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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108632/contribution-of-innate-immune-cells-to-pathogenesis-of-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Suzanne L Cole, Ling-Pei Ho
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause respiratory illness of varying severity based on the virus strains, host predisposition and pre-existing immunity. Ultimately, outcome and recovery from infection rely on an effective immune response comprising both innate and adaptive components. The innate immune response provides the first line of defence and is crucial to the outcome of infection. Airway epithelial cells are the first cell type to encounter the virus in the lungs, providing antiviral and chemotactic molecules that shape the ensuing immune response by rapidly recruiting innate effector cells such as NK cells, monocytes and neutrophils...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108557/low-level-mhc-class-ii-expression-leads-to-suboptimal-th-cell-response-increased-autoaggression-and-heightened-cytokine-inducibility
#2
Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Chia Su, Mei-Ling Chang, Pi-Fang Tsai, John T Kung
The development and activation of MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted CD4(+) T cells are distinct immunological processes that are strictly MHC-II-dependent. To address their relative dependence on MHC-II, we established a novel ENU-induced mutant mouse on the C57BL/6 background, named I-A(12%), with ∼8-fold reduced I-A expression on the surface of B cells, dendritic cells, cortical thymic epithelial cells, and medullary thymic epithelial cells. I-A(100%) and I-A(12%) mice are highly similar with respect to the numbers of double-positive thymocytes, CD4(+)CD8(-) T cells, regulatory T cells, CD4(+) T cell marker expression, lifespan, and Th/regulatory T cell function...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108192/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-childhood-narcolepsy
#3
REVIEW
Thomas J Dye, Neepa Gurbani, Narong Simakajornboon
It is now recognized that there are two types of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy type I or Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by the loss of hypocretin or orexin neurons. Narcolepsy type II or narcolepsy without cataplexy has normal hypocretin and the etiology is unknown. Hypocretin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Both genetic and environmental factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Most patients with narcolepsy type I and half of patients with narcolepsy type II carry HLA-DQB1*0602...
December 21, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108183/evaluation-of-multiplex-assay-platforms-for-detection-of-influenza-hemagglutinin-subtype-specific-antibody-responses-influenza-ha-subtype-specific-antibody-detection-platform
#4
Zhu-Nan Li, Kimberly M Weber, Rebecca A Limmer, Bobbi J Horne, James Stevens, Joy Schwerzmann, Jens Wrammert, Megan McCausland, Andrew J Phipps, Kathy Hancock, Daniel B Jernigan, Min Levine, Jacqueline M Katz, Joseph D Miller
Influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralization assays (MN) are widely used for seroprevalence studies. However, these assays have limited field portability and are difficult to fully automate for high throughput laboratory testing. To address these issues, three multiplex influenza subtype-specific antibody detection assays were developed using recombinant hemagglutinin antigens in combination with Chembio, Luminex(®), and ForteBio(®) platforms. Assay sensitivity, specificity, and subtype cross-reactivity were evaluated using a panel of well characterized human sera...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107403/adaptive-heterosubtypic-immunity-to-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-experimentally-infected-mallards
#5
Karen M Segovia, David E Stallknecht, Darrell R Kapczynski, Lisa Stabler, Roy D Berghaus, Alinde Fotjik, Neus Latorre-Margalef, Monique S França
Mallards are widely recognized as reservoirs for Influenza A viruses (IAV); however, host factors that might prompt seasonality and trends in subtype diversity of IAV such as adaptive heterosubtypic immunity (HSI) are not well understood. To investigate this, we inoculated mallards with a prevailing H3N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) subtype in waterfowl to determine if prior infection with this virus would be protective against heterosubtypic infections with the H4N6, H10N7 and H14N5 LPAIV subtypes after one, two and three months, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107375/narcolepsy-type-1-is-associated-with-a-systemic-increase-and-activation-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-with-a-systemic-activation-of-global-t-cells
#6
Michel Lecendreux, Guillaume Churlaud, Fabien Pitoiset, Armelle Regnault, Tu Anh Tran, Roland Liblau, David Klatzmann, Michelle Rosenzwajg
Narcolepsy is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been shown to result from a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin-secreting neurons with patients typically showing low CSF-hypocretin levels (<110 pg/ml). This specific loss of hypocretin and the strong association with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele led to the hypothesis that NT1 could be an immune-mediated pathology. Moreover, susceptibility to NT1 has recently been associated with several pathogens, particularly with influenza A H1N1 virus either through infection or vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106157/tlr4-antagonist-fp7-inhibits-lps-induced-cytokine-production-and-glycolytic-reprogramming-in-dendritic-cells-and-protects-mice-from-lethal-influenza-infection
#7
Laure Perrin-Cocon, Anne Aublin-Gex, Stefania E Sestito, Kari Ann Shirey, Mira C Patel, Patrice André, Jorge C Blanco, Stefanie N Vogel, Francesco Peri, Vincent Lotteau
Dysregulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 activation is involved in acute systemic sepsis, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and in viral infections, such as influenza infection. Thus, therapeutic control of the TLR4 signalling pathway is of major interest. Here we tested the activity of the small-molecule synthetic TLR4 antagonist, FP7, in vitro on human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and in vivo during influenza virus infection of mice. Our results indicate that FP7 antagonized the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1β) by monocytes and DCs (IC50 < 1 μM) and prevented DC maturation upon TLR4 activation by ultrapure lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106111/broad-range-antiviral-activity-of-hydrogen-sulfide-against-highly-pathogenic-rna-viruses
#8
Nikolay Bazhanov, Olivier Escaffre, Alexander N Freiberg, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide is an important endogenous mediator that has been the focus of intense investigation in the past few years, leading to the discovery of its role in vasoactive, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory responses. Recently, we made a critical observation that H2S also has a protective role in paramyxovirus infection by modulating inflammatory responses and viral replication. In this study we tested the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of the H2S slow-releasing donor GYY4137 on enveloped RNA viruses from Ortho-, Filo-, Flavi- and Bunyavirus families, for which there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic available, with the exception of influenza...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105854/t-705-favipiravir-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-production-in-response-to-influenza-virus-infection-a-beneficial-feature-of-t-705-as-an-anti-influenza-drug
#9
T Tanaka, T Kamiyama, T Daikoku, K Takahashi, N Nomura, M Kurokawa, K Shiraki
Influenza virus infection induces the production of various cytokines, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of infection. Among the cytokines induced by influenza, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production has been correlated with the severity of lung lesions. We investigated the effects of T-705 (Favipiravir, 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) on cytokine production due to influenza virus infection in vitro and in vivo, compared with oseltamivir or GS 4071, an active form of oseltamivir. TNF-α production in mouse macrophage-derived P388D1 cells infected with the influenza virus was lower following treatment with T-705 at concentrations of 0...
January 19, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105842/absolute-quantification-of-h5-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-using-droplet-digital-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#10
Yi Hu, Peng Xu, Jing Luo, Hongxuan He, Wenbin Du
Human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 viruses can cause severe diseases with high mortality rate and continues to pose a significant threat to global public health. Rapid diagnosis is needed for identifying the types of influenza viruses for making timely treatment decisions. Here, we demonstrate absolute quantification of H5-subtype influenza viruses by digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP) on our recently developed cross-interface emulsification (XiE) method. Our results show that XiE-based dLAMP is highly specific and displays comparable sensitivity to real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR)...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105530/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-reassortant-h7n6-subtype-avian-influenza-virus-from-poultry-in-eastern-china-in-2016
#11
Haibo Wu, Rufeng Lu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng, Bin Chen, Linfang Cheng, Nanping Wu
During the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in live poultry markets in Eastern China, in 2016, a novel reassortant H7N6 AIV was isolated from a chicken. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H9N2, H7N9 and H5N6 AIVs infecting poultry in China. This strain showed moderate pathogenicity in mice and was able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. Considering that this novel reassorted H7N6 virus was isolated from poultry in this study, it is possible that chickens play an important role in the generation of novel reassorted H7N6 AIVs...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104664/first-complete-genome-sequence-of-haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-a
#12
Mariam Iskander, Kristy Hayden, Gary Van Domselaar, Raymond Tsang
Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen that primarily infects small children. In recent years, H. influenzae serotype a has emerged as a significant cause of invasive disease among indigenous populations. Here, we present the first complete whole-genome sequence of H. influenzae serotype a.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104185/causes-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-southeast-asia-a-multinational-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of pathogens that cause sepsis would aid management and antimicrobial selection. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative pathogens of sepsis in southeast Asia. METHODS: In this multinational multicentre cross-sectional study of community-acquired sepsis and severe sepsis, we prospectively recruited children (age ≥30 days and <18 years) and adults (age ≥18 years) at 13 public hospitals in Indonesia (n=3), Thailand (n=4), and Vietnam (n=6)...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103212/coverage-with-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-and-influenza-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-minnesota-march-2013-december-2014
#14
Alexandra Barber, Miriam Halstead Muscoplat, Anna Fedorowicz
Pertussis and influenza infections can result in severe disease in infants. The diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is recommended for infants beginning at age 2 months, and influenza vaccine is recommended for infants aged ≥6 months. Vaccination of pregnant women induces the production of antibodies that are transferred across the placenta to the fetus and provide passive protection until infants are old enough to receive DTaP and influenza vaccines (1-3). To protect young infants before they are age-eligible for vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended since 2004 that all women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive inactivated influenza vaccine (1), and since 2013 that all pregnant women receive the tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (3)...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102191/a-broadly-protective-therapeutic-antibody-against-influenza-b-virus-with-two-mechanisms-of-action
#15
Ning Chai, Lee R Swem, Summer Park, Gerald Nakamura, Nancy Chiang, Alberto Estevez, Rina Fong, Lynn Kamen, Elviza Kho, Mike Reichelt, Zhonghua Lin, Henry Chiu, Elizabeth Skippington, Zora Modrusan, Jeremy Stinson, Min Xu, Patrick Lupardus, Claudio Ciferri, Man-Wah Tan
Influenza B virus (IBV) causes annual influenza epidemics around the world. Here we use an in vivo plasmablast enrichment technique to isolate a human monoclonal antibody, 46B8 that neutralizes all IBVs tested in vitro and protects mice against lethal challenge of all IBVs tested when administered 72 h post infection. 46B8 demonstrates a superior therapeutic benefit over Tamiflu and has an additive antiviral effect in combination with Tamiflu. 46B8 binds to a conserved epitope in the vestigial esterase domain of hemagglutinin (HA) and blocks HA-mediated membrane fusion...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100622/glycosylation-of-the-ha-protein-of-h5n1-virus-increases-its-virulence-in-mice-by-exacerbating-the-host-immune-response
#16
Dongming Zhao, Libin Liang, Shuai Wang, Tomomi Nakao, Yanbing Li, Liling Liu, Yuntao Guan, Satoshi Fukuyama, Zhigao Bu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hualan Chen
: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in nature and threaten public health. Although several viral determinants and host factors that influence the virulence of HPAI H5N1 viruses in mammals have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly defined and requires further clarification. In our previous studies, we characterized two naturally isolated HPAI H5N1 viruses that had similar viral genomes but differed substantially in their lethality in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100621/recombinant-adenoviruses-displaying-matrix-2-ectodomain-epitopes-m2e-on-their-fiber-proteins-as-universal-influenza-vaccines
#17
Xinying Tang, Yong Yang, Xiaoli Xia, Chao Zhang, Xi Yang, Yufeng Song, Xinyi Dai, Min Wang, Dongming Zhou
: Influenza is a zoonotic disease that poses severe threats to public health and the global economy. Re-emerging influenza pandemics highlight the demand for universal influenza vaccines. We developed a novel virus platform, AdC68-F3M2e, by introducing three conserved M2e epitopes into the HI loop of the chimpanzee adenovirus (AdV) fiber protein. The M2e epitopes were expressed sufficiently on the AdV virion surface without affecting fiber trimerization. Additionally, one recombinant adenovirus, AdC68-F3M2e(H1-H5-H7), induced robust M2e-specific antibody responses in BALB/c mice after two sequential vaccinations and conferred efficient protection against homologous and heterologous IV challenges...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100299/pathogenicity-of-modified-bat-influenza-virus-with-different-m-genes-and-its-reassortment-potential-with-swine-influenza-a-virus
#18
Jianmei Yang, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuekun Lang, Jerome Nietfeld, Yuhao Li, Michael Duff, Yonghai Li, Yuju Yang, Haixia Liu, Bin Zhou, David E Wentworth, Juergen A Richt, Zejun Li, Wenjun Ma
In our previous studies the reassortant virus containing only the PR8 H1N1 matrix (M) gene in the background of the modified bat influenza Bat09:mH1mN1 virus could be generated. However, whether M genes from other origins can be rescued in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and whether the resulting novel reassortant virus is virulent remain unknown. Herein, two reassortant viruses were generated in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus containing either a North American or a Eurasian swine influenza virus M gene...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098551/seroprevalence-and-transmission-of-human-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-before-and-after-virus-reassortment-cambodia-2006-2014
#19
Sowath Ly, Paul Horwood, Malen Chan, Sareth Rith, Sopheak Sorn, Kunthea Oeung, Kunthy Nguon, Siam Chan, Phalla Y, Amy Parry, Reiko Tsuyuoka, Sovann Ly, Beat Richner, Denis Laurent, Sirenda Vong, Philippe Dussart, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola
Thirty-five human influenza A(H5N1) cases were reported in Cambodia during 2013-2014 after emergence of a clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus. We tested 881 villagers and found 2 cases of pauci- or asymptomatic infection. Seroprevalence after emergence of the reassortant strain (0.2%) was lower than the aggregate seroprevalence of 1.3% reported in earlier studies.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#20
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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