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anesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108179/symptomatic-treatment-of-cough-among-adult-patients-with-lung-cancer-chest-guidelines-and-expert-panel-report
#1
Alex Molassiotis, Jaclyn A Smith, Peter Mazzone, Fiona Blackhall, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough among patients with lung cancer is a common but often undertreated symptom. We have used a recent Cochrane systematic review, among other sources of evidence, to update the recommendations and suggestions of the CHEST 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework were used. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the Cochrane systematic review on the topic, uncontrolled studies, case studies, and the clinical context...
January 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100967/anesthetic-management-in-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-of-ventricular-tachycardia
#2
REVIEW
Yi Deng, Payam S Naeini, Mehdi Razavi, Charles D Collard, Daniel A Tolpin, James M Anton
Radiofrequency catheter ablation is increasingly being used to treat patients who have ventricular tachycardia, and anesthesiologists frequently manage their perioperative care. This narrative review is intended to familiarize anesthesiologists with preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural implications of this ablation. Ventricular tachycardia typically arises from structural heart disease, most often from scar tissue after myocardial infarction. Many patients thus affected will benefit from radiofrequency catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory to ablate the foci of arrhythmogenesis...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094959/noninvasive-targeted-transcranial-neuromodulation-via-focused-ultrasound-gated-drug-release-from-nanoemulsions
#3
Raag D Airan, Randall A Meyer, Nicholas P K Ellens, Kelly Rhodes, Keyvan Farahani, Martin G Pomper, Shilpa D Kadam, Jordan J Green
Targeted, noninvasive neuromodulation of the brain of an otherwise awake subject could revolutionize both basic and clinical neuroscience. Towards this goal, we have developed nanoparticles that allow noninvasive uncaging of a neuromodulatory drug - in this case the small molecule anesthetic propofol - upon the application of focused ultrasound. These nanoparticles are composed of biodegradable and biocompatible constituents and are activated using sonication parameters that are readily achievable by current clinical transcranial focused ultrasound systems...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087784/interactions-between-zinc-and-allosteric-modulators-of-the-glycine-receptor
#4
Garrett L Cornelison, Anna W Daszkowski, Natasha C Pflanz, S John Mihic
The glycine receptor is a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel involved in fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Zinc is an allosteric modulator of glycine receptor function, enhancing the effects of glycine at nM to low μM concentrations, and inhibiting its effects at higher concentrations. Low nM concentrations of contaminating zinc in electrophysiological buffers are capable of synergistically enhancing receptor modulation by other compounds such as ethanol. This suggests that, unless accounted for, previous studies of glycine receptor modulation were measuring the effects of modulator plus co-modulation by zinc on receptor function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079589/in-vogue-ketamine-for-neuroprotection-in-acute-neurologic-injury
#5
Josh D Bell
Neurologic deterioration following acute injury to the central nervous system may be amenable to pharmacologic intervention, although, to date, no such therapy exists. Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic emerging as a novel therapy for a number of clinical entities in recent years, including refractory pain, depression, and drug-induced hyperalgesia due to newly discovered mechanisms of action and new application of its known pharmacodynamics. In this focused review, the evidence for ketamine as a neuroprotective agent in stroke, neurotrauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus is highlighted, with a focus on its applications for excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and neuronal hyperexcitability...
January 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074359/pharmacological-management-of-chronic-pelvic-pain-in-women
#6
REVIEW
Erin T Carey, Sara R Till, Sawsan As-Sanie
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a multifaceted condition that often has both peripheral and central generators of pain. An understanding of neurobiology and neuropsychology of CPP should guide management. Successful treatment of CPP is typically multimodal, and pharmacologic treatment strategies include analgesics, hormonal suppression, anesthetics, antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, and anxiolytics. Evidence for these and other emerging pharmacologic therapies is presented in this article.
January 10, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070113/pharmacological-characterization-of-microminipig-as-a-model-to-assess-the-drug-induced-cardiovascular-responses-for-non-clinical-toxicity-and-or-safety-pharmacology-studies
#7
Hirofumi Yokoyama, Yuji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Saito, Yukitoshi Nagayama, Kiyotaka Hoshiai, Takeshi Wada, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Yasuki Akie, Atsushi Sugiyama
We tried to establish the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs as an alternative animal model for non-clinical toxicity and/or safety pharmacology studies. In order to characterize the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs, we firstly clarified the effects of halothane anesthesia on their cardiovascular system (n = 5). Then, we examined the cardiovascular effects of dl-sotalol in doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg, i.v. on the halothane-anesthetized microminipigs (n = 6). Induction of the halothane anesthesia by itself prolonged the QT interval as well as QTcF, suggesting that the halothane anesthesia can reduce the cardiac repolarization reserve in microminipigs like in dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067577/new-and-developing-anesthesia-drugs
#8
Kammy Ks Poon, Steven Hs Wong
Introduction In recent years, new anesthetic drugs with potentially better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are under development with good progress. Some of the most promising drugs are reviewed in this article. Areas covered A literature review was performed using Ovid and Medline as the search engine. Articles published from January 2000 to December 2016 were included for review. Efforts have been made to eliminate duplicated studies. Expert Opinion This is an up-to-date review on new and developing anesthesia drugs...
January 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#9
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#10
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda Maino Fiorenza, Suelen Lucio Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that not only it causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine action on increasing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in tonic and electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
December 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028005/releasing-the-brakes-on-the-fibrinolytic-system-in-pulmonary-emboli-unique-effects-of-plasminogen-activation-and-%C3%AE-2-antiplasmin-inactivation
#11
Satish Singh, Aiilyan K Houng, Guy L Reed
BACKGROUND: -In patients with hemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism, physiologic fibrinolysis fails to dissolve thrombi acutely and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) therapy may be required, despite its bleeding risk. To examine potential mechanisms, we analyzed the expression of key fibrinolytic molecules in experimental pulmonary emboli, assessed the contribution of α2-antiplasmin to fibrinolytic failure and compared the effects of plasminogen activation and α2-antiplasmin-inactivation on experimental thrombus dissolution and bleeding...
December 27, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002166/the-analgesic-effects-of-5r-6r-6-3-propylthio-1-2-5-thiadiazol-4-yl-1-azabicyclo-3-2-1-octane-on-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#12
Yong-Jie Wang, Zhen-Xing Zuo, Mei Zhang, Zhi-Hui Feng, Min Yan, Xiang-Yao Li
BACKGROUND: Both pharmacologic and genetic approaches have been used to study the involvement of the muscarinic acetylcholine system in the regulation of chronic pain. Previous studies suggest that the M2 and M4 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are important targets for the development of chronic pain. (5R,6R)6-(3-Propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane (PTAC) has agonist effects on muscarinic M2 and M4 receptors and antagonist effects on muscarinic M1, M3, and M5 receptors...
December 19, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001346/analgesic-microneedle-patch-for-neuropathic-pain-therapy
#13
Xi Xie, Conrado Pascual, Christopher Lieu, Seajin Oh, Ji Wang, Bende Zou, Julian Xie, Zhaohui Li, James Xie, David C Yeomans, Mei X Wu, Xinmin Simon Xie
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999957/postoperative-ileus-pathophysiology-current-therapeutic-approaches
#14
N Stakenborg, P J Gomez-Pinilla, G E Boeckxstaens
Postoperative ileus, which develops after each abdominal surgical procedure, is an iatrogenic disorder characterized by a transient inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Its pathophysiology is complex involving pharmacological (opioids, anesthetics), neural, and immune-mediated mechanisms. The early neural phase, triggered by activation of afferent nerves during the surgical procedure, is short lasting compared to the later inflammatory phase. The latter starts after 3-6 h and lasts several days, making it a more interesting target for treatment...
December 21, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989846/cortical-areas-involved-in-behavioral-expression-of-external-pallidum-dysfunctions-a-pet-imaging-study-in-non-human-primates
#15
Laurent Galineau, Aurélie Kas, Yulia Worbe, Marion Chaigneau, Anne-Sophie Herard, Martine Guillermier, Thierry Delzescaux, Jean Féger, Philippe Hantraye, Léon Tremblay
The external pallidum (GPe) is a component of the indirect pathway centrally placed in the basal ganglia. Studies already demonstrated that the pharmacological disinhibition of the sensorimotor, associative, and limbic GPe produced dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the cortical regions altered by the disinhibition of each GPe functional territory. Thus, 5 macaques were injected with bicuculline in sensorimotor, associative, and limbic sites of the GPe producing dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, and underwent in vivo positron tomography with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose to identify cortical dysfunctions related to GPe disinhibition...
October 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989695/the-genetics-of-isoflurane-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#16
Hyo-Seok Na, Nicole L Brockway, Katherine R Gentry, Elyce Opheim, Margaret M Sedensky, Philip G Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Neurotoxicity induced by early developmental exposure to volatile anesthetics is a characteristic of organisms across a wide range of species, extending from the nematode C. elegans to mammals. Prevention of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity (AIN) will rely upon an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. However, no forward genetic screens have been undertaken to identify the critical pathways affected in AIN.By characterizing such pathways, we may identify mechanisms to eliminate isoflurane induced AIN in mammals...
October 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989328/pharmacologic-treatment-of-pain
#17
REVIEW
Eapen Mathew, Eugene Kim, William Zempsky
Adolescents and children are frequently affected by chronic pain conditions that can lead to disability and distress. The best approach to evaluation and treatment of these conditions involves use of the biopsychosocial model, which includes use of medication management. Chronic pain conditions are treated pharmacologically with a number of different medication classes via several routes of administration as drug delivery systems have progressed. These include anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, antiepileptic medicines, antidepressants, opioids, and local anesthetics...
August 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973934/patients-with-type-2-diabetes-anesthetic-management-in-the-ambulatory-setting-part-1-pathophysiology-and-associated-disease-states
#18
Bryant W Cornelius
The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population has many implications for the ambulatory anesthesia provider. Complications, particularly associated with poor glycemic control, can affect multiple organ systems and jeopardize the safety of any planned anesthetic. It is essential that anesthesiologists and sedation providers have in-depth knowledge of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and the comorbid conditions that commonly accompany it. Anesthesiologists and sedation providers must also understand certain surgical and anesthetic considerations when planning an effective and safe anesthetic for diabetic patients...
2016: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965560/ketamine-50-years-of-modulating-the-mind
#19
REVIEW
Linda Li, Phillip E Vlisides
Ketamine was introduced into clinical practice in the 1960s and continues to be both clinically useful and scientifically fascinating. With considerably diverse molecular targets and neurophysiological properties, ketamine's effects on the central nervous system remain incompletely understood. Investigators have leveraged the unique characteristics of ketamine to explore the invariant, fundamental mechanisms of anesthetic action. Emerging evidence indicates that ketamine-mediated anesthesia may occur via disruption of corticocortical information transfer in a frontal-to-parietal ("top down") distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959401/midazolam-anesthesia-protects-neuronal-cells-from-oxidative-stress-induced-death-via-activation-of-the-jnk-erk-pathway
#20
Jing-Yu Liu, Feng Guo, Hong-Ling Wu, Ying Wang, Jin-Shan Liu
Midazolam is an anesthetic agent commonly used during clinical and surgical procedures, which has been shown to exert ROS‑suppressing and apoptosis‑modulating pharmacological activities in various cellular systems. However, the effects of midazolam on oxidative stress in neuronal cells require elucidation. The present study investigated the effects of midazolam on buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)‑ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neuronal cells. In addition, the effects of midazolam on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and on ethanol‑induced neuroapoptosis in the brains of neonatal mice were determined...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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