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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927261/hdac11-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-through-repression-of-myod-dependent-transcription
#2
Sang Kyung Byun, Tae Hyeon An, Min Jeong Son, Da Som Lee, Hyun Sup Kang, Eun-Woo Lee, Baek Soo Han, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Kyoung-Jin Oh, Sang Chul Lee
Abnormal differentiation of muscle is closely associated with aging (sarcopenia) and diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate muscle differentiation will be useful in the treatment and prevention of these conditions. Protein lysine acetylation and methylation are major post-translational modification mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between myogenic differentiation and protein lysine acetylation/methylation, we performed a PCR array of enzymes related to protein lysine acetylation/ methylation during C2C12 myoblast differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927258/a-proteomics-based-approach-reveals-differential-regulation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-proteins-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-patients
#3
Assim A Alfadda, Afshan Masood, Mohammed Y Al-Naami, Pierre Chaurand, Hicham Benabdelkamel
Obesity and the metabolic disorders that constitute metabolic syndrome are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nonetheless, the changes in the proteins and the underlying molecular pathways involved in the relevant pathogenesis are poorly understood.In this study a proteomic analysis of the visceral adipose tissue isolated from metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese patients was used to identify presence of altered pathway(s) leading to metabolic dysfunction. Samples were obtained from 18 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and were subdivided into two groups based on the presence or absence of comorbidities as defined by the International Diabetes Federation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927255/innate-immune-response-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-mycoplasma-bovis
#4
Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Hidetomo Iwano, Koji Nishi, Takanori Nebu, Keiichi Nakajima, Hajime Nagahata
Mycoplasma species are contagious bacteria and Mycoplasma bovis mastitis is a serious productivity problem on dairy farms. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) play an important role in the elimination of pathogens, but the effect of M. bovis on bMEC has not been fully clarified. To better understand the immune response against intramammary infection by M. bovis, we used microarray analysis to examine and profile mRNA expression in bMEC after stimulation with M. bovis. We also compared the effects of M. bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on immune-related mRNA expression in bMEC...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927251/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#5
Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Gut microbiota is known to play a main role in regulating both health and disease in humans. Strategies for the therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota are therefore expected to give a relevant contribution in the management of disorders associated with its impairment. Among these options, one of the most renowned is fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). A growing body of evidence showed clearly that FMT is an effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, it was shown to be a promising therapy for the management of several noncommunicable disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases and metabolic disorders...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927250/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver
#6
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe G Caprio, Vittorio M Ormando, Carmela Loguercio
Nowadays liver diseases represent one of major healthy problems in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The high prevalence of liver pathologies represents the key point to understand the necessity to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms that support these disorders in order to nurse them. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Gut microbiota is considered both as a promoting factor and as a potential therapeutic target of a large number of liver pathologies due to the connection between intestine and liver: the gut-liver axis...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927249/gut-microbiota-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#7
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Rosa DI Sarno, Valentina Giorgio, Luca Miele
Obesity, diabetes and metabolic disorders represent hugely significant problems concerning the health in Western countries and the study of gut microbiota in metabolic pathologies is part of this framework. Diet effects on intestinal microbial composition and its role in pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for both obesity and systemic, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation, represent at the moment one of this mostpromising topic in gastroenterology research. Gut health safety is essential, but it needs to be further explored in order to understand and interrupt the pathogenetic mechanisms, which support a large number of diseases...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927245/calcium-homeostasis-in-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Changhwan Ahn, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927239/tubulins-rhythms-and-cell-walls-in-poplar-leaves-it-s-all-in-the-timing
#9
Scott A Harding, Hao Hu, Batbayar Nyamdari, Liang-Jiao Xue, Radnaa Naran, Chung-Jui Tsai
Plant cell walls exhibit architectural and compositional changes throughout their development and in response to external cues. While tubulins are involved in cell wall biogenesis, much remains unknown about the scope of their involvement during the orchestration of this resource-demanding process. A transgenic approach coupled with cell wall compositional analysis, RNA-seq and mining of publicly available diurnal gene expression data was used to assess the involvement of tubulins in poplar leaf cell wall biogenesis...
September 12, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927238/factor-v-leiden-is-associated-with-increased-sperm-count
#10
T E van Mens, U N Joensen, Z Bochdanovits, A Takizawa, J Peter, N Jørgensen, P B Szecsi, J C M Meijers, H Weiler, E Rajpert-De Meyts, S Repping, S Middeldorp
STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927237/augmented-association-between-blood-pressure-and-proteinuria-in-hyperuricemic-patients-with-non-nephrotic-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
K Kohagura, M Kochi, T Miyagi, R Zamami, K Nagahama, K Yonemoto, Y Ohya
Background: Hyperuricemia (HU) may enhance susceptibility to hypertensive renal damage via disrupted autoregulation of glomerular hemodynamics. The effect of HU on the association between blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria remains unknown in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: In total, 109 patients with non-nephrotic CKD (55 men and 54 females) who underwent renal biopsy were recruited. Arteriolar hyalinosis was semiquantitatively assessed via arteriole grading...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927235/the-effect-of-complex-interventions-on-supporting-self-care-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Kwan Ching Wong, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, W F Yeung, Katherine Chang
Background: self-care is critical to enable community-dwelling older adults to live independently. Complex interventions have emerged as a strategy to support self-care, but their effectiveness is unknown. Our objective was to review systematically their effectiveness on both positive (increased scores in self-rated health, Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, quality of life) and negative aspects (increased incidence of falls, fear of falling, hospital and nursing home admission, increased depression score), and to determine which intervention components explain the observed effects...
September 13, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927234/metabolic-profiling-of-central-nervous-system-disease-in-trypanosoma-brucei-rhodesiense-infection
#13
Sabrina D Lamour, Vincent P Alibu, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy M Sternberg
Background: The progression of Human African Trypanosomiasis from the early hemolymphatic stage to the late meningoencephalitic stage is of critical diagnostic importance as it determines the choice of potentially toxic drug regimens. Current diagnostic criteria involving analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for parasites and/or pleiocytosis are sensitive, but recent evidence suggests that specificity may be poor. Methods: We used an untargeted global metabolic profiling approach for the discovery of novel candidate stage diagnostic markers in CSF from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927233/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-mediated-fgfr-erk-signaling-supports-maintenance-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Osamu Maehara, Goki Suda, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Yoshito Komatsu, Fumiyuki Sato, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Kenichi Morikawa, Koji Ogawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Ayaka Asano, Yoshiyuki Fujimoto, Shinya Ohashi, Shingo Kagawa, Hideaki Kinugasa, Seiji Naganuma, Kelly A Whelan, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Koji Nakagawa, Hiroshi Takeda, Naoya Sakamoto
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), a subset of cells defined by high expression of CD44 and low expression of CD24 has been reported to possess characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Novel therapies directly targeting CSCs have the potential to improve prognosis of ESCC patients. Although fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression correlates with recurrence and poor survival in ESCC patients, the role of FGF-2 in regulation of ESCC CSCs has yet to be elucidated. We report that FGF-2 is significantly upregulated in CSCs and significantly increases CSC content in ESCC cell lines by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 13, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927229/creation-and-evaluation-of-a-laboratory-administration-curriculum-for-pathology-residents
#15
Jeannette Guarner, Charles E Hill, Timothy Amukele
Objectives: A clinical laboratory management (CLM) curriculum that can objectively assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pathology systems-based practice milestones and can provide consistent resident training across institutions is needed. Methods: Faculty at Emory University created a curriculum that consists of assay verification exercises and interactive, case-based online modules. Beta testing was done at Emory University and Johns Hopkins...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927227/enteric-microbiome-profiles-during-a-randomized-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-surotomycin-versus-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Kristine Cannon, Brendan Byrne, Jennifer Happe, Kaiyu Wu, Linda Ward, Laurent Chesnel, Thomas Louie
Objectives: The effects of surotomycin (CB-183,315, MK-4261), a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide, and vancomycin, the current standard-of-care for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), on intestinal pathogens and microbiota were evaluated parallel to a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Methods: The single-centre cohort included 26 patients receiving surotomycin [125 or 250 mg twice daily ( n  =   9 each)] or oral vancomycin [125 mg four times daily ( n  =   8)] for 10 days...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#17
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927213/ten-step-minimally-invasive-spine-lumbar-decompression-and-dural-repair-through-tubular-retractors
#18
Mohamed Abdelatif Boukebir, Connor David Berlin, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Tim Heiland, Karsten Schöller, Cameron Rawanduzy, Sertaç Kirnaz, Ajit Jada, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery utilizing tubular retractors has become an increasingly popular approach for decompression in the lumbar spine. However, a better understanding of appropriate indications, efficacious surgical techniques, limitations, and complication management is required to effectively teach the procedure and to facilitate the learning curve. OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience and recommendations regarding tubular surgery for lumbar disc herniations, foraminal compression with unilateral radiculopathy, lumbar spinal stenosis, synovial cysts, and dural repair...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927210/navigation-and-image-injection-for-control-of-bone-removal-and-osteotomy-planes-in-spine-surgery
#19
Michael Kosterhon, Angelika Gutenberg, Sven Rainer Kantelhardt, Elefterios Archavlis, Alf Giese
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: In contrast to cranial interventions, neuronavigation in spinal surgery is used in few applications, not tapping into its full technological potential. We have developed a method to preoperatively create virtual resection planes and volumes for spinal osteotomies and export 3-D operation plans to a navigation system controlling intraoperative visualization using a surgical microscope's head-up display. The method was developed using a Sawbone ® model of the lumbar spine, demonstrating feasibility with high precision...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927201/recognition-and-clinical-presentation-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-neonates-and-children
#20
Jill King, Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Adilia Warris
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are devastating opportunistic infections that result in significant morbidity and death in a broad range of pediatric patients, particularly those with a compromised immune system. Recognizing them can be difficult, because nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms or isolated fever are frequently the only presenting features. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in patients at increased risk of IFD, which requires knowledge of the pediatric patient population at risk, additional predisposing factors within this population, and the clinical signs and symptoms of IFD...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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