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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644889/evaluation-of-different-serological-assays-for-early-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-in-martinique-french-west-indies
#1
Christophe Courdurie, Yohann Le Govic, Pascale Bourhy, Dorothee Alexer, Karine Pailla, Rafaelle Theodose, Raymond Cesaire, Jacques Rosine, Patrick Hochedez, Claude Olive
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a potentially life-threatening but curable zoonosis whose prognosis depends on accurate and timely diagnosis. Because of its non-specific clinical presentation, laboratory testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here, we aimed to assess the performance of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (ELISA Serion and ELISA-Hb Pasteur) and one immunodot (GenBio) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) as gold standard, instead of the traditional microscopic agglutination test, for the diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in an endemic area...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641918/resistance-of-mice-to-leptospira-infection-and-correlation-with-chemokine-response
#2
R H Domingos, E B Pavanel, E Nakajima, L Schons-Fonseca, R M A Da Costa, M De Franco, E Carvalho, P L Ho, E A Martins, J B Da Silva
Leptospirosis is globally widespread neglected disease, affecting most mammalian species. Clinical signs can be confused with other diseases which make the diagnosis and treatment difficult. Chemokines and cytokines are known for their role in the inflammatory and immune response to infections. The profile determination of chemokines' expressions in the course of infection may elucidate the defense mechanisms of the host and support the search for effective treatment strategies. We investigated the mechanisms of innate immunity through the comparison of chemokines induced during infection with L...
May 26, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626537/epidemiological-distribution-of-rodents-as-potent-reservoirs-for-infectious-diseases-in-the-provinces-of-mazandaran-gilan-and-golestan-northern-iran
#3
Behzad Esfandiari, Hossein Nahrevanian, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Pejvak Khaki, Ehsan Mostafavi, Jamshid Darvish, Hamed Hanifi
Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620258/development-of-indirect-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-diagnosis-of-canine-leptospirosis
#4
A Sathiyamoorthy, G Selvaraju, K M Palanivel, And P Srinivasan
AIM: This study was taken up to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) for screening antibodies against Leptospira spp. in canines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An i-ELISA was developed using outer membrane protein extracted from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola used for coating the well with concentration of 0.5 µg/µl. A total of 250 serum samples from clinically affected and apparently healthy dogs were collected along with relevant epidemiological data at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, and subjected to i-ELISA...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619055/molecular-typing-of-leptospira-interrogans-serovar-hardjo-isolates-from-leptospirosis-outbreaks-in-brazilian-livestock
#5
Maria Raquel V Cosate, Tetsu Sakamoto, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Élvio C Moreira, Carlos G Regis da Silva, Bruno S A F Brasil, Camila S F Oliveira, Vasco Ariston de Azevedo, José Miguel Ortega, Rômulo C Leite, João Paulo Haddad
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. This zoonotic disease is distributed globally and affects domestic animals, including cattle. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Sejroe serovar Hardjo remain important species associated with this reproductive disease in livestock production. Previous studies on Brazilian livestock have reported that L. interrogans serovar Hardjo is the most prevalent leptospiral agent in this country and is related to clinical signs of leptospirosis, which lead to economic losses in production...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611756/pathogenic-leptospira-secreted-proteases-target-the-membrane-attack-complex-a-potential-role-for-thermolysin-in-complement-inhibition
#6
Thais A Amamura, Tatiana R Fraga, Sílvio A Vasconcellos, Angela S Barbosa, Lourdes Isaac
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. This disease is common in tropical and subtropical areas, constituting a serious public health problem. Pathogenic Leptospira have the ability to escape the human Complement System, being able to survive when in contact with normal human serum. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that supernatants of pathogenic Leptospira (SPL) inhibit the three activation pathways of the Complement System. This inhibition can be directly correlated with the activity of secreted proteases, which cleave the Complement molecules C3, Factor B (Alternative Pathway), C4 and C2 (Classical and Lectin Pathways)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607384/peptide-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-of-leptospiral-liga-for-acute-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis
#7
Murugesan Kanagavel, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Kayanam Vijaya Lalitha Aishwarya, Karuppiah Ponmurugan, Kasi Murugan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
Leptospirosis is underdiagnosed due to low sensitivity, need of specialised equipment, and expensive reagents for serological and molecular diagnosis respectively. Considering the sensitivity, rapidity, inexpensive reagents and collection of clinical samples, the monoclonal antibody based antigen detection method from urine samples has been developed and evaluated. LigA (LK90) based B-cell specific epitopes were predicted and synthesised as peptides for the production of monoclonal antibody. LK90543: SNAQKNQGNA (amino acids: 543 to 552), and LK901110: DHHTQSSYTP (amino acids: 1110 to 1119) with VaxiJen score of 1...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606191/no-calm-after-the-storm-a-systematic-review-of-human-health-following-flood-and-storm-disasters
#8
Dell D Saulnier, Kim Brolin Ribacke, Johan von Schreeb
Introduction How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters. METHODS: A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters...
June 13, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604791/challenges-in-developing-methods-for-quantifying-the-effects-of-weather-and-climate-on-water-associated-diseases-a-systematic-review
#9
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Ben Armstrong, Lora E Fleming, Richard Elson, Sari Kovats, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Gordon L Nichols
Infectious diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. Cholera, Leptospirosis, Giardiasis) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Climate and weather factors are known to affect the transmission and distribution of infectious diseases and statistical and mathematical modelling are continuously developing to investigate the impact of weather and climate on water-associated diseases. There have been little critical analyses of the methodological approaches...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603685/epidemiology-of-leptospirosis-in-costa-rica-2011-2015
#10
REVIEW
Marcelo Pérez Carvajal, Kaila A Fagerstrom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leptospirosis is a global spirochete causing chronic renal disease that is increasing in Costa Rica. This paper identifies the prevalence and risk factors of leptospirosis in Costa Rica between the years of 2011-2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical cases of leptospirosis in Costa Rica demonstrated various symptoms: from asymptomatic diseases to severe cases of kidney and liver failure. A variety of diagnostic methods with varying specificities and sensitivities were employed...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601495/structural-and-enzymatic-characterization-of-a-camp-dependent-diguanylate-cyclase-from-pathogenic-leptospira-species
#11
Fernanda Nogales da Costa Vasconcelos, Nikolas Koshiyama Maciel, Denize Cristina Favaro, Luciana Coutinho de Oliveira, Angela Silva Barbosa, Roberto Kopke Salinas, Robson Francisco de Souza, Chuck Shaker Farah, Cristiane Rodrigues Guzzo
Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni is a human pathogen that causes leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonosis. The L. interrogans genome codes for a wide array of potential diguanylate cyclase enzymes with characteristic GGDEF domains capable of synthesizing the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP, known to regulate transitions between different cellular behavioural states in bacteria. Among such enzymes, LIC13137 (Lcd1), which has an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain, is notable for having close orthologs present only in pathogenic Leptospira species...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600123/multifunctional-and-redundant-roles-of-leptospira-interrogans-proteins-in-bacterial-adhesion-and-fibrin-clotting-inhibition
#12
Priscila R M Pereira, Luis G V Fernandes, Gisele O de Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
Pathogenic Leptopira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, the most widespread zoonotic infection in the world. The disease represents a major public health problem, especially in tropical countries. The present work focused on two hypothetical proteins of unknown function, encoded by the genes LIC13059 and LIC10879, and predicted to be surface-exposed proteins. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using E. coli as a host system. We report that the recombinant proteins interacted with extracellular matrix (ECM) laminin, in a dose-dependent fashion and are novel potential adhesins...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592316/the-influence-of-climatic-factors-on-the-development-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-and-leptospirosis-during-the-peak-season-in-korea-an-ecologic-study
#13
Yadav Prasad Joshi, Eun-Hye Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and leptospirosis are seasonal rodent-borne infections in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The occurrences of HFRS and leptospirosis are influenced by climatic variability. However, few studies have examined the effects of local climatic variables on the development of these infections. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of climatic factors on the occurrence of HFRS and leptospirosis in Korea. METHODS: Daily records on human cases of HFRS and leptospirosis between January 2001 to December 2009 were analyzed...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587195/the-use-of-chemoprophylaxis-after-floods-to-reduce-the-occurrence-and-impact-of-leptospirosis-outbreaks
#14
Maria Cristina Schneider, Jorge Velasco-Hernandez, Kyung-Duk Min, Deise Galan Leonel, David Baca-Carrasco, Matthew E Gompper, Rudy Hartskeerl, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi
Record-breaking and devastating rainfall events have occurred in the past decade. Rain and floods are considered the main risk factors for leptospirosis and several outbreaks have been reported following extreme weather events. In such situations, one possible intervention to prevent leptospirosis cases in high-risk groups is the use of chemoprophylaxis. However, not enough evidence of its effect is available. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on the current practices of chemoprophylaxis for leptospirosis and to explore, using a mathematical model, how various chemoprophylaxis scenarios may affect the progression of a leptospirosis outbreak...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584176/one-health-contributions-towards-more-effective-and-equitable-approaches-to-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
S Cleaveland, J Sharp, B Abela-Ridder, K J Allan, J Buza, J A Crump, A Davis, V J Del Rio Vilas, W A de Glanville, R R Kazwala, T Kibona, F J Lankester, A Lugelo, B T Mmbaga, M P Rubach, E S Swai, L Waldman, D T Haydon, K Hampson, J E B Halliday
Emerging zoonoses with pandemic potential are a stated priority for the global health security agenda, but endemic zoonoses also have a major societal impact in low-resource settings. Although many endemic zoonoses can be treated, timely diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of human cases is often challenging. Preventive 'One Health' interventions, e.g. interventions in animal populations that generate human health benefits, may provide a useful approach to overcoming some of these challenges. Effective strategies, such as animal vaccination, already exist for the prevention, control and elimination of many endemic zoonoses, including rabies, and several livestock zoonoses (e...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575082/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-intermediates-in-the-intracellular-fate-of-leptospira-interrogans-in-the-macrophages-of-different-hosts
#16
Shijun Li, Peili Li, Lei Zhang, Weilin Hu, Ming Wang, Ying Liu, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Bijun Zhou, Jie Yan
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic species of Leptospira cause leptospirosis, a global zoonotic disease. Our previous work showed that leptospires survive and replicate in human macrophages but are killed in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism responsible for the different intracellular fates of leptospires within the macrophages of different hosts remains unclear. RESULTS: The present study demonstrates that infection with Leptospira interrogans caused significant up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide in J774A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545521/clinical-serological-and-echocardiographic-examination-of-healthy-field-dogs-before-and-after-vaccination-with-a-commercial-tetravalent-leptospirosis-vaccine
#17
Andrea M Spiri, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, José M Matos, Tony M Glaus, Barbara Riond, Claudia E Reusch, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Severe disease has been reported in dogs in Europe despite vaccination with bivalent Leptospira vaccines. Recently, a tetravalent canine Leptospira vaccine (Nobivac® L4) was licenced in Europe. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical signs, microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titres, haematology, blood biochemistry, cardiac (c) Troponin I levels and echocardiography before and after vaccination with this tetravalent vaccine...
May 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536676/leptospira-immunoglobulin-like-protein-b-interacts-with-the-20th-exon-of-human-tropoelastin-contributing-to-leptospiral-adhesion-to-human-lung-cells
#18
Ching-Lin Hsieh, Andrew Tseng, Hongxuan He, Chih-Jung Kuo, Xuannian Wang, Yung-Fu Chang
Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein B (LigB), a surface adhesin, is capable of mediating the attachment of pathogenic leptospira to the host through interaction with various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human tropoelastin (HTE), the building block of elastin, confers resilience and elasticity to lung, and other tissues. Previously identified Ig-like domains of LigB, including LigB4 and LigB12, bind to HTE, which is likely to promote Leptospira adhesion to lung tissue. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the LigB-HTE interaction is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536558/temperature-and-oxidative-stress-as-triggers-for-virulence-gene-expression-in-pathogenic-leptospira-spp
#19
Tricia Fraser, Paul D Brown
Leptospirosis is a zooanthroponosis aetiologically caused by pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus, Leptospira. Environmental signals such as increases in temperatures or oxidative stress can trigger response regulatory modes of virulence genes during infection. This study sought to determine the effect of temperature and oxidative stress on virulence associated genes in highly passaged Leptospira borgpeterseneii Jules and L. interrogans Portlandvere. Bacteria were grown in EMJH at 30°C, 37°C, or at 30°C before being transferred to 37°C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536483/development-and-evaluation-of-an-immunochromatographic-assay-to-detect-serum-anti-leptospiral-lipopolysaccharide-igm-in-acute-leptospirosis
#20
Galayanee Doungchawee, Direk Sutdan, Kannika Niwatayakul, Tasanee Inwisai, Athisri Sitthipunya, Naphatsawan Boonsathorn, Titipatima Sakulterdkiat, Worachart Sirawaraporn, Visith Thongboonkerd
Leptospirosis is a common life-threatening disease worldwide. However, its diagnosis is frequently ineffective because the gold standard bacterial culture and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) are usually positive 1-2 weeks after the disease onset. We thus developed an immunochromatographic assay (LEPkit) to detect serum anti-leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) IgM for rapid diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Using referenced sera of 77 leptospirosis and 91 non-leptospirosis cases, LEPkit yielded 97.4% sensitivity, 94...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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