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anesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673531/using-positron-emission-tomography-in-revealing-the-mystery-of-general-anesthesia-study-design-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
Harry Scheinin, Emilee C Alkire, Annalotta Scheinin, Michael T Alkire, Oskari Kantonen, Jaakko Långsjö
Functional neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the cornerstones for studying the central nervous system effects of general anesthetics and anesthesia mechanisms. General anesthesia offers a unique and safe way to directly manipulate consciousness, and can thus be used as a powerful research tool to study the neurobiology of human consciousness. In this chapter, we will address the possibilities of PET imaging in revealing the mysteries of general anesthesia and anesthetic induced unconsciousness and summarize some of the recent advancements in the field...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673289/systematic-review-of-the-pharmacological-agents-that-have-been-tested-against-spreading-depolarizations
#2
Anna Klass, Renan Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos
Spreading depolarization (SD) occurs alongside brain injuries and it can lead to neuronal damage. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of SD can constitute a therapeutic approach to reduce its detrimental effects and to improve the clinical outcome of patients. The major objective of this article was to produce a systematic review of all the drugs that have been tested against SD. Of the substances that have been examined, most have been shown to modulate certain SD characteristics. Only a few have succeeded in significantly inhibiting SD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628584/evaluation-of-the-hemodynamic-response-of-intravenous-clonidine-versus-ropivacaine-scalp-block-to-insertion-of-scalp-pins-in-neurosurgical-patients
#3
Saraswathi Nagappa, Sandhya Kalappa, Raghavendra Biligiri Sridhara
Background: The application of the skull-pin head-holder, used to stabilize the head during neurosurgical procedures, produces an intense nociceptive stimulus and results in abrupt increases in blood pressure and cerebral blood flow under general anesthesia. Different anesthetic and pharmacologic techniques, including local anesthetics, narcotics, antihypertensives, and deepening of anesthesia with inhalation anesthetics, have been used to blunt this deleterious effect with variable success...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623556/anesthesia-for-interventional-pulmonology-procedures-a-review-of-advanced-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-bronchoscopy
#4
Andres de Lima, Fayez Kheir, Adnan Majid, John Pawlowski
PURPOSE: Interventional pulmonology is a growing subspecialty of pulmonary medicine with flexible and rigid bronchoscopies increasingly used by interventional pulmonologists for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This review discusses different technical aspects of anesthesia for interventional pulmonary procedures with an emphasis placed on pharmacologic combinations, airway management, ventilation techniques, and common complications. SOURCE: Relevant medical literature was identified by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications on different anesthesia topics applicable to interventional pulmonary procedures...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620198/isoflurane%C3%A2-induced-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-is-mediated-by-hypoxia%C3%A2-inducible-factor%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-%C3%A2-dependent-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#5
Yiyun Cao, Zhengqian Li, Lijun Ma, Cheng Ni, Lunxu Li, Ning Yang, Chengmei Shi, Xiangyang Guo
Elderly patients are at high risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics. However, the pathogenesis of POCD remains unknown. Hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) is activated by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of HIF‑1α in isoflurane‑induced neuroinflammation and the resulting cognitive impairment. Following a 4‑h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20‑month‑old rats, increased expression of HIF‑1α protein, activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling and increased expression of TNF‑1α were observed in the hippocampus of isoflurane‑exposed rats compared with the control group...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605635/rapid-changes-in-auditory-processing-in-songbirds-following-acute-aromatase-inhibition-as-assessed-by-fmri
#6
REVIEW
Annemie Van der Linden, Jacques Balthazart
This review introduces functional MRI (fMRI) as an outstanding tool to assess rapid effects of sex steroids on auditory processing in seasonal songbirds. We emphasize specific advantages of this method as compared to other more conventional and invasive methods used for this purpose and summarize an exemplary auditory fMRI study performed on male starlings exposed to different types of starling song before and immediately after the inhibition of aromatase activity by an i.p. injection of Vorozole™. We describe how most challenges that relate to the necessity to anesthetize subjects and minimize image- and sound-artifacts can be overcome in order to obtain a voxel-based 3D-representation of changes in auditory brain activity to various sound stimuli before and immediately after a pharmacologically-induced depletion of endogenous estrogens...
March 29, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601303/the-opioid-epidemic-and-pregnancy-implications-for-anesthetic-care
#7
Britany L Raymond, Bradley T Kook, Michael G Richardson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes evolving knowledge regarding adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal effects of opioid exposure during pregnancy, and current treatment options for opioid use disorder (OUD). Maternal and fetal implications of maternal opioid maintenance with methadone and buprenorphine are described. Finally, acute and chronic pain management strategies in opioid-tolerant parturients are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Opioid use among parturients has risen dramatically, with opioid use during pregnancy as high as 20%...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569956/humoral-transfer-and-intra-myocardial-signal-transduction-of-protection-by-remote-ischemic-perconditioning-in-pigs-rats-and-mice
#8
Andreas Skyschally, Petra Kleinbongard, Helmut Raphael Lieder, Nilguen Gedik, Leanda Stoian, Georgios Amanakis, Etienne Elbers, Gerd Heusch
Remote ischemic perconditioning during ongoing myocardial ischemia (RPER), reduces infarct size. The signal transduction of RPER's cardioprotection is still largely unknown. Anesthetized pigs were therefore subjected to RPER by 4×5 min/5 min hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion during 60 min coronary occlusion before 3 h reperfusion. Pigs without RPER served as placebo (PLA). The phosphorylation of AKT and ERK (reperfusion injury salvage kinase [RISK] pathway), and STAT3 (survivor activating factor enhancement [SAFE] pathway) in the area at risk was determined by Western blot...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553542/novel-approach-for-simultaneous-recording-of-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure-with-intravenous-infusion-in-conscious-unrestrained-mice
#9
Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527296/management-of-eight-labor-and-delivery-patients-dependent-on-buprenorphine-subutex%C3%A2-a-retrospective-chart-review
#10
Solina Tith, Garinder Bining, Laurent Bollag
Background : Opioid use during pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Buprenorphine has been recommended by "The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology" as an alternative to methadone to decrease risks associated with the use of illicit opioids during pregnancy. The partial μ-opioid agonists' unique pharmacology, including its long half time and high affinity to the μ-opioid receptor, complicates patient management in a highly kinetic, and often urgent field like obstetric anesthesia...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509582/ketamine-action-in-the-in-vitro-cortical-slice-is-mitigated-by-potassium-channel-blockade
#11
Logan J Voss, Sebastian Karalus, Vilhelm Englund, James W Sleigh
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a general anesthetic thought to act by antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, ketamine acts on multiple channels, many of which are potential targets-including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated and potassium channels. In this study we tested the hypothesis that potassium leak channels contribute to the anesthetic action of ketamine. METHODS: Adult mouse cortical slices (400 µm) were exposed to no-magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to generate seizure-like event activity...
March 6, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509514/anesthetic-considerations-for-patients-on-antidepressant-therapy-part-ii
#12
Mana Saraghi, Leonard Golden, Elliot V Hersh
Millions of patients take antidepressant medications in the United States for the treatment of depression or anxiety disorders. Some antidepressants are prescribed off-label to treat problems such as chronic pain, low energy, and menstrual symptoms. Antidepressants are a broad and expansive group of medications, but the more common drug classes include tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A miscellaneous or "atypical" category covers other agents...
2018: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503611/estimating-the-integrated-information-measure-phi-from-high-density-electroencephalography-during-states-of-consciousness-in-humans
#13
Hyoungkyu Kim, Anthony G Hudetz, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
The integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a quantitative measure, denoted as Φ, of the amount of integrated information in a physical system, which is postulated to have an identity relationship with consciousness. IIT predicts that the value of Φ estimated from brain activities represents the level of consciousness across phylogeny and functional states. Practical limitations, such as the explosive computational demands required to estimate Φ for real systems, have hindered its application to the brain and raised questions about the utility of IIT in general...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501863/the-in-vitro-pharmacology-and-non-clinical-cardiovascular-safety-studies-of-a-novel-5-ht-4-receptor-agonist-dsp-6952
#14
Tadashi Tsubouchi, Takeshi Kunimatsu, Shinji Tsujimoto, Akihiko Kiyoshi, Yasunori Katsura, Seiko Oku, Kazuhiro Chihara, Yukiko Mine, Toru Yamada, Isao Shimizu, Kiyoko Bando
The pharmacological activity of DSP-6952, a novel compound was investigated, compared to that of clinically efficacious gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (5-HT4 ) receptor agonists. DSP-6952 had a strong affinity of Ki=51.9nM for 5-HT4(b) receptor, and produced contraction in the isolated guinea pig colon with EC50 of 271.6nM and low intrinsic activity of 57%, similar to tegaserod and mosapride. In the development of the 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cardiovascular risk was deliberately evaluated, because some related prokinetics were reported to cause with cardiovascular adverse events, such as ventricular arrhythmias or ischemia...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494402/influence-of-cardiac-output-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-sufentanil-in-anesthetized-pigs
#15
Torsten Birkholz, Christian Leuthold, Joachim Schmidt, Harald Ihmsen, Jürgen Schüttler, Christian Jeleazcov
BACKGROUND: Sufentanil is used for general anesthesia and analgesia. The study aim was to determine the effect of pharmacologically induced changes in cardiac output on the pharmacokinetics of sufentanil in anesthetized pigs. METHODS: Twenty-four pigs were randomly assigned to low, high, and control cardiac output groups. Cardiac output was decreased or increased from baseline by at least 40%, or maintained within ± 10% of baseline, respectively. Sufentanil was administered as a bolus followed by a continuous infusion for 120 min...
March 1, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486590/pharmacological-interventions-for-reducing-pain-related-to-immunization-or-intramuscular-injection-in-children-a-mixed-treatment-comparison-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#16
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
Various interventions were observed to reduce pain following vaccination in children. This study is a network meta-analysis comparing pharmacological interventions. Electronic databases were searched for appropriate randomized controlled clinical trials comparing active pharmacological agents to reduce pain following vaccination or intramuscular injection in neonates, infants, or children. Pain score was the primary outcome measure. Random effects model was used for generating pooled estimates. A total of 23 studies were included in the network meta-analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462621/direct-posttranslational-modification-of-astrocytic-connexin-43-proteins-by-the-general-anesthetic-propofol-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#17
Mutsuo Nuriya, Daisuke Yasui, Tomoko Yamada, Takuma Aoki, Masato Yasui
Propofol is widely used as a general anesthetic and is generally considered to exert its action by regulating neuronal firing via facilitation of GABAA receptors. However, accumulating evidence suggests that propofol also acts on astrocytes, including inhibitory effects on gap junctional coupling, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, using acute cortical brain slices prepared from mice of either sex, we characterize propofol-induced molecular changes in astrocytic gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43)...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457123/general-anesthesia-with-propofol-for-ovarian-teratoma-excision-associated-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#18
Masami Sato, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Toshiyuki Arai
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by production of anti-NMDAR antibodies that is often associated with ovarian teratoma and exhibits various manifestations including psychiatric symptoms, seizures, hypoventilation, and autonomic nerve instability. Patients with this disorder who receive early surgical tumor resection along with immunotherapy have better outcome than the rest of the patients. To establish an anesthetic plan, it is important to understand the pharmacological interaction between the anesthetic agents and the disabled NMDAR, because NMDAR is one of the major sites of action for commonly-used anesthetic agents...
2018: JA Clinical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447230/propofol-induces-a-metabolic-switch-to-glycolysis-and-cell-death-in-a-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-dependent-manner
#19
Chisato Sumi, Akihisa Okamoto, Hiromasa Tanaka, Kenichiro Nishi, Munenori Kusunoki, Tomohiro Shoji, Takeo Uba, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Takehiko Adachi, Jun-Ichi Hayashi, Keizo Takenaga, Kiichi Hirota
The intravenous anesthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has been used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and sedation in critical patient care. However, the rare but severe complication propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) can occur, especially in patients receiving high doses of propofol for prolonged periods. In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that the propofol toxicity is related to the impaired mitochondrial function. However, underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated effects of propofol on cell metabolism and death using a series of established cell lines of various origins, including neurons, myocytes, and trans-mitochondrial cybrids, with defined mitochondrial DNA deficits...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445064/the-validity-of-anesthetic-protocols-for-the-surgical-procedure-of-castration-in-rats
#20
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Natsuko Niino, Mizuho Sakamoto, Risa Ohtani, Tomo Inomata
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), and isoflurane, and sevoflurane...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
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