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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340378/current-fda-approved-treatments-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-potential-biomarkers-for-its-detection
#1
REVIEW
Karla A Ruiz-Ceja, Yolanda I Chirino
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading worldwide cancer with almost 1.5 million deaths every year. Some drugs for lung cancer treatment have been available on the market for decades, but novel drugs have emerged promising better outcomes, especially for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), which represents 75% of lung cancer cases. However, how much do drugs have evolved for NSCLC treatment? Are they sharing the same mechanism of action? AIM: In this review we analyzed how the approved drugs by Federal Drug Agency for NSCLC have advanced in the last four decades identifying shared mechanism of action of medicines against NSCLC treatment and some of the potential biomarkers for early detection...
March 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340377/possible-protective-effect-of-royal-jelly-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-prostatic-damage-in-male-albino-rats-a-biochemical-histological-and-immuno-histo-chemical-study
#2
Sara Mohammed Naguib Abdel-Hafez, Rehab Ahmed Rifaai, Walaa Yehia Abdelzaher
Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group...
March 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340323/a-key-to-the-backdoor-into-the-castle-the-clinical-ramifications-of-immunoediting-driven-by-antigenic-competition
#3
M G Hanna, Jason David Howard
Over the last decade the field of cancer biology has gained considerable data on genomic heterogeneity. This situation creates challenges and possibly opportunities for cancer treatment. The evolution of the tumor at all stages also requires the growing malignancy to confront and avoid the immune system. What we describe here is the interaction of two immune phenomena that work together to change the characteristics of the tumor, i.e., antigenic competition and immune editing. These two systems are mutually functional and their interaction is capable of altering the characteristics of the tumor for protection and survival in an immune competent host as well as restricting the diversity of the tumor clones...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339582/hypoxia-in-the-glioblastoma-microenvironment-shaping-the-phenotype-of-cancer-stem-like-cells
#4
Nicole Colwell, Mioara Larion, Amber J Giles, Ashlee N Seldomridge, Saman Sizdahkhani, Mark R Gilbert, Deric M Park
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Cellular heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of the disease and contributes to the difficulty in formulating effective therapies. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been identified as a subpopulation of tumor cells that are thought to be largely responsible for resistance to treatment. Intratumoral hypoxia contributes to maintenance of the GSCs by supporting the critical stem cell traits of multipotency, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity...
January 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339568/varicella-in-a-previously-immune-patient-with-leukemia
#5
Michelle Sewnarine, Sujatha Rajan, Arlene Redner, Lorry G Rubin
Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in oncology patients can result in severe disease with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Among patients on cancer chemotherapy, only nonimmune persons are considered to be susceptible to varicella [1]. We present a case of varicella in a child with leukemia that occurred despite immunity as defined by 2 doses of varicella vaccine and documentation of positive VZV immunoglobulin G titer before initiation of chemotherapy.
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339013/immunological-effects-of-occupational-exposure-to-lead-review
#6
Concettina Fenga, Silvia Gangemi, Valentina Di Salvatore, Luca Falzone, Massimo Libra
It is well-known that occupational and environmental exposure to several factors, including benzene, heavy metals, chemicals and mineral fibers, is associated with the risk of developing a great number of diseases. Numerous studies have been carried out in order to investigate the mechanisms of toxicity of these substances, with particular regard to the possible toxic effects on the immune system. However, little is known about the influence of heavy metals, such as lead, on the immune system in human populations...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#7
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338507/ny-eso-1-protein-cancer-vaccine-with-poly-iclc-and-ok-432-rapid-and-strong-induction-of-ny-eso-1-specific-immune-responses-by-poly-iclc
#8
Tomohira Takeoka, Hirotsugu Nagase, Koji Kurose, Yoshihiro Ohue, Makoto Yamasaki, Shuji Takiguchi, Eiichi Sato, Midori Isobe, Takayuki Kanazawa, Mitsunobu Matsumoto, Kota Iwahori, Atsunari Kawashima, Akiko Morimoto-Okazawa, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, Mikio Oka, Linda Pan, Ralph Venhaus, Eiichi Nakayama, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki, Hisashi Wada
We conducted a clinical trial of a cancer vaccine using NY-ESO-1 protein with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) and/or OK-432 against solid tumors. A total of 15 patients were sequentially enrolled in 4 cohorts. Patients in cohort 1 received NY-ESO-1 protein; cohort 2a received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432; cohort 2b received NY-ESO-1 protein+poly-ICLC; cohort 3 received NY-ESO-1 protein+OK-432+poly-ICLC with Montanide ISA-51. The endpoints of this trial were safety, NY-ESO-1 immune responses, and clinical response...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338506/a-preliminary-report-radical-surgery-and-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Brigitta Omazic, Burcu Ayoglu, Matthias Löhr, Ralf Segersvärd, Caroline Verbeke, Isabelle Magalhaes, Zuzana Potacova, Jonas Mattsson, Alexei Terman, Sam Ghazi, Nils Albiin, Nikolaos Kartalis, Peter Nilsson, Thomas Poiret, Liu Zhenjiang, Rainer Heuchel, Jochen M Schwenk, Johan Permert, Markus J Maeurer, Olle Ringden
We examined the immunologic effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a deadly disease with a median survival of 24 months for resected tumors and a 5-year survival rate of 6%. After adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent HSCT with HLA-identical sibling donors. Comparable patients who underwent radical surgery, but did not have a donor, served as controls (n=6). Both patients developed humoral and cellular (ie, HLA-A*01:01-restricted) immune responses directed against 2 novel tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), INO80E and UCLH3 after HSCT...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338065/prospects-for-combining-targeted-and-conventional-cancer-therapy-with-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Philip Gotwals, Scott Cameron, Daniela Cipolletta, Viviana Cremasco, Adam Crystal, Becker Hewes, Britta Mueller, Sonia Quaratino, Catherine Sabatos-Peyton, Lilli Petruzzelli, Jeffrey A Engelman, Glenn Dranoff
Over the past 25 years, research in cancer therapeutics has largely focused on two distinct lines of enquiry. In one approach, efforts to understand the underlying cell-autonomous, genetic drivers of tumorigenesis have led to the development of clinically important targeted agents that result in profound, but often not durable, tumour responses in genetically defined patient populations. In the second parallel approach, exploration of the mechanisms of protective tumour immunity has provided several therapeutic strategies - most notably the 'immune checkpoint' antibodies that reverse the negative regulators of T cell function - that accomplish durable clinical responses in subsets of patients with various tumour types...
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337964/targeting-cd47-enhances-the-efficacy-of-anti-pd-1-and-ctla-4-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-cancer-preclinical-model
#11
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Feijiang Wang, Hongliang Yu, Yesong Guo
Esophageal squamous cell cancer is a highly aggressive cancer with dismal five-year survival rate. CD47 is a cell transmembrane protein that is involved in cell apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and antigen presenting of the immune system. Via interacting with signal regulatory protein-alpha expressed in antigen presenting cells (APCs), CD47 acts as an antiphagocytic mechanism to inhibit APCs dependent antigen presenting. Overxpression of CD47 was found in various cancer types. However, its role in esophageal squamous cell cancer is not clear yet...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337430/improving-access-to-use-of-and-outcomes-from-public-health-programs-the-importance-of-building-and-maintaining-trust-with-patients-clients
#12
REVIEW
Paul Russell Ward
The central argument in this paper is that "public trust" is critical for developing and maintaining the health and wellbeing of individuals, communities, and societies. I argue that public health practitioners and policy makers need to take "public trust" seriously if they intend to improve both the public's health and the engagement between members of the public and public health systems. Public health practitioners implement a range of services and interventions aimed at improving health but implicit a requirement for individuals to trust the practitioners and the services/interventions, before they engage with them...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337291/cholecystokinin-attenuates-radiation-induced-lung-cancer-cell-apoptosis-by-modulating-p53-gene-transcription
#13
Yi Han, Chongyu Su, Daping Yu, Shijie Zhou, Xiaoyun Song, Shuku Liu, Ming Qin, Yunsong Li, Ning Xiao, Xiaoqing Cao, Kang Shi, Xu Cheng, Zhidong Liu
The deregulation of p53 in cancer cells is one of the important factors by which cancer cells escape from the immune surveillance. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has strong bioactivity in the regulation of a number of cell activities. This study tests a hypothesis that CCK interferes with p53 expression to affect the apoptotic process in lung cancer (tumor) cells. In this study, tumor-bearing mice and A549 cells (a tumor cell line) were irradiated. The expression of CCK and p53 in tumor cells was assessed with RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337274/decitabine-treatment-sensitizes-tumor-cells-to-t-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#14
Zheng Zhang, Qi He, Ying Tao, Juan Guo, Feng Xu, Ling-Yun Wu, You-Shan Zhao, Dong Wu, Li-Yu Zhou, Ji-Ying Su, Lu-Xi Song, Chao Xiao, Xiao Li, Chun-Kang Chang
Decitabine treatment improves immunological recognition that increases expression of cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) against solid tumors. The mechanisms of decitabine enhancement of immunogenicity when used for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remain unclear. In the present study, we found relatively low baseline expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and SP17 in MDS-derived cell lines. Decitabine treatment significantly improved MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3, and SP17 expression in these cell lines and in MDS patients...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337225/bufei-huoxue-capsule-attenuates-pm2-5-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#15
Yue Jing, Hongchun Zhang, Zhe Cai, Yukun Zhao, Ye Wu, Xuan Zheng, Ying Liu, Yuying Qin, Mingjie Gu, Jin Jin
Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale). Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337224/gut-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Valeria Messina, Carla Buccione, Giulia Marotta, Giovanna Ziccheddu, Michele Signore, Gianfranco Mattia, Rossella Puglisi, Benedetto Sacchetti, Livia Biancone, Mauro Valtieri
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337221/cancer-stem-cells-and-their-microenvironment-biology-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Eunice Yuen-Ting Lau, Nicole Pui-Yu Ho, Terence Kin-Wah Lee
Tumor consists of heterogeneous cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can terminally differentiate into tumor bulk. Normal stem cells in normal organs regulate self-renewal within a stem cell niche. Likewise, accumulating evidence has also suggested that CSCs are maintained extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment, which includes both cellular and physical factors. Here, we review the significance of stromal cells, immune cells, extracellular matrix, tumor stiffness, and hypoxia in regulation of CSC plasticity and therapeutic resistance...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337200/metabolic-hallmarks-of-tumor-and-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
REVIEW
Kathrin Renner, Katrin Singer, Gudrun E Koehl, Edward K Geissler, Katrin Peter, Peter J Siska, Marina Kreutz
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells play an important role in eliminating malignant tumor cells and the number and activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells represent a good marker for tumor prognosis. Based on these findings, immunotherapy, e.g., checkpoint blockade, has received considerable attention during the last couple of years. However, for the majority of patients, immune control of their tumors is gray theory as malignant cells use effective mechanisms to outsmart the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in tumor metabolism not only ensure an effective energy supply and generation of building blocks for tumor growth but also contribute to inhibition of the antitumor response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337199/nutrient-and-metabolic-sensing-in-t-cell-responses
#19
REVIEW
Jun Wei, Jana Raynor, Thanh-Long M Nguyen, Hongbo Chi
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337197/hypofractionated-irradiation-has-immune-stimulatory-potential-and-induces-a-timely-restricted-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-colon-cancer-tumors
#20
Benjamin Frey, Michael Rückert, Julia Weber, Xaver Mayr, Anja Derer, Michael Lotter, Christoph Bert, Franz Rödel, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
In addition to locally controlling the tumor, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) particularly aims to activate immune cells in the RT-modified microenvironment. Therefore, we examined whether hypofractionated RT can activate dendritic cells (DCs), induce immune cell infiltration in tumors, and how the chronology of immune cell migration into tumors occurs to gain knowledge for future definition of radiation breaks and inclusion of immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer treatments offer only limited survival benefit, and immunobiological principles for additional therapies need to be explored with preclinical models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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