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Amphetamine calcium

Mahsa Jafari Giv
With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to explore and analyze the current evidence on the association between ATS exposure and development of cardiomyopathy, biological mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of ATSAC, risk factors, clinical features and course of patients with ATSAC...
September 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yunsung Nam, Ji Hoon Jeong, Young Hun Lee, Kyung Tae Park, Yong Sup Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a para-ring-substituted amphetamine derivative sold worldwide as an illegal psychotropic drug. Although PMMA use has been reported to lead to severe intoxication and even death, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which PMMA exerts its neurotoxic effects. Here we found that PMMA treatment resulted in phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and subsequent mitochondrial translocation of cleaved PKCδ. PMMA-induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in mitochondria than in the cytosol...
September 10, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Witold Żakowski
This paper reviews the distribution of several bioactive substances and their possible physiological roles in the anterior thalamic nuclei of various species, with a special emphasis on the rat. The anterior thalamus is a part of extended hippocampal system and its significance for learning and memory processes is well known. Although our knowledge about a specific role of this brain structure has increased in recent years considerably, this is the first attempt to summarize neurochemical diversity of the anterior thalamus...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Mei-Fang Chen, Su-Yu Lai, Po-Cheng Kung, Yo-Cheng Lin, Hui-I Yang, Po-Yi Chen, Ingrid Y Liu, Ahai Chang Lua, Tony Jer-Fu Lee
The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O2 demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging...
August 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
L Hondebrink, A H A Verboven, W S Drega, S Schmeink, M W G D M de Groot, R G D M van Kleef, F M J Wijnolts, A de Groot, J Meulenbelt, R H S Westerink
Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Barbara Wasilewska, Janusz Najdzion, Maciej Równiak, Krystyna Bogus-Nowakowska, Beata Hermanowicz, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Witold Żakowski, Anna Robak
In this study we present the distribution and colocalization pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins: calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the subicular complex (SC) of the guinea pig. The subiculum (S) and presubiculum (PrS) showed higher CART-immunoreactivity (-IR) than the parasubiculum (PaS) as far as the perikarya and neuropil were concerned. CART- IR cells were mainly observed in the pyramidal layer and occasionally in the molecular layer of the S...
March 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Luca Raiteri, Maurizio Raiteri
Removal from receptors of neurotransmitters just released into synapses is one of the major steps in neurotransmission. Transporters situated on the plasma membrane of nerve endings and glial cells perform the process of neurotransmitter (re)uptake. Because the density of transporters in the membranes can fluctuate, transporters can determine the transmitter concentrations at receptors, thus modulating indirectly the excitability of neighboring neurons. Evidence is accumulating that neurotransmitter transporters can exhibit multiple functions...
November 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
Krasnodara N Cameron, Ernesto Solis, Iwona Ruchala, Louis J De Felice, Jose M Eltit
Amphetamine (AMPH) and its more potent enantiomer S(+)AMPH are psychostimulants used therapeutically to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and have significant abuse liability. AMPH is a dopamine transporter (DAT) substrate that inhibits dopamine (DA) uptake and is implicated in DA release. Furthermore, AMPH activates ionic currents through DAT that modify cell excitability presumably by modulating voltage-gated channel activity. Indeed, several studies suggest that monoamine transporter-induced depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV), which would constitute an additional AMPH mechanism of action...
November 2015: Cell Calcium
Meghan McGee-Lawrence, Patricia Buckendahl, Caren Carpenter, Kim Henriksen, Michael Vaughan, Seth Donahue
Decreased physical activity in mammals increases bone turnover and uncouples bone formation from bone resorption, leading to hypercalcemia, hypercalcuria, bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears, however, are physically inactive for up to 6 months annually during hibernation without losing cortical or trabecular bone mass. Bears have been shown to preserve trabecular bone volume and architectural parameters and cortical bone strength, porosity and geometrical properties during hibernation. The mechanisms that prevent disuse osteoporosis in bears are unclear as previous studies using histological and serum markers of bone remodeling show conflicting results...
July 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Haley L Yarosh, Shashwath A Meda, Harriet de Wit, Amy B Hart, Godfrey D Pearlson
RATIONALE: Researchers studying behavioral and physiologic effects of d-amphetamine have explored individual response differences to the drug. Concurrently, genome-wide analyses have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with these traits. Univariate methods can identify SNPs associated with behavioral and physiological traits, but multivariate analyses allow identification of clusters of related biologically relevant SNPs and behavioral components. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify clusters of related biologically relevant SNPs and behavioral components in the responses of healthy individuals to d-amphetamine using multivariate analysis...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
John R Richards, Timothy E Albertson, Robert W Derlet, Richard A Lange, Kent R Olson, B Zane Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Overdose of amphetamine, related derivatives, and analogues (ARDA) continues to be a serious worldwide health problem. Patients frequently present to the hospital and require treatment for agitation, psychosis, and hyperadrenegic symptoms leading to pathologic sequelae and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacologic treatment of agitation, psychosis, and the hyperadrenergic state resulting from ARDA toxicity. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2014...
May 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Yusaku Iwasaki, Yuko Maejima, Shigetomo Suyama, Masashi Yoshida, Takeshi Arai, Kenichi Katsurada, Parmila Kumari, Hajime Nakabayashi, Masafumi Kakei, Toshihiko Yada
Oxytocin (Oxt), a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, is implicated in regulation of feeding. Recent studies have shown that peripheral administration of Oxt suppresses feeding and, when infused subchronically, ameliorates hyperphagic obesity. However, the route through which peripheral Oxt informs the brain is obscure. This study aimed to explore whether vagal afferents mediate the sensing and anorexigenic effect of peripherally injected Oxt in mice. Intraperitoneal Oxt injection suppressed food intake and increased c-Fos expression in nucleus tractus solitarius to which vagal afferents project...
March 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kathryn Hausknecht, Samir Haj-Dahmane, Ying-Ling Shen, Paul Vezina, Cynthia Dlugos, Roh-Yu Shen
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PE) is one of the developmental factors leading to increased addiction propensity (risk). However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We examined whether increased excitatory synaptic transmission in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons, which is associated with drug addiction, was impacted by PE. Pregnant rats were exposed to ethanol (0 or 6 g/kg/day) via intragastric intubation from gestational day 8-20. Amphetamine self-administration, whole-cell recordings, and electron microscopy were performed in male offspring between 2 and 12-week-old...
March 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bing-Hsuan Lei, Jyh-Horng Chen, Hsiang-Shu Yin
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been extensively used in studying the structural and functional features of the central nervous system (CNS). Divalent manganese ion (Mn(2+)) not only enhances MRI contrast, but also enters cells via voltage-gated calcium channels or ionotropic glutamate receptors, which represents an index of neural activities. In the current mouse model, following the repeated amphetamine (Amph) treatment, a reduction of reactivity to thermal pain stimulus was noticed...
November 7, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
Stefan M Berger, Dusan Bartsch
The use of specific activators and inhibitors that penetrate the central nervous system has suggested an essential functional role of L-type calcium channels (LTCC) in several important physiological processes of the brain, including the modulation of the mesoaccumbal dopamine signalling pathway, synaptic transmission of auditory stimuli and synaptic plasticity of neutral and aversive learning and memory processes. However, the lack of selectivity of available pharmacological agents towards the most prominent LTCC isoforms in the brain, namely Cav1...
August 2014: Cell and Tissue Research
Sónia Abad, Fèlix Junyent, Carme Auladell, David Pubill, Mercè Pallàs, Jorge Camarasa, Elena Escubedo, Antonio Camins
Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg)...
October 3, 2014: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Elias H Blanco, Juan R Peinado, Martín G Martín, Iris Lindberg
Satiety and appetite signaling are accomplished by circulating peptide hormones. These peptide hormones require processing from larger precursors to become bioactive, often by the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Several subcellular maturation steps are necessary for PC1/3 to achieve its optimal enzymatic activity. Certain PC1/3 variants found in the general population slightly attenuate its enzymatic activity and are associated with obesity and diabetes. However, mutations that increase PC1/3 activity and/or affect its specificity could also have physiological consequences...
September 2014: Endocrinology
Grażyna Biała, Piotr Polak, Agnieszka Michalak, Marta Kruk-Słomka, Barbara Budzyńska
BACKGROUND: Nonsomatic signs of psychostimulant withdrawal, difficult to demonstrate in animal paradigms, may appear to promote drug seeking and drug relapse in humans; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that mediate this kind of behaviors. The present study was undertaken to examine the calcium-dependent mechanism of negative nonsomatic and anhedonia-related symptoms of acute and protracted withdrawal of nicotine and D-amphetamine. METHODS: Mice were chronically treated with nicotine (seven days, three times daily, 3...
April 2014: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Angela M Boley, Stephanie M Perez, Daniel J Lodge
Postmortem studies in schizophrenia patients have demonstrated robust alterations in GABAergic markers throughout the neuraxis. It has been suggested that these alterations are restricted to subpopulations of interneurons, such as those containing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin. Indeed, a reduction in parvalbumin expression is a consistent observation in human postmortem studies, as well as, in a wide and diverse variety of animal models. However, it still remains to be determined whether this decrease in parvalbumin expression contributes to, or is a consequence of the disease...
August 2014: Schizophrenia Research
Thomas Steinkellner, Liudmilla Mus, Birgit Eisenrauch, Andreea Constantinescu, Damiana Leo, Lisa Konrad, Mattias Rickhag, Gunnar Sørensen, Evgenia V Efimova, Eryan Kong, Matthäus Willeit, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Oliver Kudlacek, Ulrik Gether, Michael Freissmuth, Daniela D Pollak, Raul R Gainetdinov, Harald H Sitte
Addiction to psychostimulants (ie, amphetamines and cocaine) imposes a major socioeconomic burden. Prevention and treatment represent unmet medical needs, which may be addressed, if the mechanisms underlying psychostimulant action are understood. Cocaine acts as a blocker at the transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET), but amphetamines are substrates that do not only block the uptake of monoamines but also induce substrate efflux by promoting reverse transport. Reverse transport has been a focus of research for decades but its mechanistic basis still remains enigmatic...
October 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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