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Influenza infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323565/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-of-minnesota-during-2015-outbreaks-in-domestic-poultry
#1
Christopher S Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C Hildebrand, Paul C Wolf, Daniel A Grear, Hon S Ip, Louis Cornicelli
An outbreak of a novel reassortant of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) virus (HPAIV) decimated domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) from March through mid-June, 2015 in the state of Minnesota, USA. In response, as part of broader surveillance efforts in wild birds, we designed a pilot effort to sample and test hunter-harvested Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) for HPAIV in Minnesota counties with known infected poultry facilities. We also collected opportunistic samples from dead Wild Turkeys or live Wild Turkeys showing neurologic signs (morbidity and mortality samples) reported by the public or state agency personnel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318771/cross-protection-to-new-drifted-influenza-a-h3-viruses-and-prevalence-of-protective-antibodies-to-seasonal-influenza-during-2014-in-portugal
#2
Raquel Guiomar, Susana Pereira da Silva, Patrícia Conde, Paula Cristóvão, Ana Carina Maia, Pedro Pechirra, Ana Paula Rodrigues, Baltazar Nunes, Luís Milho, Ana Paula Coelho, Aida Fernandes, Paula Caseiro, Fernando Rodrigues, Lurdes Correia, João Pereira-Vaz, Sofia Almeida, Paula Branquinho, Rita Côrte-Real, Regina Viseu, Maria João Peres, Raquel Sanches, Filipa Dantas, Ludovina Freitas, Graça Andrade, Manuel Maurílio, Filomena Caldeira, Rita Cabral Veloso, Luisa Mota-Vieira, Marta Soares, Ana Rita Couto, Jácome Bruges-Armas, Rita Mouro Pinto, Joana Sobrinho Simões, Maria do Rosário Costa, João Tiago Guimarães, Luís Martins, Mário Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Immune profile for influenza viruses is highly changeable over time. Serological studies can assess the prevalence of influenza, estimate the risk of infection, highlight asymptomatic infection rate and can also provide data on vaccine coverage. The aims of the study were to evaluate pre-existing cross-protection against influenza A(H3) drift viruses and to assess influenza immunity in the Portuguese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a cross-sectional study based on a convenience sample of 626 sera collected during June 2014, covering all age groups, both gender and all administrative health regions of Portugal...
March 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316058/retrospective-analysis-of-clinical-and-virological-parameters-of-influenza-cases-at-four-university-hospitals-in-germany-2015
#3
Robert Heyd, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger, Annemarie Berger, Sibylle Bierbaum, Sandra Pietzonka, Jürgen J Wenzel, Daniela Huzly, Oliver T Keppler, Marcus Panning
We conducted a retrospective observational study at four German university hospitals of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza in 2014/2015. Overall, a fatality rate of 8% was observed. Significantly more A(H1N1)pdm09 patients were admitted to ICU compared to those with A(H3N2). However, fatal outcome was not significantly increased among A(H1N1)pdm09 cases. Nosocomial infections were seen in 17% of cases. Systematic collection of data from hospitals will complement national influenza surveillance.
March 18, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#4
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasagawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314479/new-insights-into-the-effects-and-mechanism-of-a-classic-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-on-influenza-prevention
#5
Huan Chen, Chong Jie, Lu-Ping Tang, He Meng, Xiao-Bo Li, Yan-Bing Li, Le-Xing Chen, Chang Yan, Hiroshi Kurihara, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
BACKGROUND: KangBingDu (KBD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicinal formula widely used to treat influenza. However, little information is available from controlled studies regarding the anti-influenza pharmacological activities of KBD and its underlying mechanisms, at least partly due to the lack of appropriate study models. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that KBD might provide a protection against influenza infection by reducing the host's susceptibility to viruses...
April 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#6
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303845/diagnostic-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Ai-Zhen Lu, Peng Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Ling Qian, Xiao-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens in detecting lower respiratory pathogens remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates (NPAs) specimen in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. METHODS: The prospective study was designed to collect the data of paired NPAs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from children with acute LRTIs from January 2013 to December 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303609/pathological-analysis-of-children-with-childhood-central-nervous-system-infection-based-on-changes-in-chemokines-and-interleukin-17-family-cytokines-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#8
Shinichiro Morichi, Tomomi Urabe, Natsumi Morishita, Mika Takeshita, Yu Ishida, Shingo Oana, Gaku Yamanaka, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
BACKGROUND: In this study, the pathologies of acute meningitis and encephalopathy were investigated, and biomarkers useful as prognostic indices were searched for. METHODS: The subjects were 31 children with meningitis, 30 with encephalopathy, and 12 with convulsions following gastroenteritis. Control group consisted of 24 children with non-central nervous system infection. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine analysis was performed. RESULTS: Chemokines significantly increased in the bacterial meningitis group compared with those in viral meningitis and encephalopathy groups...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303593/sb-9200-a-novel-agonist-of-innate-immunity-shows-potent-antiviral-activity-against-resistant-hcv-variants
#9
Meleri Jones, Morven E Cunningham, Peter Wing, Sampath DeSilva, Rupa Challa, Anjaneyulu Sheri, Seetharamaiyer Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan P Iyer, Brent E Korba, Nezam Afdhal, Graham R Foster
SB 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the RIG-I and NOD2 pathways. SB 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In phase I clinical trials in chronically infected HCV patients, SB 9200 has been shown to reduce HCV RNA by up to 1.9 log10 . Here, we demonstrate the antiviral activity of SB 9200 against a HCV replicon system and patient derived virus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#10
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302496/community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-adult-patients-a-matched-case-control-study
#11
Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Christian Manzardo, Albert Gabarrús, Juan Ambrosioni, Adriana Salazar, Felipe García, Adrián Ceccato, Josep Mensa, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Asunción Moreno, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length-of-stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 30-day mortality) of pneumococcal pneumonia in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients on ART with a CD4+ T cell count >350 cells/mm(3) are comparable to those seen in non-HIV-infected patients, using a case-control design. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (2001-2016)...
March 13, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302408/narcolepsy-and-hypersomnia-in-norwegian-children-and-young-adults-following-the-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-pandemic
#12
Lill Trogstad, Inger Johanne Bakken, Nina Gunnes, Sara Ghaderi, Camilla Stoltenberg, Per Magnus, Siri E Håberg
BACKGROUND: Associations between influenza infection and sleep disorders are poorly studied. We investigated if pandemic influenza infection or vaccination with Pandemrix in 2009/2010 was associated with narcolepsy or hypersomnia in children and young adults. METHODS: We followed the Norwegian population under age 30 from January 2008 through December 2012 by linking national health registry data. Narcolepsy diagnoses were validated using hospital records. Risks of narcolepsy or hypersomnia were estimated as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in Cox regression models with influenza infection and vaccination as time-dependent exposures...
March 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302407/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-as03-adjuvanted-h7n1-vaccine-in-adults-65years-of-age-and-older-a-phase-ii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Anuradha Madan, Murdo Ferguson, Paul Rheault, David Seiden, Azhar Toma, Damien Friel, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: H7 influenza strains can cause severe and often fatal human infections, especially in the elderly. This phase II, observer-blind, randomized trial (www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949090) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a novel AS03-adjuvanted H7N1 vaccine that may serve as a model H7-subtype vaccine. METHODS: 360 adults ≥65years of age in stable health received either 1 of 4 adjuvanted A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 split virion vaccine formulations (3...
March 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#14
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302056/antibiotic-overuse-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-sri-lanka-a-qualitative-study-of-outpatients-and-their-physicians
#15
L Gayani Tillekeratne, Champica K Bodinayake, Thushani Dabrera, Ajith Nagahawatte, Wasantha Kodikara Arachchi, Anoji Sooriyaarachchi, Kearsley Stewart, Melissa Watt, Truls Østbye, Christopher W Woods
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are a common reason for antibiotic overuse worldwide. We previously showed that over 80% of outpatients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka with influenza-like illness received antibiotic prescriptions, although almost half were later confirmed to have influenza. The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess Sri Lankan patients' and physicians' attitudes towards ARTI diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 outpatients with ARTIs and five physicians in the Outpatient Department (OPD) at a large, public tertiary care hospital in southern Sri Lanka...
March 16, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302021/cytokines-induced-during-influenza-virus-infection
#16
Tatiana Betáková, Anna Kostrabova, Veronika Lachova, Lucia Turianova
Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. The influenza infection can pass out without any subclinical symptoms or infestation can appear in upper respiratory tract as well as in lower respiratory tract where it can result in lethal outcome. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated shortly after infection providing protection against infection. Many activities of the cells of innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by cytokines. However, inordinate or disbalanced immune response may result in overproduction of cytokines as well as chemokines what can lead to severe inflammation, including excessive recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells at the site of infection...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301990/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#17
Lene Fogt Lundbo, Thomas Benfield
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a significant burden of disease and mortality in all age groups worldwide despite the development of effective conjugated vaccines. The pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis is based on complex and incompletely understood host-pathogen interactions. Some of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301927/molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-action-of-the-influenza-a-virus-fusion-inhibitor-mbx2546
#18
Arnab Basu, Gloria Komazin-Meredith, Courtney McCarthy, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Steven C Cardinale, Rama K Mishra, Dale L Barnard, Michael Caffrey, Lijun Rong, Terry L Bowlin
Influenza A virus envelop protein, Hemagglutinin (HA), plays important roles in viral entry. We previously have reported that MBX2546, a novel influenza A virus inhibitor, binds to HA and inhibits HA-mediated membrane fusion. In this report, we show that (i) both binding and stabilization of HA by MBX2546 is required for inhibition of viral infection, and (ii) binding of HA by MBX2546 represses the low-pH-induced conformational change of the HA which is a prerequisite for membrane fusion. Mutations in MBX2546-resistant influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) viruses are mapped in the HA stem region near the amino terminus of HA2...
March 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301593/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-south-african-healthcare-workers-regarding-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-influenza-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#19
Jazmin Duque, Sisanda Gaga, David Clark, Madeleine Muller, Bulenani Kuwane, Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Puleng Ramatoboe, Tsakani Furumele, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Meredith L McMorrow, Adam L Cohen
BACKGROUND: The South African Department of Health (DOH) publishes annual guidelines identifying priority groups, including immunosuppressed individuals and healthcare workers (HCW), for influenza vaccination and treatment. How these guidelines have impacted HCW and their patients, particularly those infected with HIV, remains unknown. METHODS: We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza and the vaccine among South African HCW...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301559/synergy-between-the-classical-and-alternative-pathways-of-complement-is-essential-for-conferring-effective-protection-against-the-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-virus-infection
#20
Ajitanuj Rattan, Shailesh D Pawar, Renuka Nawadkar, Neeraja Kulkarni, Girdhari Lal, Jayati Mullick, Arvind Sahu
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide thus necessitating the need to understand the host factors that influence its control. Previously, the complement system has been shown to provide protection during the seasonal influenza virus infection, however, the role of individual complement pathways is not yet clear. Here, we have dissected the role of intact complement as well as of its individual activation pathways during the pandemic influenza virus infection using mouse strains deficient in various complement components...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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