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N D B Ehelepola, A N Abayagunawardana, T N Sudusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis can occur in people with G6PD deficiency under oxidative stress. Acalypha indica is a tropical plant used as a medicinal plant as well as a vegetable. There are a few reported cases of Acalypha indica ingestion induced hemolysis in G6PD deficient people. All except one of them are from Sri Lanka. The information available at present (2017) about G6PD deficiency prevalence and variants of the G6PD gene among Sri Lankans is very sparse. There are no past reports on hemolytic crisis in a G6PD deficient person presenting mimicking leptospirosis...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Binti Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Aurélie Marquez, Zoheira Djelouadji, Virginie Lattard, Angéli Kodjo
Leptospirosis is a virulent zoonosis with a global distribution. Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are responsible for this disease, and the primary animal reservoirs are rodentvvvs. Direct and indirect contact with infected urine constitutes the main route of transmission. Renal failure and advanced abortions are frequently observed in animals affected by leptospirosis, causing serious problems for farms. In humans, there is a high rate of mortality (10 percent), and farmers and persons in contact with water are frequently exposed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Helena Moza Moriñigo, Miguel J Martínez, Aida Peiró, Ines Oliveira, Marta Bodro, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Joaquim Gascon, Jose Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis worldwide, nevertheless is often poor recognized in non tropical settings. In Thailand is becoming an emerging disease and Chiang Mai could become a popular spot to acquire the disease amongst travelers. METHODS: We describe three cases of imported leptospirosis undifferentiated fever after travelling to Thailand during the summer of 2015 diagnosed at two Spanish hospitals. RESULTS: Our three patients probably acquired leptospirosis while swimming in freshwater around Chiang Mai, a Thailand's northern region with moderate incidence of leptopirosis...
March 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
S F Lau, J Y Wong, K H Khor, M A Roslan, M S Abdul Rahman, S K Bejo, R Radzi, A R Bahaman
Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Amira Wahida Mohd Safee, Nor Hayati Ismail, Roslinda Abu Sapian, Hani Mat Hussin, Nabilah Ismail, Chan Yean Yean
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of leptospirosis is important for ensuring better clinical management and achieving better outcomes. Currently, serological assays suffer from inconsistent performance and are less useful for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. As an alternative, qPCR is more sensitive, specific and able to detect the presence of leptospiral DNA during the acute phase of the infection. Meanwhile, most molecular assays do not detect the non-pathogenic group of Leptospira, even though these groups may also infect humans, although less frequently and less severely...
March 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Nathaniel Lee, Emi Kitashoji, Nobuo Koizumi, Talitha Lea V Lacuesta, Maricel R Ribo, Efren M Dimaano, Nobuo Saito, Motoi Suzuki, Koya Ariyoshi, Christopher M Parry
Leptospirosis is endemic to the Philippines. Ten per cent of cases will develop severe or fatal disease. Predicting progression to severity is difficult. Risk factors have been suggested, but few attempts have been made to create predictive models to guide clinical decisions. We present two models to predict the risk of mortality and progression to severe disease. Data was used from a prospective cohort study conducted between 2011 and 2013 in San Lazaro Hospital, Manila. Predictive factors were identified from a literature review...
March 6, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kouki Tomari, Takao Toyokawa, Takuto Takahashi, Tetsuya Kakita, Sho Okano, Hisako Kyan, Naoya Tonegawa, Teppei Okawa, Takashi Matsuoka, Tsutomu Matsumora
Leptospirosis is considered underdiagnosed because of its nonspecific presentation and lack of proper understanding of its epidemiology. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. However, few data are available on confirmed leptospirosis cases in children in industrialized countries. We therefore aimed to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed childhood leptospirosis in Okinawa, Japan. We reviewed the national surveillance data of pediatric leptospirosis in Okinawa, Japan from January 2003 through December 2015...
March 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Wan Mohd Zahiruddin, Wan Nor Arifin, Shafei Mohd-Nazri, Surianti Sukeri, Idris Zawaha, Rahman Abu Bakar, Rukman Awang Hamat, Osman Malina, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaludin, Arumugam Pathman, Ab Rahman Mas-Harithulfadhli-Agus, Idris Norazlin, Binti Samsudin Suhailah, Siti Nor Sakinah Saudi, Nurul Munirah Abdullah, Noramira Nozmi, Abdul Wahab Zainuddin, Daud Aziah
BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, leptospirosis is considered an endemic disease, with sporadic outbreaks following rainy or flood seasons. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new knowledge, attitude, belief and practice (KABP) questionnaire on leptospirosis for use in urban and rural populations in Malaysia. METHODS: The questionnaire comprised development and validation stages. The development phase encompassed a literature review, expert panel review, focus-group testing, and evaluation...
March 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Joy Dierks, Tammy Servies, Tai Do
Introduction: The US Marines operate the Jungle Warfare Training Center (JWTC) in Northern Okinawa, where leptospirosis is endemic. The JWTC endurance course involves prolonged fresh and stagnant water exposures in a simulated jungle warfare environment. Since a leptospirosis outbreak in 1987, JWTC has required prophylactic use of doxycycline at 200 mg weekly during exposure to the endurance course. This policy is based on a 1982 study in a similar environment in Panama. In August and September of 2014, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among 81 Marines training at JWTC...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Narmada Fernando, Rajiva de Silva, Shiroma M Handunnetti, Lilani Karunanayake, Nipun Lakshitha De Silva, H Janaka de Silva, Senaka Rajapakse, Sunil Premawansa
The aim of this study was to assess the inflammatory cytokine response and possible association with antimicrobial treatment with penicillin, ceftriaxone and doxycycline in acute leptospirosis. In the early acute stage, IL-10 was higher in mild cases compared to severe cases (p=0.01). IL-6 and IL-8 levels were low in patients who received >5 antimicrobial doses (p<0.01). IL-8 was negatively correlated with number of ceftriaxone doses administered (r=-0.315; p=0.031). Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by ceftriaxone in leptospirosis...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Prasannan V Anu, Madathiparambil G Madanan, Ananthakrishnan J Nair, Gangaprasad A Nair, Govinda Pillai M Nair, Perumana R Sudhakaran, Padikara K Satheeshkumar
Oligopeptidases are enzymes involved in the degradation of short peptides (generally less than 30 amino acids in size) which help pathogens evade the host defence mechanisms. Leptospira is a zoonotic pathogen and causes leptospirosis in mammals. Proteome analysis of Leptospira revealed the presence of oligopeptidase A (OpdA) among other membrane proteins. To study the role of oligopeptidase in leptospirosis, the OpdA of L. interrogans was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with a histidine tag (His-tag)...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Tippawan Pissawong, Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Nonglucksanawan Ritthisunthorn, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Onrapak Reamtong, Poom Adisakwattana, Thareerat Kalambaheti, Urai Chaisri, Galayanee Doungchawee
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis, imposing significant human and veterinary public health burdens. In this study, recombinant LipL3293-147 and LipL32148-184 middle domain of LipL3293-184 , and LipL32171-214 , and LipL32215-272 of c-terminal LipL32171-272 truncations were defined for immunodominance of the molecule during Leptospira infections revealed by leptospirosis sera. RESULTS: IgM-dominant was directed to highly surface accessible LipL32148-184 and Lipl32171-214 ...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Yoshiko Kudo, Ket Vansith, En Rin, Kohdai Uchida, Sumika Kodama, Takashi Fukui, Sho Masuda, Toshiyuki Masuzawa
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis remains a major public health threat in Cambodia. In this study, we aimed at facilitating the development of preventive strategies against leptospirosis in Cambodia by conducting molecular epidemiological surveys of Leptospira infection among wild rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixty-three wild rodents were captured in the capital Phnom Penh and surrounding areas, and their kidneys and bladders were collected for analysis...
March 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sabine Dittrich, Latsaniphone Boudthasavong, Dala Keokhamhoung, Weerawat Phuklia, Scott B Craig, Suhella M Tulsiani, Mary-Anne Burns, Steven L Weier, David A B Dance, Viengmon Davong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Mayfong Mayxay, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Kate Woods
Leptospirosis is a globally important cause of acute febrile illness, and a common cause of non-malarial fever in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are needed to enable health-care workers, particularly in low resource settings, to diagnose leptospirosis early and give timely targeted treatment. This study compared four commercially available RDTs to detect human IgM against Leptospira spp. in a head-to-head prospective evaluation in Mahosot Hospital, Lao PDR. Patients with an acute febrile illness consistent with leptospirosis ( N = 695) were included in the study during the 2014 rainy season...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Laura Katharina Schenk, Hermann Pavenstädt, Philipp Kümpers
ANAMNESIS:  In winter, a 37-year old male patient consulted our outpatient clinic complaining about fever, malaise and headache. He had returned from vacation in Thailand 14 days earlier. EXAMINATIONS:  Clinical findings, laboratory examinations and apparative diagnostics revealed a pulmo-renal syndrom accompagnied by multi-organ failure. DIAGNOSIS:  Finally, we could confirm that our patient suffered from leptospirosis. TREATMENT:  The patient received a penicillin-based antibiotic treatment...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Paul L Wood, Margaret Steinman, Erdal Erol, Craig Carter, Undine Christmann, Ashutosh Verma
Currently available diagnostic assays for leptospirosis cannot differentiate vaccine from infection serum antibody. Several leptospiral proteins that are upregulated during infection have been described, but their utility as a diagnostic marker is still unclear. In this study, we undertook a lipidomics approach to determine if there are any differences in the serum lipid profiles of horses naturally infected with pathogenic Leptospira spp. and horses vaccinated against a commercially available bacterin. Utilizing a high-resolution mass spectrometry serum lipidomics analytical platform, we demonstrate that cyclic phosphatidic acids, diacylglycerols, and hydroperoxide oxidation products of choline plasmalogens are elevated in the serum of naturally infected as well as vaccinated horses...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Martha Maria Pereira, Maria Cristina Schneider, Claudia Munoz-Zanzi, Federico Costa, Jackie Benschop, Rudy Hartskeerl, Julio Martinez, Michel Jancloes, Eric Bertherat
This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the recommendations coming from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ International Workshop for Leptospirosis Research Based on Country Needs and the 5th Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network meeting, which was held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-12 November 2015. The event focused on health policy and worked to develop a road map as a consensus document to help guide decision-making by policymakers, funding bodies, and health care professionals...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Scott A Nabity, José E Hagan, Guilherme Araújo, Alcinéia O Damião, Jaqueline S Cruz, Nivison Nery, Elsio A Wunder, Mitermayer G Reis, Albert I Ko, Guilherme S Ribeiro
Early detection of leptospirosis with field-ready diagnostics may improve clinical management and mitigate outbreaks. We previously validated the point-of-care Dual Path Platform (DPP) for leptospirosis with sera in the laboratory. This prospective study compares the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the DPP using finger stick blood (FSB) against the serum DPP, venous whole blood (VWB) DPP, IgM-ELISA, and clinical impression. We sequentially enrolled 98 patients hospitalized for acute febrile illnesses, of which we confirmed 32 by leptospirosis reference tests...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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