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Macrophage activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793094/effects-of-chronic-antipsychotic-drug-exposure-on-the-expression-of-translocator-protein-and-inflammatory-markers-in-rat-adipose-tissue
#1
Anita Calevro, Marie-Caroline Cotel, Sridhar Natesan, Michel Modo, Anthony C Vernon, Valeria Mondelli
The precise effect of antipsychotic drugs on either central or peripheral inflammation remains unclear. An important issue in this debate is to what extent the known peripheral metabolic effects of antipsychotics, including increased adiposity, may contribute to increased inflammation. Adipose tissue is known to contribute to the development of systemic inflammation, which can eventually lead to insulin resistance and metabolic dysregulation. As a first step to address this question, we evaluated whether chronic exposure to clinically comparable doses of haloperidol or olanzapine resulted in the immune activation of rat adipose tissue...
May 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793051/promising-antileishmanial-activity-of-novel-imidazole-antifungal-drug-luliconazole-against-leishmania-major-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#2
Azar Shokri, Mahdi Abastabar, Masoud Keighobadi, Saeed Emami, Mahdi Fakhar, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Koichi Makimura, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Hassan Mirzaei
OBJECTIVES: Pentavalent antimonials have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis for more than 70 years; however their toxicity limits their benefits. Unfortunately, the efficacy of the first line drugs has been decreased and resistance seems to be noticeable. Luliconazole is a new azole with unique effects on fungi which has not been tested on Leishmania parasites yet. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxicity and anti-leishmanial activities of Luliconazole on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major (L...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792932/cystine-glutamate-transporter-system-x-c-is-involved-in-nitric-oxide-production-in-mouse-peritoneal-macrophages
#3
Sho Kobayashi, Shinji Hamashima, Takujiro Homma, Mami Sato, Ryosuke Kusumi, Shiro Bannai, Junich Fujii, Hideyo Sato
The amino acid transport system xc - is important for maintaining intracellular glutathione levels and extracellular redox balance. The main component of system xc - , xCT, is strongly induced by various stimuli, including oxidative stress and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages isolated from both xCT-deficient and wild-type mice. After culturing macrophages in the presence of LPS for 24-48 h, nitrite levels in the medium of xCT-deficient macrophages were significantly decreased compared to that of wild-type cells...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792697/association-of-type-2-diabetes-with-submicron-titanium-dioxide-crystals-in-the-pancreas
#4
Adam Heller, Karalee Jarvis, Sheryl S Coffman
Pigment-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) of 200-300 nm particle diameter is one of the most widely used submicron-sized particle materials. Inhaled and ingested TiO2 particles are known to enter the bloodstream, to be phagocytized by macrophages and neutrophils, to be inflammatory, and to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this pilot study of 11 pancreatic specimens, 8 of the type 2 diabetic pancreas and 3 of the non-diabetic pancreas, we show that 110±70 nm average diameter TiO2 crystals abound in the type 2 diabetic pancreas, but not in the non-diabetic pancreas...
May 24, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792322/metabolism-of-phenolic-compounds-in-lps-stimulated-raw264-7-cells-can-impact-their-anti-inflammatory-efficacy-indication-of-hesperetin
#5
Yong Ma, Yu He, Taijun Yin, Haoqing Chen, Song Gao, Ming Hu
Raw264.7 is a murine macrophage-like cell line commonly used to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of natural compounds. However, the impacts of long-time incubation on the tested compounds are often inappropriately ignored. Among 77 natural phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), only 36 remain more than 70% after a 15-hour incubation in cell culture medium at 37 °C. Interestingly, for those compounds with a relatively good chemical stability, the presence of Raw264.7 cells could accelerate their disappearance in the medium, indicating that cellular metabolism occurred...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792217/hypoargininemia-exacerbates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#6
Roy H E Cloots, Matthew E Poynter, Els Terwindt, Wouter H Lamers, S Eleonore Köhler
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition, with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation as hallmarks. The hypothesis that the substantially increased expression of arginase 1 in activated macrophages limits the availability of L-arginine for nitric oxide synthesis, and thus increases AHR in lungs of mice with experimentally induced allergic asthma was recently refuted by several studies. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, instead, a low circulating concentration of arginine aggravates AHR in the same murine asthma model...
May 23, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792127/listeria-monocytogenes-infection-enhances-the-interaction-between-rat-non-classical-mhc-ib-molecule-and-ly49-receptors
#7
Hamid Shegarfi, Kevin P Kane, Janne Nestvold
Murine NK cell Ly49 receptors, functionally analogous to KIRs in humans recognize MHC class I molecules and play a key role in controlling NK cell function. We have previously shown that the paired activating Ly49s4 and inhibitory Ly49i4 receptors recognize undefined non-classical MHC-Ib ligands from the RT1-CE region in rats. Here, the RT1-CE16 gene of the RT1d haplotype was stably transfected into the mouse RAW macrophage cell line, termed RAW-CE16d cells. Combining RAW-CE16d cells with Ly49 expressing reporter cells demonstrated Ly49i4 and Ly49s4 specificity for CE16d ...
May 2018: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792034/soft-hydrogel-zwitterionic-coatings-minimize-fibroblast-and-macrophage-adhesion-on-polyimide-substrates
#8
Dusana Trelova, Alice Rita Salgarella, Leonardo Ricotti, Guido Giudetti, Annarita Cutrone, Petra Sramkova, Anna Zahoranova, Dusan Chorvat, Daniel Hasko, Claudio Canale, Silvestro Micera, Juraj Kronek, Arianna Menciassi, Igor Lacik
Minimizing the foreign body reaction to polyimide-based implanted devices has a pivotal role for several biomedical applications. In this work we propose materials exhibiting non-biofouling properties and a Young's modulus reflecting the one of soft human tissues. We describe the synthesis, characterization and in vitro validation of poly(carboxybetaine) hydrogel coatings covalently attached to polyimide substrates via a photolabile 4-azidophenyl group, incorporated in poly(carboxybetaine) chains at two concentrations of 1...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791904/the-cgas-sting-pathway-is-important-for-dendritic-cell-activation-but-is-not-essential-to-induce-protective-immunity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Fabio V Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Stephanie Rose, Priscila C Campos, João T Marques, André Báfica, Glen Barber, Bernhard Ryffel, Sergio C Oliveira, Valerie F J Quesniaux
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a major public health concern. The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway contributes to the cytosolic surveillance of host cells. Most studies on the role of STING activation in Mtb infection have focused on macrophages. Moreover, a detailed investigation of the role of STING during Mtb infection in vivo is required. Here, we deciphered the involvement of STING in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and the host response to Mtb infection in vivo...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791903/a-central-role-for-heme-oxygenase-1-in-the-control-of-intestinal-epithelial-chemokine-expression
#10
Joseph C Onyiah, Rachel E M Schaefer, Sean P Colgan
In mucosal inflammatory disorders, the protective influence of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its metabolic byproducts, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, is a topic of significant interest. Mechanisms under investigation include the regulation of macrophage function and mucosal cytokine expression. While there is an increasing recognition of the importance of epithelial-derived factors in the maintenance of intestinal mucosal homeostasis, the contribution of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) HO-1 on inflammatory responses has not previously been investigated...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791877/enzyme-assisted-extraction-chemical-characteristics-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#11
Young-Ran Song, Su-Kyung Sung, Mi Jang, Tae-Gyu Lim, Chang-Won Cho, Chun-Ji Han, Hee-Do Hong
In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was used to isolate functional polysaccharides from Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) and the physicochemical and biological properties of the extracted polysaccharides were investigated, comparing with those from traditional hot-water extraction (FGWP). In macrophages, their effects on cytokines production could be ordered as FGEP-CA ≥ FGEP-A > FGEP-C > FGWP, suggesting that FGEP-CA (combined cellulase- and α-amylase-extracted polysaccharide) is a potent immunostimulator...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791764/synergy-between-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonist-and-radiotherapy-in-cancer
#12
Guodong Huang, Limei Yin, Jie Lan, Ruizhan Tong, Mengqian Li, Feifei Na, Xianming Mo, Chong Chen, Jianxin Xue, You Lu
ANGIOGENESIS AND INFLAMMATION ARE CRUCIAL PROCESSES, THROUGH WHICH THE: tumor microenvironment (TME) influences tumor progression. In this STUDY, WE REVEALED THAT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR Γ (PPARΓ) IS: NOT ONLY EXPRESSED IN CT26 AND 4T1 TUMOR CELL LINES BUT ALSO IN CELLS OF TME,: including endothelial cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). In addition, WE DEMONSTRATED THAT ROSIGLITAZONE MAY INDUCE TUMOR VESSEL NORMALIZATION AND REDUCE: TAM infiltration. Additionally, 4T1 and CT26 tumor-bearing mice treated with ROSIGLITAZONE IN COMBINATION WITH RADIOTHERAPY DISPLAYED A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN: lesion size and lung metastasis...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791760/neopterin-7-8-dihydroneopterin-is-elevated-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients-and-protects-mdx-skeletal-muscle-function
#13
Angus Lindsay, Alexandra Schmiechen, Christopher M Chamberlain, James M Ervasti, Dawn A Lowe
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine was associated with patient age and ambulation. 7,8-dihydroneopterin correction with specific gravity was also elevated in DMD patients...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791511/caspase-11-dependent-pyroptosis-of-lung-epithelial-cells-protects-from-melioidosis-while-caspase-1-mediates-macrophage-pyroptosis-and-production-of-il-18
#14
Jinyong Wang, Manoranjan Sahoo, Louis Lantier, Jonathan Warawa, Hector Cordero, Kelly Deobald, Fabio Re
Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei or B. thailandensis triggers activation of the NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasomes leading to release of IL-1β and IL-18 and death of infected macrophages by pyroptosis, respectively. The non-canonical inflammasome composed of caspase-11 is also activated by these bacteria and provides protection through induction of pyroptosis. The recent generation of bona fide caspase-1-deficient mice allowed us to reexamine in a mouse model of pneumonic melioidosis the role of caspase-1 independently of caspase-11 (that was also absent in previously generated Casp1-/- mice)...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790498/rooibos-tea-extracts-inhibit-osteoclast-formation-and-activity-through-the-attenuation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-raw264-7-murine-macrophages
#15
Shaakirah Moosa, Abe E Kasonga, Vishwa Deepak, Sumari Marais, Innocentia B Magoshi, Megan J Bester, Marlena C Kruger, Magdalena Coetzee
Rooibos tea is a naturally sweet and aromatic tea that is native to the Western Cape province of South Africa. Rooibos is usually fermented to produce the traditional reddish brown colour and has been found to have numerous health benefits. These include beneficial effects on osteoblasts; however, its effects on osteoclast formation and activity are unknown. Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption. Binding of RANKL to its receptor on osteoclast precursors triggers the NF-κB signalling pathway leading to the formation of osteoclasts...
May 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790392/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r1-activation-exacerbates-toxin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Jamie R Privratsky, Jiandong Zhang, Xiaohan Lu, Nathan Rudemiller, Qingqing Wei, Yen-Rei Yu, Michael Dee Gunn, Steven D Crowley
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent whose administration is limited by nephrotoxicity. Therapies to prevent cisplatin-induced AKI are lacking. While tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, the immune signaling pathways that trigger TNF generation in this context require elucidation. Sterile injury triggers the release and activation of both isoforms of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-1α and IL-1β, and stimulation of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) by these ligands engages a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade that induces TNF induction...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790287/synthesis-biological-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-of-2-pyrazyl-and-pyridylhydrazone-derivatives-new-classes-of-antileishmanial-agents
#17
Marcus De Souza, Elaine S Coimbra, Luciana M R Antinarelli, Mariana A Crispi, Thais C M Nogueira, Alessandra C Pinheiro
In this work, we report the antileishmanial activity of twenty three compounds based on 2-pyrazyl and pyridylhydrazones derivatives. Compounds were tested against the promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. braziliensis, murine macrophages and intracellular L. amazonensis amastigotes. The most potent antileishmanial compound was selected to investigate its mechanism of action. Among the evaluated compounds, five derivatives (2b, 2c, 2s, 2u and 2v) exhibited significant activity against L. amazonensis amastigote forms, with IC50 values below 20 µM...
May 22, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790247/the-promotion-of-tissue-engineering-blood-vessel-patency-by-cgs21680-through-regulating-pro-inflammatory-activities-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell
#18
Wen Chen, Li Xiao, Jian Bai, Wen Zeng, Mingcan Yang, Bingyi Shi, Chuhong Zhu
The mobilization and homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the rapid endothelialization of tissue engineering blood vessel (TEBV). Inflammation can affect TEBV patency, and monocytes/macrophages (MM) are the main effector cells. But it is not clear how EPCs interact with MM after TEBV transplantation. Our results showed acellular materials would not directly cause acute and severe inflammatory responses but activate E-selectin expression in homing EPCs, gradually promoting the polarization of MM to the M1...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790117/regulatory-roles-of-mir-155-and-let-7b-on-the-expression-of-inflammation-related-genes-in-thp-1-cells-effects-of-fatty-acids
#19
J L Marques-Rocha, M Garcia-Lacarte, M Samblas, J Bressan, J A Martínez, F I Milagro
The main aim of this investigation was to study the regulatory roles of let-7b and miR-155-3p on the expression of inflammation-associated genes in monocytes, macrophages, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages (AcM). A second goal was to analyze the potential modulatory roles of different fatty acids, including oleic, palmitic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on the expression of these miRNAs in the three cell types. This hypothesis was tested in human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1), which were differentiated into macrophages with 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and further activated with LPS for 24 h...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789790/distinct-epitopes-on-cd13-mediate-opposite-consequences-for-cell-adhesion
#20
Claudia A Garay-Canales, Ileana Licona-Limón, Enrique Ortega
CD13 is a membrane glycoprotein with aminopeptidase activity, expressed on several cell types, including myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, etc.). CD13 participates in several functions such as proteolytic regulation of bioactive peptides, viral receptor, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. CD13 has also been proposed to participate in cell adhesion, as crosslinking of CD13 by certain CD13-specific antibodies induces homotypic aggregation of monocytes and heterotypic adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells...
2018: BioMed Research International
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