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anesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224407/quantification-of-regional-aerosol-deposition-patterns-as-a-function-of-aerodynamic-particle-size-in-rhesus-macaques-using-pet-ct-imaging
#1
P A Dabisch, Z Xu, J A Boydston, J Solomon, J K Bohannon, J J Yeager, J R Taylor, R J Reeder, P Sayre, J Seidel, D J Mollura, M C Hevey, P B Jahrling, M G Lackemeyer
Aerosol aerodynamic particle size is known to affect deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol particles, as well as the virulence of inhaled bioaerosol particles. While a significant amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract, only a limited amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract of nonhuman primates, an animal model commonly utilized in pharmacological and toxicological studies, especially in the biodefense field...
December 11, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224037/opportunities-for-laser-assisted-drug-delivery-in-the-treatment-of-cutaneous-disorders
#2
Emily Wenande, Andrés Már Erlendsson, Merete Haedersdal
Fractional laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) is increasingly finding its way into clinical practice as a new means to enhance topical drug uptake and improve treatment of cutaneous disorders. To date, LADD has been used for a wide range of conditions, including photodamaged skin, neoplastic lesions, scars, cutaneous infections, and vitiligo as well as for topical anesthetic and aesthetic procedures. Substantiated by randomized controlled clinical trials, strong evidence is available for LADD's usefulness for photodynamic therapy (PDT), for which improved efficacy using laser-assisted photosensitizer treatment is established for actinic keratosis compared with conventional PDT...
December 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215547/hypnosis-as-an-effective-and-inexpensive-option-to-control-pain-in-transcatheter-ablation-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#3
Umberto Barbero, Federico Ferraris, Milena Muro, Carlo Budano, Matteo Anselmino, Fiorenzo Gaita
: Supportive care for pain relief and back discomfort during electrophysiology interventions is usually needed in the electrophysiology lab, especially in long-lasting procedures like atrial fibrillation ablation. Although this is usually achieved with conventional pharmacologic anesthesia, hypnosis has recently aroused interest as a reliable tool to complement and possibly enhance conscious sedation. We collected five case of percutaneous arrhythmia ablation in which, after informed consent, hypnosis was performed by nurse anesthetists in the cath lab...
January 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210791/design-and-evaluation-of-a-closed-loop-anesthesia-system-with-robust-control-and-safety-system
#4
Nicholas West, Klaske van Heusden, Matthias Görges, Sonia Brodie, Aryannah Rollinson, Christian L Petersen, Guy A Dumont, J Mark Ansermino, Richard N Merchant
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of anesthesia involves continual adjustment of drug infusion rates according to measured clinical effect. The NeuroSENSE monitor provides an electroencephalographic measure of depth of hypnosis (wavelet-based anesthetic value for central nervous system monitoring [WAVCNS]). It has previously been used as feedback for closed-loop control of propofol, in a system designed using robust control engineering principles, which implements features specifically designed to ensure patient safety...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203576/dimethoxy-etomidate-a-non-hypnotic-etomidate-analog-that-potently-inhibits-steroidogenesis
#5
Megan McGrath, Celena Ma, Douglas Raines
Cushing's syndrome is characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis inhibitors are mainstays of medical therapy for Cushing's syndrome; unfortunately, adverse side effects and treatment failures are common with currently available drugs. The general anesthetic induction agent etomidate is among the most potent inhibitors of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. However, its use as a treatment for Cushing's syndrome is complicated by its sedative-hypnotic activity and ability to produce myoclonus, central nervous system actions thought to be mediated by the GABAA receptor...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200376/anesthetic-considerations-for-patients-on-antidepressant-therapy-part-i
#6
Mana Saraghi, Leonard R Golden, Elliot V Hersh
Millions of patients take antidepressant medications in the United States for the treatment of depression or anxiety disorders. Some antidepressants are prescribed off-label to treat problems such as chronic pain, low energy, and menstrual symptoms. Antidepressants are a broad and expansive group of medications, but the more common drug classes include tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A miscellaneous or "atypical" category covers other agents...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197629/pharmacological-modulation-of-hypoxia-induced-respiratory-neuroplasticity
#7
REVIEW
Sara Turner, Kristi Streeter, John Greer, Gordon S Mitchell, David D Fuller
Hypoxia elicits complex cell signaling mechanisms in the respiratory control system that can produce long-lasting changes in respiratory motor output. In this article, we review experimental approaches used to elucidate signaling pathways associated with hypoxia, and summarize current hypotheses regarding the intracellular signaling pathways evoked by intermittent exposure to hypoxia. We review data showing that pharmacological treatments can enhance neuroplastic responses to hypoxia. Original data are included to show that pharmacological modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) function can reveal a respiratory neuroplastic response to a single, brief hypoxic exposure in anesthetized mice...
November 29, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189287/pharmacological-considerations-in-the-elderly
#8
Shamsuddin Akhtar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pharmacology of contemporary anesthetic medications in geriatric patients, neurophysiological changes with aging, current recommendations for dosing anesthetic drugs. It also addresses current practice patterns and ongoing studies, which are likely to affect future anesthetic drug management in the elderly. RECENT FINDINGS: Potency of anesthetic drugs is increased in the elderly. In addition to changes at the receptor level, neurophysiological changes in functional connectivity with aging contributes to increased sensitivity of anesthetic drugs...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184439/ultrasound-guided-rectus-sheath-block-caudal-analgesia-or-surgical-site-infiltration-for-pediatric-umbilical-herniorrhaphy-a-prospective-double-blinded-randomized-comparison-of-three-regional-anesthetic-techniques
#9
Lance M Relland, Joseph D Tobias, David Martin, Giorgio Veneziano, Ralph J Beltran, Christopher McKee, Tarun Bhalla
Background: Umbilical hernia repair is a common pediatric surgical procedure. While opioid analgesics are a feasible option and have long been a mainstay in the pharmacological intervention for pain, the effort to improve care and limit opioid-related adverse effects has led to the use of alternative techniques, including regional anesthesia. The current study prospectively compares the analgesic efficacy of three techniques, including caudal epidural blockade, peripheral nerve blockade, and local wound infiltration, in a double-blinded study...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169960/oxytocin-inhibits-the-rat-medullary-dorsal-horn-sp5c-c1-nociceptive-transmission-through-ot-but-not-v1a-receptors
#10
Enrique García-Boll, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Abimael González-Hernández
The medullary dorsal horn (MDH or Sp5c/C1 region) plays a key role modulating the nociceptive input arriving from craniofacial structures. Some reports suggest that oxytocin could play a role modulating the nociceptive input at the MDH level, but no study has properly tested this hypothesis. Using an electrophysiological and pharmacological approach, the present study aimed to determine the effect of oxytocin on the nociceptive signaling in the MDH and the receptor involved. In sevoflurane, anesthetized rats, we performed electrophysiological unitary recordings of second order neurons at the MDH region responding to peripheral nociceptive-evoked responses of the first branch (V1; ophthalmic) of the trigeminal nerve...
November 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162767/an-increasing-electromechanical-window-is-a-predictive-marker-of-ventricular-fibrillation-in-anesthetized-rabbit-with-ischemic-heart
#11
Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Prapawadee Pirintr, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Robert L Hamlin
The QTc interval is widely used in Safety Pharmacological studies to predict arrhythmia risk, and the electromechanical window (EMW) and short-term variability of QT intervals (STVQT) have been studied as new biomarkers for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (TdP). However, the use of EMW and STVQT to predict ventricular fibrillation (VF) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate EMW and STVQT to predict VF in anesthetized rabbit model of VF. VF was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending and a descending branch of the left circumflex coronary arteries in a sample population of rabbits (n=18)...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162522/loss-of-consciousness-is-related-to-hyper-correlated-gamma-band-activity-in-anesthetized-macaques-and-sleeping-humans
#12
Michał Bola, Adam B Barrett, Andrea Pigorini, Lino Nobili, Anil K Seth, Artur Marchewka
Loss of consciousness can result from a wide range of causes, including natural sleep and pharmacologically induced anesthesia. Important insights might thus come from identifying neuronal mechanisms of loss and re-emergence of consciousness independent of a specific manipulation. Therefore, to seek neuronal signatures of loss of consciousness common to sleep and anesthesia we analyzed spontaneous electrophysiological activity recorded in two experiments. First, electrocorticography (ECoG) acquired from 4 macaque monkeys anesthetized with different anesthetic agents (ketamine, medetomidine, propofol) and, second, stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) from 10 epilepsy patients in different wake-sleep stages (wakefulness, NREM, REM)...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155760/echocardiographic-and-histological-examination-of-cardiac-morphology-in-the-mouse
#13
Delphine Baudouy, Jean-François Michiels, Ana Vukolic, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Nicole Wagner
An increasing number of genetically modified mouse models has become available in recent years. Moreover, the number of pharmacological studies performed in mice is high. Phenotypic characterization of these mouse models also requires the examination of cardiac function and morphology. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used approaches to characterize cardiac function and morphology in mice. Echocardiographic and MRI equipment specialized for use in small rodents is expensive and requires a dedicated space...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146243/current-progress-and-challenges-of-nanoparticle-based-therapeutics-in-pain-management
#14
REVIEW
Vanesa Andreu, Manuel Arruebo
Pain is a widespread and growing health problem worldwide that exerts a considerable social and economic impact on both patients and healthcare systems and, therefore, on society in general. Although current treatment modalities include a wide variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, due to the complexity of pain and individual differences in clinical response these options are not always effective in mitigating and relieving pain. In addition, some pain drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local anesthetics and opioids show several unfavorable side effects...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139031/in-vivo-analysis-of-the-anti-atrial-fibrillatory-proarrhythmic-and-cardiodepressive-profiles-of-dronedarone-as-a-guide-for-safety-pharmacological-evaluation-of-antiarrhythmic-drugs
#15
Yoshiyuki Motokawa, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama
Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. The low dose decreased the left ventricular contraction and mean blood pressure, which were enhanced at the high dose...
November 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106979/development-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-brain-distribution-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-occupancy-of-raclopride-in-non-anesthetized-rat
#16
Yin Cheong Wong, Trayana Ilkova, Rob C van Wijk, Robin Hartman, Elizabeth C M de Lange
BACKGROUND: Raclopride is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2 receptor. It is one of the most frequently used in vivo D2 tracers (at low doses) for assessing drug-induced receptor occupancy (RO) in animals and humans. It is also commonly used as a pharmacological blocker (at high doses) to occupy the available D2 receptors and antagonize the action of dopamine or drugs on D2 in preclinical studies. The aims of this study were to comprehensively evaluate its pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in different brain compartments and to establish a PK-RO model that could predict the brain distribution and RO of raclopride in the freely moving rat using a LC-MS based approach...
November 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100966/the-detection-and-quantification-in-vivo-and-in-real-time-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-ethanol-induced-lesions-in-rat-stomachs-using-an-ion-sensitive-electrode
#17
Josué A Velázquez-Moyado, Andrés Navarrete
INTRODUCTION: The development of electrochemical sensors for the detection of small molecules has already had a significant effect on the study of biology because of their selectivity and ability to measure low concentrations of small molecules that regulate various functions in living organisms. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter produced at low levels in several tissues including the stomach. Here, we propose a new method for detecting low concentrations of this transmitter in the rat stomach, in-vivo and in real time, with applications in pharmacology and physiology...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094418/total-intravenous-anesthesia-vs-single-pharmacological-prophylaxis-to-prevent-postoperative-vomiting-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Maximilian S Schaefer, Peter Kranke, Stephanie Weibel, Robert Kreysing, Janika Ochel, Peter Kienbaum
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting are frequent but often missed complications after general anesthesia in pediatric patients. Because inhaled anesthetics are known to trigger postoperative vomiting, total intravenous anesthesia is often administered in high-risk children to avoid the use of inhalational anesthesia. Since inhalational anesthesia might be advantageous in some situations, the question is raised whether administration of pharmacological prophylaxis offers equal protection from postoperative vomiting compared with total intravenous anesthesia alone...
December 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076431/pharmacology-and-perioperative-considerations-of-pain-medications
#19
Ryan M Chadha, Stephen Aniskevich, Brian J Egan
BACKGROUND: Pain continues to be the most common medical concern, and perioperative health care providers are encountering increasing numbers of patients with chronic pain conditions. It is important to have a clear understanding of how long-term use of pain medications impacts anesthesia during the intraoperative and postoperative periods. OBJECTIVE: To review common medications used to treat chronic pain and summarize current recommendations regarding perioperative care...
October 27, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076419/intraoperative-seizures-anesthetic-drugs-and-antiepileptic-drugs
#20
Alberto Uribe, Alix Zuleta-Alarcon, Mahmoud Kassem, Gurneet S Sandhu, Sergio D Bergese
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common condition with up to 1% prevalence in the general population. In the perioperative course of neurologic surgery patients, the use of prophylactic and therapeutic antiepileptic drugs is a common practice. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence supporting the use of prophylactic antiepileptics to prevent perioperative seizures and there are no guidelines for which anesthetic technique is preferred. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the seizurogenic potential of anesthetic drugs and to discuss intraoperative seizures in neurosurgical patients...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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