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Influenza infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730379/vaccine-effectiveness-against-influenza-in-2015-16-in-hospital-and-ambulatory-medical-care-facilities-polish-results-of-the-european-i-move-multicenter-study
#1
Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Monika R Korczyńska, Katarzyna Cieślak, Dorota Kowalczyk, Karol Szymański, Lidia B Brydak
Influenza vaccination is the best measure available to prevent seasonal influenza infection. The majority of studies on vaccine effectiveness in the 2015/16 season conducted in the European I-MOVE+ Project, show that a match between the circulating influenza strains in the general public and those included in the vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere was low to moderate. As part of I-MOVE+, Poland has implemented a case control negative study design and molecular biology methods, such as real time RT-PCR, to assess the vaccine match and effectiveness...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730155/surveillance-study-of-influenza-occurrence-and-immunity-in-a-wisconsin-cohort-during-the-2009-pandemic
#2
Chia-Yun Lo, Susan L Strobl, Kimberly Dunham, Wei Wang, Lucy Stewart, Julia A Misplon, Mayra Garcia, Jin Gao, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Graeme E Price, Jose Navidad, Steve Gradus, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Cecile Viboud, Maryna C Eichelberger, Carol D Weiss, Jack Gorski, Suzanne L Epstein
BACKGROUND: Antibody and T-cell immunity to conserved influenza virus antigens can protect animals against infection with diverse influenza strains. Although immunity against conserved antigens occurs in humans, whether such responses provide cross-protection in humans and could be harnessed as the basis for universal influenza vaccines is controversial. The 2009 pandemic provided an opportunity to investigate whether pre-existing cross-reactive immunity affected susceptibility to infection...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729702/structure-of-general-population-antibody-titer-distributions-to-influenza-a-virus
#3
Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Erwin de Bruin, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Minh Quan, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Janko van Beek, Pham Hong Anh, Ha Minh Lam, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Huynh Le Anh Huy, Vo Thi Hong Ha, Stephen Baker, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Jeremy Farrar, Cameron P Simmons, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Marion Koopmans, Maciej F Boni
Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729359/the-%C3%AE-defensin-retrocyclin-101-inhibits-tlr4-and-tlr2-dependent-signaling-and-protects-mice-against-influenza-infection
#4
Daniel Prantner, Kari Ann Shirey, Wendy Lai, Wuyuan Lu, Alexander M Cole, Stefanie N Vogel, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Despite widespread use of annual influenza vaccines, seasonal influenza-associated deaths number in the thousands each year, in part because of exacerbating bacterial superinfections. Therefore, discovering additional therapeutic options would be a valuable aid to public health. Recently, TLR4 inhibition has emerged as a possible mechanism for protection against influenza-associated lethality and acute lung injury. Based on recent data showing that rhesus macaque θ-defensins could inhibit TLR4-dependent gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that a novel θ-defensin, retrocyclin (RC)-101, could disrupt TLR4-dependent signaling and protect against viral infection...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729347/lethal-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-induces-ataxic-breathing-in-mice-with-apoptosis-of-pre-botzinger-complex-neurons-expressing-neurokinin-1-receptor
#5
Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Chunyan Ye, Fadi Xu
BACKGROUND: Lethal influenza A (H5N1) induces respiratory failure in humans. Although it also causes death at 7 day postinfection (dpi) in mice, the development of the respiratory failure and the viral impact on pre-Botzinger complex (PBC) neurons expressing neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), the respiratory rhythm-generator, have not been explored. METHODS: Body temperature, weight, ventilation, arterial blood pH and gases were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 dpi in control, lethal HK483 and non-lethal HK486 viral infected mice...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728835/a-multiplex-pcr-for-detection-of-six-viruses-in-ducks
#6
Yongjuan Wang, Shanyuan Zhu, Weiming Hong, Anping Wang, Weiyong Zuo
In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726613/human-metapneumovirus-and-other-respiratory-viral-infections-during-pregnancy-and-birth-nepal
#7
Jennifer L Lenahan, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, Jane Kuypers, Anna Wald, Amalia Magaret, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory virus that can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and even death, primarily in young children. The incidence and characteristics of HMPV have not been well described in pregnant women. As part of a trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural southern Nepal, we conducted prospective, longitudinal, home-based active surveillance for febrile respiratory illness during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. During 2011-2014, HMPV was detected in 55 of 3,693 women (16...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726609/influenza-d-virus-in-animal-species-in-guangdong-province-southern-china
#8
Shao-Lun Zhai, He Zhang, Sheng-Nan Chen, Xia Zhou, Tao Lin, Runxia Liu, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Wen-Kang Wei, Dan Wang, Feng Li
Molecular tests revealed influenza D viruses of D/OK lineage widely circulating in farmed animal species in Guangdong Province, southern China. In particular, we found high levels of influenza D virus infection in goats and pigs. We also detected viral RNA in serum specimens and feces of animals with certain severe diseases.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725560/haemophilus-influenzae-serotype-f-endocarditis-and-septic-arthritis
#9
Katerina Oikonomou, Basel Alhaddad, Kayla Kelly, Ravindra Rajmane, George Apergis
Haemophilus influenzae represents gram-negative coccobacilli which can cause endocarditis, meningitis, septicemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis. H.influenzae exists as encapsulated and unencapsulated (non-typeable) strains. Non-typeable H.influenzae are emerging pathogens especially in elderly population. We report a case of a 73 year old woman with bacteremia, endocarditis and septic arthritis due to H.influenzae serotype f. This case emphasizes the clinical features and the key elements of diagnosis and management of infections caused by non-typeable strains of H...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724948/transgenic-chickens-expressing-the-3d8-single-chain-variable-fragment-protein-suppress-avian-influenza-transmission
#10
Sung June Byun, Seong-Su Yuk, Ye-Jin Jang, Hoonsung Choi, Mi-Hyang Jeon, T O Erdene-Ochir, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Jeom Sun Kim, Jae Gyu Yoo, Chang-Seon Song
The 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv) is a mini-antibody that causes unusual sequence-independent nuclease activity against all types of nucleic acids. We used recombinant lentiviruses to generate transgenic chickens expressing the 3D8 scFv gene under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter. From 420 injected embryos, 200 chicks (G0) hatched and were screened for the 3D8 scFv using PCR, and 15 chicks were identified as transgenic birds expressing the transgene in their semen. The G0 founder birds were mated with wild-type hens to produce seven transgenic chicks (G1)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724771/intracellular-colocalization-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-rab11a-is-dependent-upon-microtubule-filaments
#11
Eric Nturibi, Amar R Bhagwat, Stefanie Coburn, Mike M Myerburg, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where sub-complexes of vRNA export from the nucleus and assemble en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments transport via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724768/synthetic-tlr4-and-tlr7-ligands-work-additively-via-myd88-to-induce-protective-antiviral-immunity-in-mice
#12
Peter H Goff, Tomoko Hayashi, Wenqian He, Shiyin Yao, Howard B Cottam, Gene S Tan, Brian Crain, Florian Krammer, Karen Messer, Minya Pu, Dennis A Carson, Peter Palese, Maripat Corr
We have previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin, inducing rapid and sustained immunity protective against influenza viruses in homologous, heterologous and heterosubtypic murine challenge models. Combining TLR4 and TLR7 ligands balances Th1/Th2-type immune responses for long-lived cellular and neutralizing humoral immunity against the viral hemagglutinin. Here, we demonstrate that the protective response induced in mice by this combined adjuvant is dependent upon TLR4 and TLR7 signaling via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), indicating that the adjuvants function in vivo via their known receptors with negligible off-target effects to induce protective immunity...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724579/novel-bivalent-viral-vectored-vaccines-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-conferring-protection-against-stringent-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#13
Claire M Tully, Senthil Chinnakannan, Caitlin E Mullarkey, Marta Ulaszewska, Francesca Ferrara, Nigel Temperton, Sarah C Gilbert, Teresa Lambe
Seasonal influenza viruses are a common cause of acute respiratory illness worldwide and generate a significant socioeconomic burden. Influenza viruses mutate rapidly, necessitating annual vaccine reformulation because traditional vaccines do not typically induce broad-spectrum immunity. In addition to seasonal infections, emerging pandemic influenza viruses present a continued threat to global public health. Pandemic influenza viruses have consistently higher attack rates and are typically associated with greater mortality compared with seasonal strains...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723950/high-affinity-anti-tim-3-and-anti-kir-monoclonal-antibodies-cloned-from-healthy-human-individuals
#14
Stefan Ryser, Angeles Estellés, Edgar Tenorio, Lawrence M Kauvar, Mikhail L Gishizky
We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i) bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii) hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus and (iii) the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723925/immunologic-response-to-vaccine-challenge-in-pregnant-ptpn22-r620w-carriers-and-non-carriers
#15
Shelly H Tien, Juliet N Crabtree, Heather L Gray, Erik J Peterson
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is a significant cause of respiratory morbidity among pregnant women. Seasonal influenza vaccination engages innate immune receptors to promote protective immunity. A coding polymorphism (R620W) in PTPN22 imparts elevated risk for human infection and autoimmune disease, predisposes to diminished innate immune responses, and associates with reduced immunization responses. We sought to quantify the effects of PTPN22-R620W on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine among healthy pregnant women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722576/malaria-associated-mortality-in-the-australian-defence-force-during-the-twentieth-century
#16
G Dennis Shanks
Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722241/mineralized-state-of-the-avian-influenza-virus-in-the-environment
#17
Hangyu Zhou, Guangchuan Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Zhiyong Song, Ruikang Tang
Although the circulation of avian influenza in humans is limited, they can be transmitted from Aves to humans, representing a great challenge. Herein, we suggest that influenza viruses from Aves might exist in a mineralized state due to the high calcium concentrations in the avian intestine. Using two typical influenza viruses as examples, we demonstrate these viruses can self-mineralize in simulated avian intestinal fluid, resulting in egg-like virus-mineral structured composites. The mineralized viruses are more robust, with enhanced infectivity and thermostability...
July 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721014/determining-optimal-dosing-regimen-of-oral-administration-of-dicloxacillin-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#18
Wei Yu, Jinru Ji, Tingting Xiao, Chaoqun Ying, Jiaheng Fang, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Dicloxacillin, a semisynthetic isoxazolyl penicillin, exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as stability against penicillinases and low level of toxicity. The objective of this study was to obtain optimal dosing regimen of oral administration of dicloxacillin by analyzing the pharmacokinetic (PK) index in healthy volunteers and in vitro antibacterial activity by using Monte Carlo simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 867 clinical isolates from community-onset infections were collected from 31 secondary hospitals in People's Republic of China...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720851/microneedle-patch-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-enhances-maternal-immune-responses-promoting-survival-and-long-lasting-passive-immunity-to-offspring
#19
E Stein Esser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Haripriya Kalluri, Devin McAllister, Elena V Vassilieva, Elizabeth Q Littauer, Nadia Lelutiu, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Influenza virus causes life-threatening infections in pregnant women and their newborns. Immunization during pregnancy is the most effective means of preventing maternal and infant mortality/morbidity; however, influenza vaccination rates of pregnant women remain under 50%. Furthermore, the availability of vaccines in low-resource populations is limited. Skin immunization with microneedle patches (MN) is a novel and safe vaccination platform featuring thermostable vaccine formulations. Cold-chain independence and the potential for self-administration can expand influenza vaccination coverage in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720319/safety-and-efficacy-of-anti-influenza-drugs-intravenous-peramivir-against-influenza-virus-infection-in-elderly-patients-with-underlying-disease
#20
Kazufumi Takamatsu, Satoshi Marumo, Motonari Fukui, Atsuko Hata
We retrospectively analyzed data of 38 elderly patients, each with an underlying disease, to evaluate peramivir safety and efficacy. Six patients (15.8%) experienced adverse events, all tolerated. Median time from administration until the return to normal temperatures was 31.5 h (95% CI: 22.4-40.6). Results confirm intravenous peramivir's usefulness.
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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