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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906490/exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-the-diagnosis-of-asthma-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#1
Sue E Harnan, Munira Essat, Tim Gomersall, Paul Tappenden, Ian Pavord, Mark Everard, Rod Lawson
OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesise evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of FE NO for asthma in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic searches (nine key biomedical databases and trial registers) were carried out to November 2014. Records were included if they: recruited patients with the symptoms of asthma; used a single set of inclusion criteria; measured FE NO50 in accordance with American Thoracic Society guidelines, 2005 (off-line excluded); reported/allowed calculation of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative patients as classified against any reference standard...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906309/spiral-phase-mask-shadow-imaging-for-3d-measurement-of-flow-fields
#2
Martin Teich, Michael Mattern, Jeremy Sturm, Lars Büttner, Jürgen W Czarske
Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) is a valuable tool for microfluidic analysis. Especially mixing processes and the environmental interaction of fluids on a microscopic scale are of particular importance for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. However, currently applied techniques suffer from the lag of instantaneous depth information. Here we present a scan-free, shadow-imaging PTV-technique for 3D trajectory and velocity measurement of flow fields in micro-channels with 2 µm spatial resolution...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906261/impact-of-nonstationary-optical-illumination-on-image-reconstruction-in-optoacoustic-tomography
#3
Yang Lou, Kun Wang, Alexander A Oraevsky, Mark A Anastasio
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906145/nitrobacter-sp-extract-mediated-biosynthesis-of-ag2o-nps-with-excellent-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-potential-for-biomedical-application
#4
Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Alexander Gusev, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Arup Ratan Mandal, Denis Kuznetsov
In this study, extracellular extract of plant growth promoting bacterium, Nitrobacter sp. is used for the bioconversion of AgNO3 (silver nitrate) into Ag2O (silver oxide nanoparticles). It is an easy, ecofriendly and single step method for Ag2O NPs synthesis. The bio-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. UV-Vis results showed the maximum absorbance around 450 nm. XRD result shows the particles to have faced centered cubic (fcc) crystalline nature. FTIR analysis reveals the functional groups that are involved in bioconversion such as C-N, N-H and C=O...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905986/predictors-of-perceived-male-partner-concurrency-among-women-at-risk-for-hiv-and-sti-acquisition-in-durban-south-africa
#5
Zakir Gaffoor, Handan Wand, Renée A Street, Nathlee Abbai, Gita Ramjee
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test...
March 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905654/-conflict-of-interest-disclosure-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-reliability-of-research
#6
Mauricio Soto Subiabre
Conflicts of interest are situations in which professional judgment concerning a primary interest, tends to be influenced by a secondary interest. These conflicts could compromise the reliability of biomedical research and result in the dissemination of biased results. Therefore, it is essential to protect the integrity of them, because this information could be used in the development of health policy, medical education and clinical decision making. Conflicts of interest disclosure, is a bioethical tool that contributes to transparent these conflicts, but it is used inappropriately and insufficiently...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904176/methodology-series-module-6-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analysis
#7
Maninder Singh Setia
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902695/text-mining-genotype-phenotype-relationships-from-biomedical-literature-for-database-curation-and-precision-medicine
#8
Ayush Singhal, Michael Simmons, Zhiyong Lu
The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900435/enzyme-based-logic-gates-and-circuits-analytical-applications-and-interfacing-with-electronics
#9
REVIEW
Evgeny Katz, Arshak Poghossian, Michael J Schöning
The paper is an overview of enzyme-based logic gates and their short circuits, with specific examples of Boolean AND and OR gates, and concatenated logic gates composed of multi-step enzyme-biocatalyzed reactions. Noise formation in the biocatalytic reactions and its decrease by adding a "filter" system, converting convex to sigmoid response function, are discussed. Despite the fact that the enzyme-based logic gates are primarily considered as components of future biomolecular computing systems, their biosensing applications are promising for immediate practical use...
November 29, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900377/microfluidic-technologies-in-cell-isolation-and-analysis-for-biomedical-applications
#10
Jing Wu, Qiushui Chen, Jin-Ming Lin
Efficient platforms for cell isolation and analysis play an important role in applied and fundamental biomedical studies. As cells commonly have a size of around 10 microns, conventional handling approaches at a large scale are still challenged in precise control and efficient recognition of cells for further performance of isolation and analysis. Microfluidic technologies have become more prominent in highly efficient cell isolation for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection, single-cell analysis and stem cell separation, since microfabricated devices allow for the spatial and temporal control of complex biochemistries and geometries by matching cell morphology and hydrodynamic traps in a fluidic network, as well as enabling specific recognition with functional biomolecules in the microchannels...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899602/the-human-phenotype-ontology-in-2017
#11
Sebastian Köhler, Nicole A Vasilevsky, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, Julie McMurry, Ségolène Aymé, Gareth Baynam, Susan M Bello, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kym M Boycott, Michael Brudno, Orion J Buske, Patrick F Chinnery, Valentina Cipriani, Laureen E Connell, Hugh J S Dawkins, Laura E DeMare, Andrew D Devereau, Bert B A de Vries, Helen V Firth, Kathleen Freson, Daniel Greene, Ada Hamosh, Ingo Helbig, Courtney Hum, Johanna A Jähn, Roger James, Roland Krause, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Hanns Lochmüller, Gholson J Lyon, Soichi Ogishima, Annie Olry, Willem H Ouwehand, Nikolas Pontikos, Ana Rath, Franz Schaefer, Richard H Scott, Michael Segal, Panagiotis I Sergouniotis, Richard Sever, Cynthia L Smith, Volker Straub, Rachel Thompson, Catherine Turner, Ernest Turro, Marijcke W M Veltman, Tom Vulliamy, Jing Yu, Julie von Ziegenweidt, Andreas Zankl, Stephan Züchner, Tomasz Zemojtel, Julius O B Jacobsen, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Christopher J Mungall, Melissa Haendel, Peter N Robinson
Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899567/expansion-of-the-gene-ontology-knowledgebase-and-resources
#12
(no author information available yet)
The Gene Ontology (GO) is a comprehensive resource of computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. As such, it is extensively used by the biomedical research community for the analysis of -omics and related data. Our continued focus is on improving the quality and utility of the GO resources, and we welcome and encourage input from researchers in all areas of biology. In this update, we summarize the current contents of the GO knowledgebase, and present several new features and improvements that have been made to the ontology, the annotations and the tools...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898829/gapit-version-2-an-enhanced-integrated-tool-for-genomic-association-and-prediction
#13
You Tang, Xiaolei Liu, Jiabo Wang, Meng Li, Qishan Wang, Feng Tian, Zhongbin Su, Yuchun Pan, Di Liu, Alexander E Lipka, Edward S Buckler, Zhiwu Zhang
Most human diseases and agriculturally important traits are complex. Dissecting their genetic architecture requires continued development of innovative and powerful statistical methods. Corresponding advances in computing tools are critical to efficiently use these statistical innovations and to enhance and accelerate biomedical and agricultural research and applications. The genome association and prediction integrated tool (GAPIT) was first released in 2012 and became widely used for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic prediction...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898009/effects-of-glycosylation-on-the-enzymatic-activity-and-mechanisms-of-proteases
#14
REVIEW
Peter Goettig
Posttranslational modifications are an important feature of most proteases in higher organisms, such as the conversion of inactive zymogens into active proteases. To date, little information is available on the role of glycosylation and functional implications for secreted proteases. Besides a stabilizing effect and protection against proteolysis, several proteases show a significant influence of glycosylation on the catalytic activity. Glycans can alter the substrate recognition, the specificity and binding affinity, as well as the turnover rates...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897239/expression-level-and-clinical-significance-of-hox-transcript-antisense-intergenic-rna-in-cervical-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#15
Shasha Liu, Min Zhang, Pengpeng Qu
The long noncoding RNA HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is associated with the development and progression of several types of cancer; however, its role in cervical cancer is unclear. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the expression levels and clinical significance of HOTAIR in cervical cancer tissue. Relevant literature published by January 2016 was identified in PubMed, EMBase, National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. We performed statistical analysis, calculated standard mean differences (SMDs), and determined combined odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897013/harnessing-big-data-for-precision-medicine-infrastructures-and-applications
#16
Kun-Hsing Yu, Steven N Hart, Rachel Goldfeder, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang, Stephen C J Parker, Michael Snyder
Precision medicine is a health management approach that accounts for individual differences in genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures. With the recent advancements in high-throughput omics profiling technologies, collections of large study cohorts, and the developments of data mining algorithms, big data in biomedicine is expected to provide novel insights into health and disease states, which can be translated into personalized disease prevention and treatment plans. However, petabytes of biomedical data generated by multiple measurement modalities poses a significant challenge for data analysis, integration, storage, and result interpretation...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896988/precision-medicine-data-and-discovery-for-improved-health-and-therapy
#17
Alexander A Morgan, Dana C Crawford, Josh C Denny, Sean D Mooney, Bruce J Aronow, Steven E Brenner
The major goal of precision medicine is to improve human health. A feature that unites much research in the field is the use of large datasets such as genomic data and electronic health records. Research in this field includes examination of variation in the core bases of DNA and their methylation status, through variations in metabolic and signaling molecules, all the way up to broader systems level changes in physiology and disease presentation. Intermediate goals include understanding the individual drivers of disease that differentiate the cause of disease in each individual...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896981/meta-analysis-of-continuous-phenotypes-identifies-a-gene-signature-that-correlates-with-copd-disease-status
#18
Madeleine Scott, Francesco Vallania, Purvesh Khatri
The utility of multi-cohort two-class meta-analysis to identify robust differentially expressed gene signatures has been well established. However, many biomedical applications, such as gene signatures of disease progression, require one-class analysis. Here we describe an R package, MetaCorrelator, that can identify a reproducible transcriptional signature that is correlated with a continuous disease phenotype across multiple datasets. We successfully applied this framework to extract a pattern of gene expression that can predict lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tissue...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896973/patterns-in-biomedical-data-how-do-we-find-them
#19
Anna O Basile, Anurag Verma, Marta Byrska-Bishop, Sarah A Pendergrass, Christian Darabos, H Lester Kirchner
Given the exponential growth of biomedical data, researchers are faced with numerous challenges in extracting and interpreting information from these large, high-dimensional, incomplete, and often noisy data. To facilitate addressing this growing concern, the "Patterns in Biomedical Data-How do we find them?" session of the 2017 Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB) is devoted to exploring pattern recognition using data-driven approaches for biomedical and precision medicine applications. The papers selected for this session focus on novel machine learning techniques as well as applications of established methods to heterogeneous data...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896971/rabix-an-open-source-workflow-executor-supporting-recomputability-and-interoperability-of-workflow-descriptions
#20
Gaurav Kaushik, Sinisa Ivkovic, Janko Simonovic, Nebojsa Tijanic, Brandi Davis-Dusenbery, Deniz Kural
As biomedical data has become increasingly easy to generate in large quantities, the methods used to analyze it have proliferated rapidly. Reproducible and reusable methods are required to learn from large volumes of data reliably. To address this issue, numerous groups have developed workflow specifications or execution engines, which provide a framework with which to perform a sequence of analyses. One such specification is the Common Workflow Language, an emerging standard which provides a robust and flexible framework for describing data analysis tools and workflows...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
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