery-via-the-convolutional-neural-network-deep-learning-based-method
#16
Zijian Zhao, Sandrine Voros, Ying Weng, Faliang Chang, Ruijian Li
BACKGROUND: Worldwide propagation of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) is hindered by their drawback of indirect observation and manipulation, while monitoring of surgical instruments moving in the operated body required by surgeons is a challenging problem. Tracking of surgical instruments by vision-based methods is quite lucrative, due to its flexible implementation via software-based control with no need to modify instruments or surgical workflow. METHODS: A MIS instrument is conventionally split into a shaft and end-effector portions, while a 2D/3D tracking-by-detection framework is proposed, which performs the shaft tracking followed by the end-effector one...
September 22, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937271/assesment-of-radiation-induced-secondary-cancer-risk-in-the-brazilian-population-from-left-sided-breast-3d-crt-using-mcnpx
#17
Bruno Melo Mendes, Bruno Machado Trindade, Telma Cristina Ferreira Fonseca, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to simulate a 6MV conventional breast 3D conformational radiotherapy (3D-CRT) with physical wedges (50Gy/25#) in the left breast, calculate the mean absorbed dose in the body organs using robust models and computational tools and estimate the secondary cancer-incidence risk to the Brazilian population. METHODS: The VW female phantom was used in the simulations. PTV was defined in the left breast. The 6MV parallel-opposed fields breast-RT protocol was simulated with MCNPx code...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937270/feasibility-of-free-breathing-lung-mri-for-radiotherapy-using-non-cartesian-k-space-acquisition-schemes
#18
Shivani Kumar, Robba Rai, Alto Stemmer, Sonal Josan, Lois Holloway, Shalini Vinod, Daniel Moses, Gary Liney
OBJECTIVES: To test a free breathing MRI protocol for anatomical and functional assessment during lung cancer radiotherapy by assessing two non-cartesian acquisition schemes based on a T1W 3D gradient recall echo sequence: (i) stack-of stars (StarVIBE) and (ii) spiral (SpiralVIBE) trajectories Methods: MR images on five healthy volunteers were acquired on a wide bore 3T scanner (Skyra, Siemens Healthcare). Anatomical image quality was assessed on: (1) free breathing (StarVIBE), (2) the standard clinical sequence (VIBE) acquired in a 20 second compliant breath-hold and (3) 20 second non-complaint breath-hold...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937224/thermocapillary-droplet-actuation-effect-of-solid-structure-and-wettability
#19
George Karapetsas, Nikolaos T Chamakos, Athanasios G Papathanasiou
We examine the thermocapillary-driven flow of a droplet on a non-uniformly heated patterned surface. Using a sharp-interface scheme, capable of efficiently modelling the flow over complex surfaces, we perform 2D and 3D finite element simulations for a wide range of substrate wettabilities, i.e. from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surfaces. Our results demonstrate that the contact angle hysteresis, due to the presence of the solid structures, is responsible for the appearance of a critical thermal gradient beyond which droplet migration is possible that has been reported by experimental observations...
September 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937155/polycatenation-tuned-microporosity-of-two-metal-tris-4-carboxybiphenyl-amine-frameworks-with-multilayer-structures
#20
Yan-Ping He, Lv-Bing Yuan, Jian Zhang
By employing a nanosized tris(4'-carboxybiphenyl)amine ligand to assemble with Zn(2+) ions, a novel trilayer network (FIR-37) and an unprecedented 2D → 3D microporous polycatenation framework (FIR-38) based on unusual tetralayers have been synthesized and structurally characterized. FIR-38 shows permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 1408.4 m(2) g(-1).
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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