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anesthetic pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016681/heterodimerization-of-two-pore-domain-k-channel-task1-and-talk2-in-living-heterologous-expression-systems
#1
Yoshiaki Suzuki, Kanako Tsutsumi, Tatsuya Miyamoto, Hisao Yamamura, Yuji Imaizumi
Two-pore-domain K+ (K2P) channels sense a wide variety of stimuli such as mechanical stress, inhalational anesthetics, and changes in extracellular pH or temperature. The K2P channel activity forms a background K+ current and, thereby, contributes to resting membrane potentials. Six subfamilies including fifteen subtypes of K2P channels have been identified. Each K2P channel molecule with two pores consists of a homodimer of each subtype. In addition, a few heterodimers mainly within the same subfamilies have been found recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992877/perioperative-fluid-management-in-major-hepatic-resection-an-integrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Osamu Yoshino, Marcos Vinicius Perini, Christopher Christophi, Laurence Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Fluid intervention and vasoactive pharmacological support during hepatic resection depend on the preference of the attending clinician, institutional resources, and practice culture. Evidence-based recommendations to guide perioperative fluid management are currently limited. Therefore, we provide a contemporary clinical integrative overview of the fundamental principles underpinning fluid intervention and hemodynamic optimization for adult patients undergoing major hepatic resection...
October 15, 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979702/chikusetsu-saponin-iva-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-and-cognitive-deficits-via-sirt1-erk1-2-in-developmental-rats
#3
Xi Fang, Qiang Han, Shiyong Li, Yilin Zhao, Ailin Luo
Inhalation anesthetics isoflurane may increase the risk of neurotoxicity and cognitive deficiency at postnatal and childhood. Chikusetsu saponin IVa (chIV) is a plant extract compound, which could possessed extensive pharmacological actions of central nervous system, cardia-cerebrovascular system, immunologic system and treatment and prevention of tumor. In our study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of chIV on isoflurane-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity and cognitive function impairment in neonatal rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978803/involvement-of-the-metabolic-sensor-gpr81-in-cardiovascular-control
#4
Kristina Wallenius, Pia Thalén, Jan-Arne Björkman, Petra Johannesson, John Wiseman, Gerhard Böttcher, Ola Fjellström, Nicholas D Oakes
GPR81 is a receptor for the metabolic intermediate lactate with an established role in regulating adipocyte lipolysis. Potentially novel GPR81 agonists were identified that suppressed fasting plasma free fatty acid levels in rodents and in addition improved insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Unexpectedly, the agonists simultaneously induced hypertension in rodents, including wild-type, but not GPR81-deficient mice. Detailed cardiovascular studies in anesthetized dogs showed that the pressor effect was associated with heterogenous effects on vascular resistance among the measured tissues: increasing in the kidney while remaining unchanged in hindlimb and heart...
October 5, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970803/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-pelvic-nerve-inhibits-urinary-voiding-in-anesthetized-rats
#5
Jonathan J Crook, Thelma A Lovick
Urge Urinary Incontinence: "a sudden and uncontrollable desire to void which is impossible to defer" is extremely common and considered the most bothersome of lower urinary tract conditions. Current treatments rely on pharmacological, neuromodulatory, and neurotoxicological approaches to manage the disorder, by reducing the excitability of the bladder muscle. However, some patients remain refractory to treatment. An alternative approach would be to temporarily suppress activity of the micturition control circuitry at the time of need i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953500/prediction-of-bispectral-index-during-target-controlled-infusion-of-propofol-and-remifentanil-a-deep-learning-approach
#6
Hyung-Chul Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Eun-Jin Chung, Chul-Woo Jung
BACKGROUND: The discrepancy between predicted effect-site concentration and measured bispectral index is problematic during intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. We hypothesized that bispectral index during total intravenous anesthesia would be more accurately predicted by a deep learning approach. METHODS: Long short-term memory and the feed-forward neural network were sequenced to simulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parts of an empirical model, respectively, to predict intraoperative bispectral index during combined use of propofol and remifentanil...
September 27, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942060/functional-networks-and-network-perturbations-in-rodents
#7
REVIEW
Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Fatima A Nasrallah
Synchronous low-frequency oscillation in the resting human brain has been found to form networks of functionally associated areas and hence has been widely used to map the functional connectivity of the brain using techniques such as resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). Interestingly, similar resting-state networks can also be detected in the anesthetized rodent brain, including the default mode-like network. This opens up opportunities for understanding the neurophysiological basis of the rsfMRI signal, the behavioral relevance of the network characteristics, connectomic deficits in diseases and treatment effects on brain connectivity using rodents, particularly transgenic mouse models...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934522/effects-of-cannabinoid-agonists-and-antagonists-on-sleep-and-breathing-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Michael W Calik, David W Carley
Study Objectives: There are no pharmacological treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but dronabinol showed promise in a small pilot study. In anesthetized rats, dronabinol attenuates reflex apnea via activation of cannabinoid (CB) receptors located on vagal afferents; an effect blocked by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and/or type 2 (CB2) receptor antagonists. Here, using a natural model of central sleep apnea, we examine the effects of dronabinol, alone and in combination with selective antagonists in conscious rats chronically instrumented to stage sleep and measure cessation of breathing...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#9
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#10
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#11
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925861/perioperative-pulmonary-medication-management
#12
Johnathan Ross Renew, Stephen Aniskevich
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions that warrant special consideration in the perioperative period. When these patients undergo surgical interventions, they have risk of complications such as bronchospasm, hypoxia, and even postoperative respiratory failure that warrants unplanned intensive care unit admission. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with pulmonary medication regimens that are critical for maintaining stable homeostasis of these chronic conditions...
September 18, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919538/roles-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-during-the-sensory-stimulation-evoked-field-potential-responses-in-mouse-cerebellar-cortical-molecular-layer
#13
Yin-Hua Xu, Guang-Jian Zhang, Jing-Tong Zhao, Chun-Ping Chu, Yu-Zi Li, De-Lai Qiu
The functions of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in cerebellar cortex have been widely studied under in vitro condition, but their roles during the sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar cortical molecular layer in living animals are currently unclear. We here investigated the roles of NMDARs during the air-puff stimulation on ipsilateral whisker pad-evoked field potential responses in cerebellar cortical molecular layer in urethane-anesthetized mice by electrophysiological recording and pharmacological methods...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887194/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-is-involved-in-isoflurane-induced-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-aged-rats-model-of-pocd
#14
Yiyun Cao, Zhengqian Li, Hongping Li, Cheng Ni, Lunxu Li, Ning Yang, Chengmei Shi, Yanfeng Zhong, Dehua Cui, Xiangyang Guo
Prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were shown to be activated by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of HIF-1α in isoflurane-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and resultant cognitive impairment. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in vascular permeability, and disrupted BBB ultrastructure were accompanied by the degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and collagen type IV in brain blood vessels...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878632/the-influence-of-regional-distribution-and-pharmacologic-specificity-of-gabaar-subtype-expression-on-anesthesia-and-emergence
#15
REVIEW
Iris Speigel, Edyta K Bichler, Paul S García
Anesthetics produce unconsciousness by modulating ion channels that control neuronal excitability. Research has shown that specific GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subtypes in particular regions of the central nervous system contribute to different hyperpolarizing conductances, and behaviorally to distinct components of the anesthetized state. The expression of these receptors on the neuron cell surface, and thus the strength of inhibitory neurotransmission, is dynamically regulated by intracellular trafficking mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878623/mechanisms-of-spontaneous-climbing-fiber-discharge-evoked-pauses-and-output-modulation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cell-in-mice
#16
Xian-Hua Jin, Hong-Wei Wang, Xin-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Ping Chu, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Song-Biao Cui, De-Lai Qiu
Climbing fiber (CF) afferents modulate the frequency and patterns of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) simple spike (SS) activity, but its mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of spontaneous CF discharge-evoked pauses and the output modulation of cerebellar PCs in urethane-anesthetized mice using in vivo whole-cell recording techniques and pharmacological methods. Under voltage-clamp recording conditions, spontaneous CF discharge evoked strong inward currents followed by small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that mediated outward currents...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877873/the-in-vitro-zebrafish-heart-as-a-model-to-investigate-the-chronotropic-effects-of-vapor-anesthetics
#17
Matthew R Stoyek, Michael K Schmidt, Florentin M Wilfart, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith
In addition to their intended clinical actions, all general anesthetic agents in common use have detrimental intra- and post-surgical side effects on organs and systems including the heart. The major cardiac side effect of anesthesia is bradycardia, which increases the probability of insufficient systemic perfusion during surgery. These side effects also occur in all vertebrate species so far examined, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The zebrafish heart is a powerful model for studying cardiac electrophysiology, employing the same pacemaker system and neural control as do mammalian hearts...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857763/competitive-antagonism-of-anesthetic-action-at-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-by-a-novel-etomidate-analog-with-low-intrinsic-efficacy
#18
Celena Ma, Ervin Pejo, Megan McGrath, Selwyn S Jayakar, Xiaojuan Zhou, Keith W Miller, Jonathan B Cohen, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: The authors characterized the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor pharmacology of the novel etomidate analog naphthalene-etomidate, a potential lead compound for the development of anesthetic-selective competitive antagonists. METHODS: The positive modulatory potencies and efficacies of etomidate and naphthalene-etomidate were defined in oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors using voltage clamp electrophysiology. Using the same technique, the ability of naphthalene-etomidate to reduce currents evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid alone or γ-aminobutyric acid potentiated by etomidate, propofol, pentobarbital, and diazepam was quantified...
August 29, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851284/anesthetic-management-of-a-pediatric-patient-with-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-dehydrogenase-deficiency-etfdh-and-acute-appendicitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Emmanuel Lilitsis, Elisavet Astyrakaki, Evaggelos Blevrakis, Sofia Xenaki, George Chalkiadakis, Emmanuel Chrysos
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are the energy producing organelles practically in every human cell except erythrocytes. Indeed mitochondria are widespread in high energy requiring organs like brain, heart and muscles. Currently there are no clinical trials supporting with clear evidence which is the most suitable surgical or anesthetic management of a patient with known mitochondrial disease presenting with surgical disorders. This condition poses possible hazardous problems to the medical attention of those patients...
August 29, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844761/the-effect-of-pharmacological-inactivation-of-the-mammillary-body-and-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-on-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-in-urethane-anesthetized-rats
#20
Witold Żakowski, Piotr Zawistowski, Łukasz Braszka, Edyta Jurkowlaniec
The mammillary body (MB) and the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are closely related structures, which take part in learning and memory processes. However, the exact role of these structures has remained unclear. In both structures neurons firing according to hippocampal theta rhythm have been found, mainly in the medial mammillary nucleus (MM) and anteroventral thalamic nucleus (AV). These neurons are driven by descending projections from the hippocampal formation and are thought to convey theta rhythm back to the hippocampus (HP)...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
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