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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049355/aberrant-hepatic-lipid-storage-and-metabolism-in-canine-portosystemic-shunts
#1
Lindsay Van den Bossche, Vivien A C Schoonenberg, Iwan A Burgener, Louis C Penning, Ingrid M Schrall, Hedwig S Kruitwagen, Monique E van Wolferen, Guy C M Grinwis, Anne Kummeling, Jan Rothuizen, Jeroen F van Velzen, Nikolas Stathonikos, Martijn R Molenaar, Bernd J Helms, Jos F H M Brouwers, Bart Spee, Frank G van Steenbeek
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a poorly understood multifactorial pandemic disorder. One of the hallmarks of NAFLD, hepatic steatosis, is a common feature in canine congenital portosystemic shunts. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the pathogenesis of steatosis in this large animal model. Hepatic lipid accumulation, gene-expression analysis and HPLC-MS of neutral lipids and phospholipids in extrahepatic (EHPSS) and intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS) was compared to healthy control dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046620/the-dental-calculus-metabolome-in-modern-and-historic-samples
#2
Irina M Velsko, Katherine A Overmyer, Camilla Speller, Lauren Klaus, Matthew J Collins, Louise Loe, Laurent A F Frantz, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Cecil M Lewis, Juan Bautista Rodriguez Martinez, Eros Chaves, Joshua J Coon, Greger Larson, Christina Warinner
INTRODUCTION: Dental calculus is a mineralized microbial dental plaque biofilm that forms throughout life by precipitation of salivary calcium salts. Successive cycles of dental plaque growth and calcification make it an unusually well-preserved, long-term record of host-microbial interaction in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046482/blunted-rise-in-brain-glucose-levels-during-hyperglycemia-in-adults-with-obesity-and-t2dm
#3
Janice J Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Elizabeth Sanchez Rangel, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Lisa Parikh, Brian B Koo, Douglas L Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S Sherwin
In rodent models, obesity and hyperglycemia alter cerebral glucose metabolism and glucose transport into the brain, resulting in disordered cerebral function as well as inappropriate responses to homeostatic and hedonic inputs. Whether similar findings are seen in the human brain remains unclear. In this study, 25 participants (9 healthy participants; 10 obese nondiabetic participants; and 6 poorly controlled, insulin- and metformin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants) underwent 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanning in the occipital lobe to measure the change in intracerebral glucose levels during a 2-hour hyperglycemic clamp (glucose ~220 mg/dl)...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046281/free-fatty-acid-flux-measured-using-1-11-c-palmitate-positron-emission-tomography-and-u-13-c-palmitate-in-humans
#4
Qiaojan Han, Yanli Cao, Nicola W Gathaiya, Bradley J Kemp, Michael D Jensen
PET radiopharmaceuticals can non-invasively measure free fatty acid (FFA) tissue uptake. Investigators often use PET scan-derived data to calculate FFA flux. We tested whether the [1-(11)C]palmitate PET measures of palmitate flux provide results equivalent to a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate. Nine volunteers participated in study 1 to evaluate whether a rapidly (10-20 seconds) given bolus of [1-(11)C]palmitate affects calculated flux results. Thirty volunteers participated in study 2, which was identical to study 1 except that the [1-(11)C]palmitate bolus was given over 1 minute...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043713/bioorthogonal-chemical-imaging-of-metabolic-changes-during-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-cancer-cells-by-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy
#5
Luyuan Zhang, Wei Min
Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040803/synthesis-and-characterization-of-fatty-acid-grafted-chitosan-polymer-and-their-nanomicelles-for-non-viral-gene-delivery-applications
#6
Divya Sharma, Jagdish Singh
The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize fatty acid-grafted-chitosan (fatty acid-g-CS) polymer and their nanomicelles for using as carriers for gene delivery. CS was hydrophobically modified using saturated fatty acids of increasing fatty acyl chain length. Carbodiimide along with N-hydroxysuccinimide was used for coupling carboxyl group of fatty acids with amine groups of CS. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy were used to quantify fatty acyl substitution onto CS backbone...
October 17, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039331/stabilization-studies-of-sunflower-oil-with-antioxidants-extracted-from-green-and-black-cardamom
#7
Alia Naseem, Asma Rashid Tariq, Muhammad Imran, Imtiaz Begum, Summia Rehman, Farah Kanwal
Extracts from green and black cardamom have been used to evaluate their antioxidant potential for sunflower oil samples for a period of 45 days. Synthetic antioxidants BHA/ BHT were also used parallel over a period of 45 days for comparison. Antioxidant potential of natural and synthetic antioxidants were evaluated by measuring free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and iodine value (IV) values by ambient storage of sunflower oil. The results showed that green cardamom extracts were more effective compared to black cardamom extracts...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038271/evaluation-of-antifungal-efficacy-of-three-new-cyclic-lipopeptides-of-the-class-bacillomycin-from-bacillus-subtilis-rlid-12-1
#8
Ramya R, Manjari Shrivastava, Namitha N N, Ram Lal Thakur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Utpal Roy
New lipopeptide homologues (AF3, AF4 and AF5) with antifungal activities against Candida and Cryptococcus spp. were purified from the cell free supernatant of Bacillus subtilis RLID 12.1. The lipopeptides AF3, AF4 and AF5 were identified with the same peptide sequence Asn-Pro-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Thr-Ser with variations in the fatty acid branching type and chain length (anteiso-C17, iso-C17 and iso-C18 respectively). Comparing the three homologues for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against 81 Candida (64 no...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037768/potential-of-macroalgae-for-biodiesel-production-screening-and-evaluation-studies
#9
Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Amal Hamed El-Naggar, Areej Ali Baeshen
Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037698/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-free-fatty-acids-in-edible-oils-based-on-chemical-derivatization-coupled-with-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Ming Liu, Fang Wei, Xin Lv, Xu-Yan Dong, Hong Chen
In this study, a strategy based on chemical derivatization coupled with electrospray ionizationtandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for rapid and sensitive detection of FFAs in edible oils was developed. A derivative reagent (N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine, DEEA) was employed to selectively label carboxyl groups of FFAs to form an amino compound with a tertiary amino group. The DEEA derivative products could lose a characteristic neutral loss fragment of 73Da in collision-induced dissociation (CID), which enabled to discriminate and analyze the DEEA derived FFAs with neutral loss scan (NLS 73Da)under the positive ion mode of mass spectrometry...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036913/alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides-at-low-dose-improve-liver-steatosis-in-a-high-fat-diet-mouse-model
#11
Eric Chappuis, Fanny Morel-Depeisse, Bruno Bariohay, Julien Roux
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major liver disease worldwide and is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. As alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS) from legumes have been shown to reduce body weight and hyperphagia in overweight adults, it was hypothesized that they would exert benefits on the development of metabolic syndrome and associated NAFLD in a rodent model. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet until they developed metabolic syndrome and were then orally treated either with α-GOS at a physiological dose (2...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036812/altered-gut-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Ling Zhang, Ying Wang, Xia Xiayu, Changhua Shi, Wei Chen, Nan Song, Xinjing Fu, Rui Zhou, Yan-Feng Xu, Lan Huang, Hua Zhu, Yunlin Han, Chuan Qin
The topic of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent and time course of alterations in the gut microbiota, and their effects on AD pathology remain uncertain. Herein, we compared the fecal microbiomes and fecal short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) between wild-type and AD model mice at different ages under strictly controlled specific pathogen free conditions, and also conducted microscopic investigations of intestinal structures...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035283/mtorc1-stimulates-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-to-promote-triglyceride-secretion
#13
William J Quinn, Min Wan, Swapnil V Shewale, Rebecca Gelfer, Daniel J Rader, Morris J Birnbaum, Paul M Titchenell
Liver triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and secretion are closely linked to nutrient availability. After a meal, hepatic TAG formation from fatty acids is decreased, largely due to a reduction in circulating free fatty acids (FFA). Despite the postprandial decrease in FFA-driven esterification and oxidation, VLDL-TAG secretion is maintained to support peripheral lipid delivery and metabolism. The regulatory mechanisms underlying the postprandial control of VLDL-TAG secretion remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is essential for this sustained VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid homeostasis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034175/refining-low-protein-modular-feeds-for-children-on-low-protein-tube-feeds-with-organic-acidaemias
#14
A Daly, S Evans, C Ashmore, S Chahal, S Santra, A MacDonald
Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032508/development-and-characterization-of-2-dimensional-culture-for-buffalo-intestinal-cells
#15
Nidhi Chaudhary, Himanshu Agrawal, Mamta Pandey, Suneel Onteru, Dheer Singh
Small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play a major role in the absorption of nutrients and toxins. Due to the similarity of genome-wide single copy protein orthologues between cattle and human, establishment of ruminant's primary small IEC culture could be a valuable tool for toxicity studies. Therefore, the current study focused on the development and characterization of buffalo IEC culture, as cattle slaughter is banned in India. The buffalo jejunum fragments were washed consecutively several times in saline, warm phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 5 mM dithiothreitol, digesting solution and 2% sorbitol in PBS...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031719/macrophage-alternative-activation-confers-protection-against-lipotoxicity-induced-cell-death
#16
Lingling Dai, Prerna Bhargava, Kristopher J Stanya, Ryan K Alexander, Yae-Huei Liou, David Jacobi, Nelson H Knudsen, Alexander Hyde, Matthew R Gangl, Sihao Liu, Chih-Hao Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alternative activation (M2) of adipose tissue resident macrophage (ATM) inhibits obesity-induced metabolic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated lipid homeostasis caused by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) in the obese state is a trigger of inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in lipotoxicity-induced inflammation. METHODS: We used microarray experiments to profile macrophage gene expression regulated by two M2 inducers, interleukin-4 (Il-4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/gamma (Pparδ/Pparγ) agonists...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031197/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-responsible-for-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibition-induced-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-pdpamn
#17
Qiang Wang, Xia Du, Bingjie Zhou, Jing Li, Wenlong Lu, Qiuyun Chen, Jing Gao
Targeting cellular metabolism is becoming a hallmark to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer treatment. Activation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) has been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth. However, there is no concrete report underlying the mechanism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The current study is aimed at exploring the effect of the novel manganese (Mn) complex, labeled as PdpaMn, on lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in breast cancer cells...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031100/discovery-of-a-new-mechanism-for-regulation-of-plant-triacylglycerol-metabolism-the-peanut-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-gene-family-transcriptome-is-highly-enriched-in-alternative-splicing-variants
#18
Ling Zheng, Jay Shockey, Feng Guo, Lingmin Shi, Xinguo Li, Lei Shan, Shubo Wan, Zhenying Peng
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important energy storage form in oilseed crops. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the Kennedy pathway of TAG biosynthesis. To date, little is known about the regulation of DGAT activity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea), an agronomically important oilseed crop that is cultivated in many parts of the world. In this study, seven distinct forms of type 1 DGAT (AhDGAT1.1-AhDGAT1.7) were identified, cloned, and characterized. Comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and gene structures revealed many different splicing variants of AhDGAT1, some of which displayed different organ-specific expression patterns...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030493/intrinsic-aerobic-capacity-governs-the-associations-between-gut-microbiota-composition-and-fat-metabolism-age-dependently-in-rat-siblings
#19
Satu Pekkala, Sanna Lensu, Miriam Nokia, Sanja Vanhatalo, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Heikki Kainulainen
Host genetic factors affecting the gut microbiome play an important role in obesity. Yet limited attention has been paid on the host genetic factors linked to physical fitness in modifying the microbiome. This study determined whether sibling-matched pairs of rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity differ in their microbiome age-dependently and which taxa associate with differential in metabolism. Several taxa in young adult rats (hereafter young) linked to inherited aerobic capacity while in older adult (hereafter old) rats most of the differences between the lines associated with body weight...
October 13, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028587/chemical-constituents-and-medical-benefits-of-plantago-major
#20
REVIEW
Muhammad Bahrain Adom, Muhammad Taher, Muhammad Fathiy Mutalabisin, Mohamad Shahreen Amri, Muhammad Badri Abdul Kudos, Mohd Wan Azizi Wan Sulaiman, Pinaki Sengupta, Deny Susanti
The medicinal benefits of Plantago major have been acknowledged around the world for hundreds of years. This plant contains a number of effective chemical constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins which contribute to its exerting specific therapeutic effects. Correspondingly, studies have found that Plantago major is effective as a wound healer, as well as an antiulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent...
October 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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