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applied physiology in anesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899319/cost-effective-raspberry-pi-based-radio-frequency-identification-tagging-of-mice-suitable-for-automated-in-vivo-imaging
#1
Federico Bolaños, Jeff M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
BACKGROUND: Automation of animal experimentation improves consistency, reduces potential for error while decreasing animal stress and increasing well-being. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging can identify individual mice in group housing environments enabling animal-specific tracking of physiological parameters. NEW METHOD: We describe a simple protocol to radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and detect mice. RFID tags were injected sub-cutaneously after brief isoflurane anesthesia and do not require surgical steps such as suturing or incisions...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746553/prevention-of-hypotension-induced-by-combined-spinal-epidural-anesthesia-using-continuous-infusion-of-vasopressin-a-randomized-trial
#2
Chetna Shamshery, Ashish Kannaujia, Rajashree Madabushi, Dinesh Singh, Divya Srivastava, Shobhana Jafa
BACKGROUND: Central neuraxial blockade (CNB) is an established technique of providing anesthesia for surgeries of the lower limb and abdomen. Hypotension is the most common side effect of CNB. It was hypothesized that by supplementing the initial burst of vasopressin following hypovolemia, hypotension following combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA) could be avoided. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 122 patients undergoing lower limb and abdomen surgeries were included in the study, with 61 patients randomized into two groups - I and II...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725946/design-of-multichannel-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-system-with-application-to-propofol-and-sevoflurane-anesthesia-monitoring
#3
Zhenhu Liang, Yue Gu, Xuejing Duan, Lei Cheng, Shujuan Liang, Yunjie Tong, Xiaoli Li
Monitoring the changes of cerebral hemodynamics and the state of consciousness during general anesthesia (GA) is clinically important. There is a great need for developing advanced detectors to investigate the physiological processes of the brain during GA. We developed a multichanneled, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system device and applied it to GA operation monitoring. The cerebral hemodynamic data from the forehead of 11 patients undergoing propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia were analyzed...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719852/functional-coma
#4
L Ludwig, L McWhirter, S Williams, C Derry, J Stone
Functional coma - here defined as a prolonged motionless dissociative attack with absent or reduced response to external stimuli - is a relatively rare presentation. In this chapter we examine a wide range of terms used to describe states of unresponsiveness in which psychologic factors are relevant to etiology, such as depressive stupor, catatonia, nonepileptic "pseudostatus," and factitious disorders, and discuss the place of functional or psychogenic coma among these. Historically, diagnosis of functional coma has sometimes been reached after prolonged investigation and exclusion of other diagnoses...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702586/physiological-effects-of-a-habituation-procedure-for-functional-mri-in-awake-mice-using-a-cryogenic-radiofrequency-probe
#5
Keitaro Yoshida, Yu Mimura, Ryosuke Ishihara, Hiroshi Nishida, Yuji Komaki, Tomohito Minakuchi, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Masaru Mimura, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka, Norio Takata
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in mice is typically performed under anesthesia due to difficulties in holding the head of awake mice stably with a conventional three-point fixation method that uses a tooth-bar and earplugs. Although some studies have succeeded in fMRI in awake mice by attaching a head-post on the skull, this cannot be applied to fMRI using a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cryogenic MRI-detector, CryoProbe, because it covers the head of a mouse closely...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680060/-strategy-and-prospective-of-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-esophageal-cancer
#6
Yin Li
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a patient-centered, surgeon-led system combining anesthesia, nursing, nutrition and psychology. It aims to minimize surgical stress and maintain physiological function in perioperative care, thereby expediting recovery. ERAS theory has been clinically applied for nearly 20 years and it is firstly used in colorectal surgery, then widely used in other surgical fields. However, ERAS is not used commonly in esophagectomy because of its surgical complexity and high morbidity of postoperative complications, which limits the application of ERAS in the field of esophagectomy...
September 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515457/blood-pressure-and-heart-rates-in-neonates-and-preschool-children-an-analysis-from-10-years-of-electronic-recording
#7
Cedric E Sottas, David Cumin, Brian J Anderson
BACKGROUND: An acceptable systolic or mean arterial blood pressure for children 0-6 years during anesthesia is unknown. Accepted blood pressures reported in standard charts for healthy awake children may not apply to those undergoing anesthesia. AIM: Our goal was to define observed blood pressures (BP) and heart rate (HR) in children 0-5 years during anesthesia. METHODS: Data from the electronic health record database were available for a 10-year period from June 29, 2005 to July 22, 2015...
November 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435862/physiologic-monitoring-improving-safety-or-increasing-risk
#8
Charles G Durbin
This paper will present a focused and personal history of physiologic monitoring, beginning with the discovery of modern anesthesia and its development from a technical practice to a scientific discipline. Emphasis will be on the essence of monitoring in the anesthesia evolution, and this work will attempt to answer the question of how to evaluate the impact of monitoring on patient outcome. Understanding that monitors are passive and that only caregivers using monitors can impact outcome is at the crux of this approach to analysis...
August 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411333/a-novel-multivariate-steady-state-index-during-general-anesthesia-stan
#9
Ana Castro, Fernando Gomes de Almeida, Pedro Amorim, Catarina S Nunes
The assessment of the adequacy of general anesthesia for surgery, namely the nociception/anti-nociception balance, has received wide attention from the scientific community. Monitoring systems based on the frontal EEG/EMG, or autonomic state reactions (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) have been developed aiming to objectively assess this balance. In this study a new multivariate indicator of patients' steady-state during anesthesia (STAN) is proposed, based on wavelet analysis of signals linked to noxious activation...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359239/-anesthetic-management-in-bronchial-asthma
#10
Alf Kozian, Thomas Schilling, Thomas Hachenberg
In daily practice, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases are common issues presenting to the anesthetist. Respiratory physiology in general is affected by both general and regional anesthesia, which results in an increased number of perioperative complications in pulmonary risk patients. Therefore, anesthetic management of patients with bronchial asthma needs to address different clinical topics: the physical appearance of pulmonary disease, type and extent of surgical intervention as well as effects of therapeutic drugs, anesthetics and mechanical ventilation on respiratory function...
June 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346873/an-automated-real-time-method-for-the-detection-of-patients-at-risk-for-malignant-hyperthermia
#11
Stephen J Gleich, Kim Strupp, Robert T Wilder, Daryl J Kor, Randall Flick
BACKGROUND: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare anesthetic pharmacogenetic disorder that can be difficult to detect in its earliest phases. Prompt treatment is known to improve outcomes. The modern anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) collect enormous amounts of data. However, data lack context and are not able to provide real-time guidance. Utilizing our AIMS, we developed the capacity to incorporate decision support. AIMS: We describe the creation and evaluation of a real-time detection tool for MH...
September 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319087/-physiology-in-relation-to-anesthesia-practice-preface-and-comments
#12
Yoshitsugu Yamada
It has been long recognized that anesthesia practice is profoundly based in physiology. With the advance of the technology of imaging, measurement and information, a serious gap has emerged between anesthesia mainly handling gross systemic parameters and molecular physiology. One of the main reasons is the lack of establishment of integration approach. This special series of reviews deals with systems physiology covering respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. It also includes metabolism, and fluid, acid-base, and electrolyte balance...
May 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293908/neurochemical-plasticity-of-the-coeliac-superior-mesenteric-ganglion-complex-neurons-projecting-to-the-prepyloric-area-of-the-porcine-stomach-following-hyperacidity
#13
Katarzyna Palus, Jarosław Całka
This study was designed to determine neurochemical properties of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in physiological state and following experimentally induced hyperacidity. To localize sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control animals and hydrochloric acid infusion (HCl) groups. After 23 days, animals of the HCl group were reintroduced into a state of general anesthesia and intragastrically given 5 mL/kg of body weight of 0...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018048/neural-mass-model-based-tracking-of-anesthetic-brain-states
#14
Levin Kuhlmann, Dean R Freestone, Jonathan H Manton, Bjorn Heyse, Hugo E M Vereecke, Tarmo Lipping, Michel M R F Struys, David T J Liley
Neural mass model-based tracking of brain states from electroencephalographic signals holds the promise of simultaneously tracking brain states while inferring underlying physiological changes in various neuroscientific and clinical applications. Here, neural mass model-based tracking of brain states using the unscented Kalman filter applied to estimate parameters of the Jansen-Rit cortical population model is evaluated through the application of propofol-based anesthetic state monitoring. In particular, 15 subjects underwent propofol anesthesia induction from awake to anesthetised while behavioral responsiveness was monitored and frontal electroencephalographic signals were recorded...
June 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955263/comprehensive-evaluation-of-formulation-factors-for-ocular-penetration-of-fluoroquinolones-in-rabbits-using-cassette-dosing-technique
#15
Charu Sharma, Nihar R Biswas, Shreesh Ojha, Thirumurthy Velpandian
OBJECTIVE: Corneal permeability of drugs is an important factor used to assess the efficacy of topical preparations. Transcorneal penetration of drugs from aqueous formulation is governed by various physiological, physiochemical, and formulation factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of formulation factors like concentration, pH, and volume of instillation across the cornea using cassette dosing technique for ophthalmic fluoroquinolones (FQs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sterile cocktail formulations were prepared using four congeneric ophthalmic FQs (ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, pefloxacin mesylate, and gatifloxacin) at concentrations of 0...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783263/noteworthy-articles-in-2015-for-the-cardiothoracic-anesthesiologist
#16
Dirk J Varelmann, J Daniel Muehlschlegel
Large multicenter, randomized controlled trials published in reputable journals had a large impact on the world of cardiothoracic anesthesia in 2015. We as cardiac anesthesiologists pride ourselves as being experts in applied physiology, physics, ultrasonography, and pharmacology/pharmacotherapy. The selected studies added to our knowledge in the fields of echocardiography, pharmacology, molecular biology, and genetics. Outcome studies shine a light on important topics that are relevant to all cardiac anesthesiologists: does surgical atrial fibrillation ablation during mitral valve surgery reduce the recurrence of atrial fibrillation at 1 year after surgery? Does remote ischemic preconditioning live up to its promise to reduce postoperative major cardiac and cerebral events? Although we still do not have the answer to all the questions, the year 2015 has been a great step toward the goal of understanding molecular mechanisms of ischemic myocardial injury and toward providing evidence-based medicine for improving patient outcome...
March 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759160/failed-caudal-block-due-to-physiologic-changes-associated-with-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-a-case-report
#17
Erin Bruce, Adam O Spencer, Mehmet Sait Albayram
PURPOSE: The sum of the volumes of brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and intracranial blood remain constant. This tenet of the Monroe-Kellie hypothesis is most often considered in the setting of intracranial hypertension, but it can also be applied in the setting of CSF volume depletion. We used this hypothesis to explain a case of failed caudal block in a patient with an iatrogenic CSF leak. CLINICAL FEATURES: A one-month-old baby (3 kg) born at 35 weeks' gestation presented for right inguinal hernia repair...
May 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539115/the-power-of-using-functional-fmri-on-small-rodents-to-study-brain-pharmacology-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Jonckers, Disha Shah, Julie Hamaide, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479382/physiologic-measures-of-animal-stress-during-transitional-states-of-consciousness
#19
REVIEW
Robert E Meyer
Determination of the humaneness of methods used to produce unconsciousness in animals, whether for anesthesia, euthanasia, humane slaughter, or depopulation, relies on our ability to assess stress, pain, and consciousness within the contexts of method and application. Determining the subjective experience of animals during transitional states of consciousness, however, can be quite difficult; further, loss of consciousness with different agents or methods may occur at substantially different rates. Stress and distress may manifest behaviorally (e...
2015: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376437/inconsistency-of-allometric-scaling-for-dissociative-anesthesia-of-wild-felids
#20
Adriano B Carregaro, Gabrielle C Freitas, Shayne P Bisetto, Nathalia V Xavier, Elton V Sterzo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate allometric scaling for ketamine-xylazine (KX) anesthesia in wild felids using domestic cats for reference. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single-phase non-blinded study. ANIMALS: Six domestic cats and 13 wild felids (five Leopardus pardalis, five Puma concolor, one Panthera onca and two Panthera leo). METHODS: Six domestic cats (4.1 ± 0.8 kg, REF1) were anesthetized by intramuscular administration of ketamine (15 mg kg(-1) ) and xylazine (1 mg kg(-1) )...
May 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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