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retina, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma

Irene Bravo-Osuna, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Irene T Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment is increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Dermot J Kelly, Sinéad M Farrell
More than 26 million Americans suffer with cataracts, and with 3.6 million cataract extractions performed annually in the United States, it is the most common surgical procedure. The integrity of the delicate structures of the eye that mediate vision is dependent on the intraocular pressure (IOP). Yet, IOP acts to compress the vessels within the globe-akin to a Starling resistor-and is a key component that determines the ocular perfusion pressure, defined as the difference between arterial pressure and IOP...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Rajesh Choudhary, Mandeep Singh Kapoor, Amrita Singh, Surendra H Bodakhe
PURPOSE: To review current literature on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-mediated pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic targets in ocular diseases. METHODS: A comprehensive literature survey was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases published from 1977 to 2016. The search terms were a RAS, angiotensin, angiotensin receptor, prorenin, pro (renin) receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker associated with ocular disorders like cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), macular degeneration, and uveitis...
March 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Jennifer E Dulle, Anne Rübsam, Sarah J Garnai, Hemant S Pawar, Patrice E Fort
Crystallin proteins are the most prominent protein of the lens and have been increasingly shown to play critical roles in other tissues, especially the retina. Members of all 3 sub-families of crystallins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins have been reported in the retina during diabetes, traumatic injury and other retinal diseases. While their specific role in the retina is still unclear and may vary, beta-crystallin proteins have been shown to play a critical role in ganglion cell survival following trauma...
February 2017: Experimental Eye Research
Peiwei Chai, Hongyan Ni, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Autophagy plays an adaptive role in cell survival, development, differentiation and intracellular homeostasis. Autophagy is recognized as a 'self-cannibalizing' process that is active during stresses such as starvation, chemotherapy, infection, ageing, and oxygen shortage to protect organisms from various irritants and to regenerate materials and energy. However, autophagy can also lead to a form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. Components of the autophagic pathway are constitutively expressed at a high level in the eye, including in the cornea, lens, retina, and orbit...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
W Ammari, S Harrath, S Mbarek, A Mahmoud, W Chebbi, R Messaoud, M Khairallah
OBJECTIVE: To study socio-demographic characteristics and main causes related to visual impairment (VI) as a function of age bracket and to analyze their trends over time in the district of Mahdia. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed on 1487 cases of visual impairment registered with the social authorities in Mahdia, between 1980 and 2013. The social, demographic, vision exam findings and causes were ascertained and analyzed in an SPSS database. Incidence rates of VI and blindness due to various causes were calculated based on the demographic data from the NSI to estimate the time trends using the general linear regression model and Spearman correlation...
November 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Robert Harper, Rosalind Creer, Jonathan Jackson, Daniel Ehrlich, Andrew Tompkin, Michael Bowen, Cindy Tromans
PURPOSE: The role of the optometrist in the Hospital Eye Service (HES) has undergone significant development in recent years to include extended areas of clinical practice more traditionally undertaken by ophthalmologists, commensurate with a growing demand for increased capacity in ophthalmic services. In this report, we present the findings from a national survey of the scope of practice of optometrists working in the UK HES. METHODS: A survey was designed to incorporate questions on the provision of core services before seeking detailed information on the scope of practice within extended roles to include: ophthalmic sub-specialist areas where optometrists currently practice; the undertaking of specific procedures within these services; the relative autonomy of practice within these extended roles; and the training and accreditation requirements for working within extended roles...
March 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Austin R Lenox, Yogesh Bhootada, Oleg Gorbatyuk, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
An unfolded protein response (UPR) in addition to oxidative stress and the inflammatory response is known to be activated in age-related ocular disorders, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether healthy aged retinas display UPR hallmarks, in order to establish a baseline for the activated UPR markers for age-related ocular diseases. Using western blotting, we determined that the hallmarks of the UPR PERK arm, phosphorylated (p) eIF2a, ATF4, and GADD34, were significantly altered in aged vs...
November 16, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Alice Matimba, Richmond Woodward, Ernest Tambo, Michele Ramsay, Lovemore Gwanzura, Solomon Guramatunhu
Tele-ophthalmology using portable retinal imaging technology, mobile phone and Internet connectivity offers a solution to improve access to diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening services in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries where the burden of diabetes is increasing and there is limited access to eye care services and specialists. The Zimbabwe Retinopathy Telemedicine Project (ZRTP) established routine DR screening at a hospital-based diabetic clinic in the urban capital city, Harare. A handheld 'point and shoot' digital camera operated by a trained nurse was used to acquire retina images of 203 diabetic patients...
July 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Caterina Cascio, Irene Deidda, Domenica Russo, Patrizia Guarneri
These last two decades have seen an explosion of clinical and epidemiological research, and basic research devoted to envisage the influence of gender and hormonal fluctuations in the retina/ocular diseases. Particular attention has been paid to age-related disorders because of the overlap of endocrine and neuronal dysfunction with aging. Hormonal withdrawal has been considered among risk factors for diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular disease (AMD), as well as, for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or other neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2015: Steroids
Wai-Ching Lam, David A Albiani, Pradeepa Yoganathan, John Chanchiang Chen, Amin Kherani, David Al Maberley, Alejandro Oliver, Theodore Rabinovitch, Thomas G Sheidow, Eric Tourville, Leah A Wittenberg, Chris Sigouin, Darryl C Baptiste
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the real-world use, efficacy, and safety of one or more dexamethasone intravitreal implant(s) 0.7 mg (DEX implant) in patients with macular edema (ME). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with ME secondary to retinal disease treated at ten Canadian retina practices, including one uveitis center. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma and cataract surgery, and safety data were collected from the medical charts of patients with ≥3 months of follow-up after the initial DEX implant...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
L Jančo, K Tkáčová Villemová, M Ondrejková, R Vida, M Bartoš, M Mesárošová
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and efficacy of silicone oil (SO) retinal tamponade in various retinal diseases. The incidence of silicone oil tamponade according to individual indications, incidence of complications and duration of tamponade were evaluated in the study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study included 510 eyes that were operated on pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) from January 2010 to December 2012. In our group we evaluated 241 men and 189 women, age 4-84 years, mean 62 years ...
October 2014: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Akshay Anand, Shweta Modgil, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Richa Shri, Sushmita Kaushik
Eye related diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, conjunctivitis are very common worldwide. With the current scenario India will be among the top five countries in the number of glaucoma cases. Limited discovery of successful drugs for the treatment of such diseases led scientists to look towards the use of conventional sources for treatment. Herbal extracts from Ayurveda have remained an important part of treatment regime in many parts of world even today. For this reason, local herbs possessing curative properties are still being used by local inhabitants due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties...
October 2014: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
S Guigou, C Hajjar, E Parrat, P Y Merite, S Pommier, F Matonti, O Prost-Magnin, F Meyer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of intravitreal implant of 0.7mg dexamathasone in visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter, study. Seventy-four patients, with a mean age of 65 years, followed for at least 6 months (mean follow-up: 9.8 months) were included in 5 French eye clinics (P 1.5 collective). The mean systolic blood pressure was 138mmHg and the mean HbA1c was 7.2%. We monitored 2 systemic parameters: blood pressure and glycemic balance...
June 2014: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
David C Beebe, Ying-Bo Shui, Carla J Siegfried, Nancy M Holekamp, Fang Bai
Oxygen levels in the eye are generally low and tightly regulated. Oxygen enters the eye largely by diffusion from retinal arterioles and through the cornea. In intact eyes, oxygen from the retinal arterioles diffuses into the vitreous body. There is a decreasing oxygen gradient from the retina to the lens, established by oxygen consumption by ascorbate in the vitreous fluid and lens metabolism. Age-related degeneration of the vitreous body or removal during vitrectomy exposes the posterior of the lens to increased oxygen, causing nuclear sclerotic cataracts...
May 2014: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Akira Obana, Yuko Gohto, Masaki Tanito, Shigetoshi Okazaki, Werner Gellermann, Paul S Bernstein, Akihiro Ohira
BACKGROUND: Macular pigment is a defense system against phototoxic damage of the retina by visible light. It is still under debate whether or not macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels decline with age, because the age effect varied depending on the technique used to measure MPOD levels. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) is an objective method to measure MPOD, and studies using RRS showed a drastic age-related decline of MPOD levels; however, since RRS measurements are influenced by cataracts, it has been argued that the age-related decline of RRS measurements is an artifact from lens changes in aged subjects...
August 2014: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye, Madhura Kulkarni-Chitnis, Catherine A Opere, Aaron Barrett, Sunny E Ohia
Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy). Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals...
2013: Frontiers in Physiology
Renu Agarwal, Lgor Iezhitsa, Puneet Agarwal
Magnesium is one of the most important regulatory cation involved in several biological processes. It is important for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of several vital ocular tissues such as cornea, lens and retina. The magnesium content of lens, especially in its peripheral part, is higher than that in aqueous and vitreous humor. Magnesium has also been shown to play critically important role in retinal functions. Magnesium plays significant role as a cofactor for more than 350 enzymes in the body and regulates neuroexcitability and several ion channels...
November 15, 2013: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Tatsuya Mimura, Yuichi Kaji, Hidetaka Noma, Hideharu Funatsu, Shinseiro Okamoto
The sirtuins are a highly conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone deacetylases that helps regulate the lifespan of diverse organisms. The human genome encodes seven different sirtuins (SIRT1-7), which share a common catalytic core domain but possess distinct N- and C-terminal extensions. Dysfunction of some sirtuins have been associated with age-related diseases, such as cancer, type II diabetes, obesity-associated metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration, and cardiac aging, as well as the response to environmental stress...
November 2013: Experimental Eye Research
Sibel Demirel, Serdar Bilici, Figen Batıoglu, Emin Ozmert
BACKGROUND: To analyze the effects of age, cataract surgery and postoperative period on macular pigment optical density (MPOD). METHODS: The study included cases referred to Ankara University Department of Ophthalmology, between April and June 2012, who had a transparent natural lens or had undergone cataract surgery at least a year ago with their best corrected visual acuity of ≥ 0.5 based on Snellen chart. Presence of an ocular disease that might affect lens, retina and optic nerve (cataract, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma etc...
February 2014: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
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