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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927007/ginsenoside-re-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-in-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-and-zebrafish-scale-model
#1
Chan-Mi Park, Hye-Min Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Ho-Jin Han, Haneul Noh, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Soo-Hyun Park, Han-Jung Chae, Soo-Wan Chae, Eun Kyoung Ryu, Sangku Lee, Kangdong Liu, Haidan Liu, Jong-Seog Ahn, Young Ock Kim, Bo-Yeon Kim, Nak-Kyun Soung
Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro...
December 6, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926943/the-mouse-cytomegalovirus-gene-m42-targets-surface-expression-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-cd45-in-infected-macrophages
#2
Nadine Thiel, Kirsten A Keyser, Niels A W Lemmermann, Jennifer D Oduro, Karen Wagner, Carina Elsner, Anne Halenius, Tihana Lenac Roviš, Melanie M Brinkmann, Stipan Jonjić, Luka Cicin-Sain, Martin Messerle
The receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is expressed on the surface of cells of hematopoietic origin and has a pivotal role for the function of these cells in the immune response. Here we report that following infection of macrophages with mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) the cell surface expression of CD45 is drastically diminished. Screening of a set of MCMV deletion mutants allowed us to identify the viral gene m42 of being responsible for CD45 down-modulation. Moreover, expression of m42 independent of viral infection upon retroviral transduction of the RAW264...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926586/hypercapnic-conditions-after-experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-increase-efferocytosis-of-alveolar-macrophages-and-reduce-local-inflammation
#3
Annette Palmer, Michael S J Eichner, Anne Rittlinger, Daniel H Seitz, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang, Ulrike Niesler
Blunt chest trauma induces severe local and systemic inflammatory alterations and an accumulation of apoptotic polymorphonuclear granulocytes (aPMN) in the lungs, frequently followed by bacterial infection. Alveolar macrophages (AM) represent one of the main actors for their clearance. However, little is known regarding regulatory and influencing factors of AM efferocytic and phagocytic activities. In this context, we investigated the influence of impaired gas exchange on AM activity.Male rats underwent blunt chest trauma or sham procedure and aPMN or E...
December 6, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926507/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-activates-inflammatory-responses-of-astrocytes-through-interaction-with-cd74-receptor
#4
Yu Su, Yingjie Wang, Yue Zhou, Zhenjie Zhu, Qing Zhang, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Xiaosong Gu, Aisong Guo, Yongjun Wang
Astrocytes, the major glial cell population of the central nervous system (CNS), play important physiological roles related to CNS homeostasis. Growing evidence demonstrates that astrocytes trigger innate immune responses under challenge of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted from monocytes/macrophages, is involved in inflammation-associated pathophysiology. Here, we displayed that expression of MIF significantly increased following spinal cord injury, in colocalization with microglia and astrocytes...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926489/suppression-of-immune-regulatory-cells-with-combined-therapy-of-celecoxib-and-sunitinib-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Qi Zhao, Jianming Guo, Guomin Wang, Yiwei Chu, Xiaoyi Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the the potential benefit of sunitinib in combination with cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) inhibitor in renal cell carcinoma therapy. METHODS: 769-p cell lines were treated with sunitinib, celecoxib, or in combination at different concentrations respectively. We investigated the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in 769-p and cell proliferation in vitro. BALB/c mice implanted with Renca cells were divided into 4 groups and administered orally by gavage with sunitinib, COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) monotherapy or combination, and PBS respectively...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925372/cyp19a1-mif-and-abca1-genes-are-targets-of-the-ror%C3%AE-in-monocyte-and-endothelial-cells
#6
Neslihan Coban, Cagri Gulec, Bilge Ozsait Selcuk, Nihan Erginel-Unaltuna
RORα is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors which has a vital role in the regulation of various physiological processes. Cholesterol is a known ligand of RORα and is one of the key components that take part in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is possible that RORα might have a role in the development of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of novel RORα response elements (ROREs) located in the promoter of CYP19A1, MIF and ABCA1 genes...
December 7, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924827/pd-1-pd-l-pathway-inhibits-m-tb-specific-cd4-t-cell-functions-and-phagocytosis-of-macrophages-in-active-tuberculosis
#7
Lei Shen, Yan Gao, Yuanyuan Liu, Bingyan Zhang, Qianqian Liu, Jing Wu, Lin Fan, Qinfang Ou, Wenhong Zhang, Lingyun Shao
The role of the PD-1/PD-L pathway in a murine model of tuberculosis remains controversial regarding viral infections and clinical tuberculosis. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the modulating role and mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L pathway in patients with active tuberculosis. Fifty-nine participants, including 43 active tuberculosis (ATB) patients and 16 healthy controls (HC), were enrolled. Cell surface staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the expressions of PD-1 and its ligands on T cells and monocytes...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924062/chenodeoxycholic-acid-activates-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-contributes-to-cholestatic-liver-fibrosis
#8
Zizhen Gong, Jiefei Zhou, Shengnan Zhao, Chunyan Tian, Panliang Wang, Congfeng Xu, Yingwei Chen, Wei Cai, Jin Wu
Accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in the liver contributes to cholestatic liver injury. Inflammation induced by excessive bile acids is believed to play a crucial role, however, the mechanisms of bile acids triggered inflammatory response remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome in mediating liver inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we for the first time showed that chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), the major hydrophobic primary bile acid involved in cholestatic liver injury, could dose-dependently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine-IL-1β in macrophages by promoting ROS production and K+ efflux...
December 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923915/late-phase-synthesis-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-insulates-the-tlr4-activated-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-from-noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-macrophages
#9
Budhaditya Chatterjee, Balaji Banoth, Tapas Mukherjee, Nandaraj Taye, Bharath Vijayaragavan, Samit Chattopadhyay, James Gomes, Soumen Basak
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors coordinate the inflammatory immune response during microbial infection. Pathogenic substances engage canonical NF-κB signaling through the heterodimer RelA:p50, which is subjected to rapid negative feedback by inhibitor of κBα (IκBα). The noncanonical NF-κB pathway is required for the differentiation of immune cells; however, cross-talk between both pathways can occur. Concomitantly activated noncanonical signaling generates p52 from the p100 precursor...
December 6, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923561/neuropathology-and-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-to-occupants-of-vehicles-targeted-by-underbody-blasts
#10
Flaubert Tchantchou, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leist, Joshua Vaughan, Parisa Rangghran, Adam Puche, Gary Fiskum
Many victims of blast-induced traumatic brain injury are occupants of military vehicles targeted by land mines. Recently improved vehicle designs protect these individuals against blast overpressure, leaving acceleration as the main force potentially responsible for brain injury. We recently developed a unique rat model of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration where exposure to acceleration as low as 50G acceleration force results in histopathological evidence of diffuse axonal injury and astrocyte activation, with no evidence of neuronal cell death...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923071/c-type-lectin-mincle-recognizes-glucosyl-diacylglycerol-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-plays-a-protective-role-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#11
Friederike Behler-Janbeck, Tomotsugu Takano, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Danny Jonigk, Meritxell Tort Tarrés, Thomas Fuehner, Antje Prasse, Tobias Welte, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker, Yoichi Nakanishi, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Sho Yamasaki, Ulrich A Maus
Among various innate immune receptor families, the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in lung protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is not fully defined. We here show that Mincle gene expression was induced in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of mice and patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Moreover, S. pneumoniae directly triggered Mincle reporter cell activation in vitro via its glycolipid glucosyl-diacylglycerol (Glc-DAG), which was identified as the ligand recognized by Mincle...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923070/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-derived-from-cd4-t-cells-contributes-to-control-of-a-blood-borne-infection
#12
Mary F Fontana, Gabrielly L de Melo, Chioma Anidi, Rebecca Hamburger, Chris Y Kim, So Youn Lee, Jennifer Pham, Charles C Kim
Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922945/staphylococcal-biofilms-and-immune-polarization-during-prosthetic-joint-infection
#13
Casey M Gries, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcal species are a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, where the placement of foreign materials increases infection risk. Indwelling medical devices and prosthetic implants are targets for staphylococcal cell adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm products actively suppress proinflammatory microbicidal responses, as evident by macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. With the rise in prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, together with the recalcitrance of biofilm infections to antibiotic therapy, it is imperative to better understand the mechanism of crosstalk between biofilm-associated bacteria and host immune cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922859/fdg-pet-ct-for-monitoring-response-of-melanoma-to-the-novel-oncolytic-viral-therapy-talimogene-laherparepvec
#14
Matthew F Covington, Clara N Curiel, Lois Lattimore, Ryan J Avery, Phillip H Kuo
61-year-old woman with stage IIIa (T3a N1a M0) left lower leg melanoma with lesions suggestive of in-transit metastases 8 months following wide local excision and femoral nodal dissection. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated 5 FDG-avid in-transit nodal metastases in the distal left leg, confirmed on biopsy. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) oncolytic immunotherapy consisting of intralesional injections of modified herpes simplex virus-expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was completed over 6 months...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922679/repetitive-extragenic-palindromic-dna-sequences-from-brucella%C3%A2-melitensis-stimulate-toll-like-receptor-9-signaling-in-macrophages
#15
Hui Yu, Liyun Bai, Yaxian Zhang, Zhanli Wang, Yongchun Yu
Brucella DNA activates the host innate immune system via the intracellular Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the Brucella DNA sequences which are responsible for these immunostimulatory effects remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that repetitive extragenic palindromic (REPs) sequences present in Brucella DNA were able to stimulate macrophages through TLR9. The induction of interferon-α (IFN-α) production by Brucella REPs was detected in cultured RAW264.7 mouse macrophages as well as in Wistar rats...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922090/mir-146a-mediated-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-adipocytes
#16
Julian Roos, Eveliina Enlund, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Daniel Tews, Karlheinz Holzmann, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Martin Wabitsch, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
The obesity-associated inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the factors leading to the development of related diseases such as insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as important regulators of WAT functions. Herein, we cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) and performed an Affimetrix miRNA array to identify miRNAs differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed upon inflammation in human adipocytes and miR-146a was the most up-regulated miRNA species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922065/detc-based-bacterial-cellulose-bio-curatives-for-topical-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#17
Fabiana S Celes, Eliane Trovatti, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Valeria M Borges, Hernane S Barud, Camila I de Oliveira
The treatment of leishmaniasis still relies on drugs with potentially serious adverse effects. Herein, we tested a topical formulation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes containing Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor. Leishmania-infected macrophages exposed to BC-DETC resulted in parasite killing, without pronounced toxic effects to host cells. This outcome was associated with lower SOD1 activity and higher production of superoxide and cytokine mediators. Topical application of BC-DETC significantly decreased lesion size, parasite load and the inflammatory response at the infection site, as well as the production of both IFN-γ and TNF...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#18
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920947/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-poha-berry-physalis-peruviana-with-potential-anti-inflammatory-and-cancer-prevention-activities
#19
Leng Chee Chang, Mayuramas Sang-Ngern, John M Pezzuto, Carolyn Ma
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920655/deep-vein-thrombosis-as-initial-manifestation-of-whipple-disease
#20
Mônica Souza de Miranda Henriques, Alexandre Rolim da Paz, Ana Beatriz Person Gaertner, Cibelle Ingrid Stephen Melo, Priscyanne Lins Filgueiras, Rafaella Alencar Jerome
INTRODUCTION: Wipple disease (WD) is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as "stroke-like syndrome" or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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