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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925134/-leptospirosis-space-time-distribution-and-risk-factors-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-brazil
#1
Nelson Veiga Gonçalves, Ediane Nunes de Araujo, Alcinês da Silva Sousa, Waltair Maria Martins Pereira, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda, Pedro Silvestre da Silvia Campos, Mauro Wendel de Souza Matos, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes Palácios
The occurrence of leptospirosis has defied epidemiology even when using different analysis technologies at local geographical levels. This cross-sectional and descriptive study sought to identify spatial correlations between social and environmental risk factors and leptospirosis in Belém in the State of Pará from 2007 to 2013. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the Pará State Department of Public Health and the environmental, demographic and cartographical data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#2
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#3
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918150/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-leptospira-seropositivity-in-beef-cattle-sheep-and-deer-farmers-in-new-zealand
#4
J M Sanhueza, C Heuer, P R Wilson, J Benschop, J M Collins-Emerson
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913579/risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-seropositivity-in-slaughterhouse-workers-in-western-kenya
#5
Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook, William Anson de Glanville, Lian Francesca Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Eric Maurice Fèvre
OBJECTIVES: Leptospirosis has been documented in slaughterhouse workers around the world. Risk factors include smoking and drinking at work, and performing tasks such as cleaning offal. This paper examined risk factors for leptospirosis seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. METHODS: The study was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012. Questionnaires were used to collect information from workers on demographic data, health and hygiene practices in the slaughterhouse...
December 2, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911985/hemorrhagic-hemostatic-and-thromboelastometric-disorders-in-35-dogs-with-a-clinical-diagnosis-of-leptospirosis-a-prospective-study
#6
A Barthélemy, M Magnin, C Pouzot-Nevoret, J-M Bonnet-Garin, M Hugonnard, I Goy-Thollot
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis in dogs is occasionally associated with a hemorrhagic syndrome, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To characterize hematologic, hemostatic, and thromboelastometric abnormalities in dogs with leptospirosis and to study their association with hemorrhagic diatheses and outcomes. ANIMALS: Thirty-five client-owned dogs. METHODS: A prospective observational single cohort study was conducted...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911902/comparison-of-the-estimated-incidence-of-acute-leptospirosis-in-the-kilimanjaro-region-of-tanzania-between-2007-08-and-2012-14
#7
Michael J Maze, Holly M Biggs, Matthew P Rubach, Renee L Galloway, Shama Cash-Goldwasser, Kathryn J Allan, Jo E B Halliday, Julian T Hertz, Wilbrod Saganda, Bingileki F Lwezaula, Sarah Cleaveland, Blandina T Mmbaga, Venance P Maro, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: The sole report of annual leptospirosis incidence in continental Africa of 75-102 cases per 100,000 population is from a study performed in August 2007 through September 2008 in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. To evaluate the stability of this estimate over time, we estimated the incidence of acute leptospirosis in Kilimanjaro Region, northern Tanzania for the time period 2012-2014. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptospirosis cases were identified among febrile patients at two sentinel hospitals in the Kilimanjaro Region...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909915/a-systematic-review-of-leptospirosis-on-dogs-pigs-and-horses-in-latin-america
#8
REVIEW
Priscila S Pinto, Hugo Libonati, Walter Lilenbaum
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis which can affect many species. Control programs need accurate diagnosis to be successful, and currently, diagnosis relies on serology. It presents three main issues: the sampling, the antigen panel, and the cutoff point. Herein, we propose a systematic review on leptospirosis among dogs, pigs, and horses in Latin America in order to improve the understanding of the seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in these species in the region as well as the temporal development of the research on this topic and, consequently, improve the chances of success on control programs...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894961/low-dose-norfloxacin-and-ciprofloxacin-therapy-worsen-leptospirosis-in-hamster
#9
Dianjun Wu, Wenlong Zhang, Tingting Wang, Tao Lin, Xuemin Jin, Xufeng Xie, Jian Guo, Yongguo Cao, Rui Wu
Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of leptospirosis. Many antibiotics at appropriate concentrations improved the survival rate and alleviated tissue injury, while, when dosing strategies fall below subtherapeutic levels, worse therapeutic effects are seen. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of low-dose norfloxacin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg) against leptospirosis in a hamster model using Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. The histopathology and bacterial loads of target organs (liver, kidney and lung) were also studied by treatment with norfloxacin at the dose of 10 mg/kg in this model...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881835/leptospirosis-associated-severe-pulmonary-hemorrhagic-syndrome-with-lower-back-pain-as-an-initial-symptom
#10
Mads Madsen Søndergaard, Amela Tursunovic, Peter Thye-Rønn, Jacob Christian Bang, Inger Marie Jensen Hansen
BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012, with Icterohaemorrhagiae and Sejroe now being predominant. CASE REPORT A 45-year-old Danish woman living in an area endemic for Hanta virus, without prior medical history, was admitted because of lower back pain radiating to the left hip, fever, headache, nausea, and malaise...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865827/overexpression-of-heat-shock-groel-stress-protein-in-leptospiral-biofilm
#11
K Vinod Kumar, Chandan Lall, R Vimal Raj, K Vedhagiri, C Kartick, P Surya, K Natarajaseenivasan, P Vijayachari
Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, which is an emerging zoonotic disease. Recent studies on Leptospira have demonstrated biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The protein expressed in the biofilm was investigated by using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The proteins expressed in Leptospira biofilm and planktonic cells was analyzed and compared. Among these proteins, one (60 kDa) was found to overexpress in biofilm as compared to the planktonic cells...
November 16, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864172/the-ebpa-rpon-regulatory-pathway-of-the-pathogen-leptospira-interrogans-is-essential-for-survival-in-the-environment
#12
Wei-Lin Hu, Christopher J Pappas, Jun-Jie Zhang, You-Yun Yang, Jie Yan, Mathieu Picardeau, X Frank Yang
Leptospira interrogans is the agent of leptospirosis, a re-emerging zoonotic disease. Leptospirosis is transmitted to humans through environmental surface waters contaminated by the urine of mammals that are chronically infected by pathogenic strains that are able to survive in water for long periods. Little is known about the regulatory pathways underlying environmental sensing and host adaptation of L. interrogans during its enzootic cycle. This study identifies the EbpA-RpoN regulatory pathway in L. interrogans In this pathway, EbpA, a σ(54) activator and putative prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein (EBP), and the alternative sigma factor RpoN (σ(54)) control expression of at least three genes - encoding AmtB (an ammonium transport protein) and two proteins of unknown function...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863549/cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-of-aqueous-humor-and-serum-in-horses-with-uveitis-measured-using-multiplex-bead-immunoassay-analysis
#13
Elizabeth Curto, Kristen M Messenger, Jacklyn H Salmon, Brian C Gilger
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether horses with clinically diagnosed Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) and those with Leptospirosis infection have a specific cytokine profile in their aqueous humor (AH) and serum that differs from horses with uveitis secondary to other ocular inflammatory processes and from horses with normal eyes. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-five client-owned horses with uveitis that were presented to the North Carolina State University Ophthalmology Service, and four University-owned horses without history or clinical signs of ocular disease...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#14
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851546/1911-tele-icu-regionalization-of-critical-care-and-ecmo-leptospirosis-with-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage
#15
Ali Tabatabai, Michael Mazzeffi, Ann Matta, Allison Hollis, Marc Zubrow, Keshava Rajagopal, Sarah Schmalze, Thomas Scalea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836047/a-study-of-leptospirosis-in-south-african-horses-and-associated-risk-factors
#16
V Simbizi, M N Saulez, A Potts, C Lötter, B Gummow
Most leptospiral infections in horses are asymptomatic; however, acute disease manifestations as well as reproductive failure and recurrent uveitis have been reported. In South Africa, the epidemiology of the disease in horses is not well documented. A serosurvey to determine what serovars were present in horses from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape Provinces and to get an estimate of the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was carried out from January 2013 until April 2014 with the assistance of four large equine hospitals located in these provinces...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835672/the-expression-of-water-and-ion-channels-in-diffuse-alveolar-damage-is-not-dependent-on-dad-etiology
#17
Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto, Fabiola Del Carlo Bernardi, Priscila Alves de Araujo, Thais Mauad, Marisa Dolhnikoff
INTRODUCTION: Aquaporins and ion channels are membrane proteins that facilitate the rapid movement of water and solutes across biological membranes. Experimental and in vitro studies reported that the function of these channels and pulmonary edema resolution are impaired in acute lung injury (ALI). Although current evidence indicates that alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in patients with ALI/diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), few human studies have addressed the alterations in pulmonary channels in this clinical condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824878/high-throughput-parallel-sequencing-to-measure-fitness-of-leptospira-interrogans-transposon-insertion-mutants-during-acute-infection
#18
Kristel Lourdault, James Matsunaga, David A Haake
Pathogenic species of Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that causes mortality and morbidity worldwide. The understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Leptospira spp is still at an early stage due to the limited number of genetic tools available for this microorganism. The development of random transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic strains a decade ago has contributed to the identification of several virulence factors. In this study, we used the transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique, which combines transposon mutagenesis with massive parallel sequencing, to study the in vivo fitness of a pool of Leptospira interrogans mutants...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821124/severe-leptospirosis-and-pancreatitis-a-case-series-from-a-leptospirosis-outbreak-in-anuradhapura-district-sri-lanka
#19
N J Herath, C J Kamburapola, S B Agampodi
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is identified as an atypical and rare presentation of leptospirosis. In this report, we discuss a case series of severe leptospirosis with pancreatitis as a main complication during an unusual outbreak of leptospirosis in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentation, investigations, treatment and outcome of six confirmed cases of severe leptospirosis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, within a three months period from November 2014 to January 2015...
November 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812660/seroprevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-leptospirosis-in-the-city-of-manaus-state-of-amazonas-brazil
#20
Luciete Almeida Silva, Kátia Maria da Silva Lima, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo Fernandes, Ilana Teruszkin Balassiano, Kátia Eliane Santos Avelar, Michele Silva de Jesus
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is caused by a bacterium of the genus Leptospira. This study aimed at investigating the seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospirosis in humans in Manaus, State of Amazonas. METHODS: Interviews were performed, and 1,000 blood serum samples were examined using a microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: Forty-three cases were positive; there were 10 serotypes, with coagglutination in 8 cases. The most frequently occurring serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (20...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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