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Immune cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110321/recent-advances-in-arsenic-trioxide-encapsulated-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-agents-to-solid-cancers
#1
Akhtar Anam, Wang Scarlet Xiaoyan, Ghali Lucy, Bell Celia, Wen Xuesong
Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110170/tailoring-polymeric-hybrid-micelles-with-lymph-node-targeting-ability-to-improve-the-potency-of-cancer-vaccines
#2
Qin Zeng, Hanmei Li, Hao Jiang, Jiao Yu, Ying Wang, Huan Ke, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
It has been widely accepted that lymph nodes (LNs) are critical targets of cancer vaccines and particles sized between 10 and 100 nm with a neutral or negative surface charge are preferred for lymphatic transfer after subcutaneous or intradermal injection. However their limited uptake by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and inadequate retention within LNs undoubtedly restrains their strength on activating T cell immunity. Here, we address this issue by tailoring the physicochemical properties of polymeric hybrid micelles (HMs), which are self-assembled from two amphiphilic diblock copolymers, poly-(ethylene glycol) phosphorethanolamine (PEG-PE) and polyethylenimine-stearic acid conjugate (PSA) via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110064/activation-of-dendritic-cells-by-low-molecular-weight-oyster-polysaccharides
#3
Ming Zhong, Cheng Zhong, Tingting Wang, Pei Hu, Guanghui Wang, Rujing Ren, Jing Zhang, Huijei Gao, Wen Cui, Wenjuan Duan, Jiantu Che
Dendritic cells play a primary role in antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells, which initiate acquired immune responses. Therefore, determining positive modulators of dendritic cell activation to improve therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment might be useful. We here investigated the effects of low molecular weight oyster polysaccharides (LMW-OPS) on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) obtained from mice. LMW-OPS increased the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), CD40 and CD86 in BMDCs and induced the secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12, which were significantly decreased in the BMDCs derived from MyD88(-/-) mice but not from the lipopolysaccharide-resistant C3H/HeJ mice...
January 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109906/succinate-in-the-cancer-immune-cycle
#4
Shuai Jiang, Wei Yan
Succinate is an important intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In mitochondria, it plays a crucial role in generating adenosine triphosphate. Succinate metabolism is also intertwined with the metabolism of other metabolites and with the "GABA shunt" of the glutamine pathway. Recently, it has become increasingly apparent that the roles of succinate extend into the realms of immunity and cancer. Succinate is a key modulator of the hypoxic response, an important player in tumorigenesis; succinate is also involved in protein succinylation, a novel posttranslational modification pathway...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109751/cord-blood-natural-killer-cells-expressing-a-dominant-negative-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-implications-for-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#5
Eric S Yvon, Rachel Burga, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Rohan Fernandes, Cecilia Barese, Tuongvan Nguyen, Mohamed S Abdel-Baki, Catherine M Bollard
Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) cells are promising effector cells for tumor immunotherapy but are currently limited by immune-suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β). We observed that TGF-β inhibits expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D and DNAM1 and decreases killing activity against glioblastoma tumor cells through inhibition of perforin secretion. To overcome the detrimental effects of TGF-β, we engrafted a dominant negative TGF-β receptor II (DNRII) on CB-derived NK cells by retroviral transduction and evaluated their ability to kill glioblastoma cells in the presence of TGF-β...
January 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109638/myasthenia-triggered-by-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-new-case-and-literature-review
#6
Natalia L Gonzalez, Araya Puwanant, Angela Lu, Stanley M Marks, Saša A Živković
Immune checkpoint molecules are potent regulators of immunologic homeostasis that prevent the development of autoimmunity while maintaining self-tolerance. Inhibitors of immune checkpoint molecules are used as immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma and different types of refractory cancer, and can trigger various autoimmune complications including myositis and myasthenia gravis. We describe a case of generalized myasthenia gravis induced by pembrolizumab and review 11 other cases. Five patients also had elevated serum CK levels ranging from 1200 to 8729 IU/L, and biopsy showed myositis in one...
January 6, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109400/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-controversies-and-future-clinical-implications
#7
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Grazia Pusole, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Roberta Mascia, Gilberto Morgan, Riccardo Giampieri, Mario Scartozzi
Chronic inflammation following infections, autoimmune diseases or exposure to environmental irritants plays a crucial role in tumor development and influences the host immune response to neoplastic cells. The presence of an anti-tumor immune infiltrate is often associated with better outcomes in gastro-intestinal primary cancers, particularly in those with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Immunotherapeutic drugs inhibiting the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway showed promising results in the treatment of these patients in the metastatic setting...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109399/targeting-kras-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-history-of-failures-and-a-future-of-hope-for-a-diverse-entity
#8
REVIEW
Alexios Matikas, Dimitrios Mistriotis, Vasilios Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. However, the discovery of several oncogenic driver mutations and the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulted in improved clinical outcomes for most patients. Although activating KRAS mutations are the most common recurring molecular events in lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made during the past decades with no new agents being approved for this indication. The elucidation of the underlying biology of this diverse patient subgroup offers great potential and renewed hope regarding the rational development, rigorous evaluation and subsequent approval of novel targeted agents and combinations which will effectively suppress compensatory escape routes and the emergence of resistance, issues that have plagued previous attempts...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109369/successful-treatment-of-an-aggressive-tracheal-malignancy-with-immunotherapy
#9
Asishana A Osho, Christopher J Azzoli, Sara Pai, Mari Mino-Kenudson, William C Faquin, Tiffany G Huynh, Michael Lanuti, Douglas J Mathisen, Ashok Muniappan
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are emerging as therapeutic options for oncology patients in whom conventional treatment regimens have failed. These immunotherapies counteract tumor-induced tolerance and have been shown to be effective in thoracic malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report highlights the successful use of nivolumab-an immunotherapeutic agent that binds to proteins involved in T-cell proliferation-for the management of recurrent tracheal squamous cell cancer after exhaustion of conventional surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation therapy options...
February 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109293/genetic-instability-and-increased-mutational-load-which-diagnostic-tool-best-direct-patients-with-cancer-to-immunotherapy
#10
Giuseppe Palmieri, Maria Colombino, Antonio Cossu, Antonio Marchetti, Gerardo Botti, Paolo A Ascierto
The occurrence of high rates of somatic mutations in cancer is believed to correspond to increased frequency of neo-epitope formation and tumor immunogenicity. Thus, classification of patients with cancer according to degree a somatic hyper-mutational status could be proposed as a predictive biomarker of responsiveness to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the suitable and reliable tests easily adoptable in clinical practice to assess somatic mutational status in patients with advanced cancer...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109087/cd103-cell-growth-factor-flt3l-enhances-the-efficacy-of-immune-checkpoint-blockades-in-murine-glioblastoma-model
#11
Xiaolin Miao, Yiqi Chen, Ke Hao, Meiqin Zheng, Bingyu Chen, Kaiqiang Li, Ying Wang, Wei Zhang, Yu Zhang, Xiaozhou Mou, Shanshan Jiang, Zhen Wang
Glioblastoma is a lethal disease featured with a high proliferation of tumor cells, excessive angiogenesis, and heavydrug resistance. The overall survival of glioblastoma patients was dismal even with intensive standard care. Recent advantages in immune checkpoint blockades are changing the treatment of cancers. However, the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockades in glioblastoma were unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of CD103<sup>+</sup> cells in regulating the effects of immune checkpoint blockades in glioblastoma mouse models...
January 20, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108766/immunosuppressive-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-splenocytes-from-cancer-patients
#13
Kimberly R Jordan, Puja Kapoor, Eric Spongberg, Richard P Tobin, Dexiang Gao, Virginia F Borges, Martin D McCarter
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that are increased in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and limit productive immune responses against tumors. Immunosuppressive MDSCs are well characterized in murine splenic tissue and are found at higher frequencies in spleens of tumor-bearing mice. However, no studies have yet analyzed these cells in parallel human spleens. We hypothesized that MDSCs would be increased in the spleens of human cancer patients, similar to tumor-bearing mice...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108653/galectin-1-expression-is-associated-with-tumour-immunity-and-prognosis-in-gingival-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Yuri Noda, Mitsunobu Kishino, Sunao Sato, Katsutoshi Hirose, Manabu Sakai, Yasuo Fukuda, Shumei Murakami, Satoru Toyosawa
AIMS: Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein that overexpresses in cancer and plays pivotal roles in tumour progression. Gal-1 regulates angiogenesis and invasiveness, and suppresses tumour immunity by inducing T cell apoptosis. Several studies have examined the relationship between Gal-1 and tumour immunosuppression in vivo, but they have not examined the clinicopathological relationship between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cell number in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the association between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cells of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC), as well as other clinicopathological factors...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108630/macropinocytosis-of-nab-paclitaxel-drives-macrophage-activation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Jane E Cullis, Despina Siolas, Antonina Avanzi, Sugata Barui, Anirban Maitra, Dafna Bar-Sagi
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease that is largely refractory to currently available treatment strategies. Therapeutic resistance is partially attributed to the dense stromal reaction of PDAC tumors that includes a pervasive infiltration of immunosuppressive (M2) macrophages. Nab-paclitaxel (trade name Abraxane) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that, in combination with gemcitabine, is currently the first line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that macrophages internalized nab-paclitaxel via macropinocytosis...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108629/myeloid-stat3-promotes-lung-tumorigenesis-by-transforming-tumor-immunosurveillance-into-tumor-promoting-inflammation
#16
Jingjiao Zhou, Zhaoxia Qu, Fan Sun, Lei Han, Liwen Li, Shapei Yan, Laura P Stabile, Lin-Feng Chen, Jill M Siegfried, Gutian Xiao
One of the most fundamental and challenging questions in the cancer field is how immunity in cancer patients is transformed from tumor immunosurveillance to tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we identify the transcription factor STAT3 as the culprit responsible for this pathogenic event in lung cancer development. We found that antitumor type 1 CD4(+) T helper (Th1) cells and CD8(+) T cells were directly counter-balanced in lung cancer development with tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and suppressive macrophages, and that activation of STAT3 in MDSCs and macrophages promoted tumorigenesis through pulmonary recruitment and increased resistance of suppressive cells to CD8(+) T cells, enhancement of cytotoxicity towards CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, induction of regulatory T cell (Treg), inhibition of dendritic cells (DCs), and polarization of macrophages toward the M2 phenotype...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108624/inflammatory-molecule-psgl-1-deficiency-activates-macrophages-to-promote-colorectal-cancer-growth-through-nf-kappab-signaling
#17
Jiangchao Li, Zeqi Zhou, Xiaohan Zhang, Li Zheng, Dan He, Yuxiang Ye, Qian-Qian Zhang, Cui-Ling Qi, Xiao-Dong He, Chen Yu, Chun-Kui Shao, Liang Qiao, Lijing Wang
: P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (SELPLG/PSGL-1) is an inflammatory molecule that is functionally related to immune cell differentiation and leukocyte mobilization. However, the role of PSGL-1 in tumor development remains unknown. Therefore, this study investigates the mechanistic role of PSGL-1 in the development of intestinal tumors in colorectal cancer (CRC). ApcMin/+ mice, are highly susceptible to spontaneous intestinal adenoma formation, and were crossbred with PSGL1-null mice to generate compound transgenic mice with a ApcMin/+;PSGL-1-/- genotype...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108544/the-interplay-between-neutrophils-and-cd8-t-cells-improves-survival-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#18
Valeria Governa, Emanuele Trella, Valentina Mele, Luigi Tornillo, Francesca Amicarella, Eleonora Cremonesi, Maunele Giuseppe Muraro, Hui Xu, Raoul Droeser, Silvio Raffael Däster, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Daniel Oertli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Luigi Terracciano, Giandomenica Iezzi, Giulio C Spagnoli
PURPOSE: Tumor infiltration by different T lymphocyte subsets is known to be associated with favorable prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Still debated is the role of innate immune system. We investigated clinical relevance, phenotypes and functional features of CRC infiltrating CD66b+ neutrophils and their crosstalk with CD8+ T cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CD66b+ and CD8+ cell infiltration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray including >650 evaluable CRC samples...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108381/metabolomic-study-of-the-intervention-effects-of-shuihonghuazi-formula-a-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formulae-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-rats-using-performance-hplc-esi-tof-ms
#19
Yongrui Bao, Shuai Wang, Xinxin Yang, Li Tianjiao, Mingyue Xia, Xiansheng Meng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolomics is the comprehensive assessment of endogenous metabolites of a biological system in a holistic context, and its property consists with the global view of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Shuihonghuazi Formula (SHHZF) has been used for liver cancer early treatment in clinical for more than thirty years, but its mechanism remains unclear completely. This paper was designed to explore the therapeutic effects of SHHZF on liver cancer and its metabolomic characters...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
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