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free fatty acid

Özgür Altun, Okan Dikker, Yücel Arman, Bilal Ugurlukisi, Orkide Kutlu, Eylem Ozgun Cil, Sengul Aydin Yoldemir, Murat Akarsu, Mustafa Ozcan, Semih Kalyon, Neslihan Ozsoy, Tufan Tükek
OBJECTIVES: Angiopoietin-like peptide 4 (ANGPTL-4) plays an important role in lipid metabolism by inhibiting the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. This effect of ANGPTL-4 results in suppression of the release of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. Increase in fatty acid levels entering to the liver and abnormalities in their secretion is one of the main mechanisms in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ANGPTL-4 in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis by determining its levels in patients with fatty liver disease...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine
T Xu, A S M Alharthi, F Batistel, A Helmbrecht, C Parys, E Trevisi, X Shen, J J Loor
The study investigated whether methionine supply during late pregnancy is associated with liver mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway phosphorylation, plasma biomarkers, and growth in heifer calves born to cows fed a control diet (CON) or the control diet plus ethylcellulose rumen-protected methionine (MET; 0.09% of dry matter intake) for the last 28 d prepartum. Calves were fed and managed similarly during the first 56 d of age. Plasma was harvested at birth and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 50 d of age and was used for biomarker profiling...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Aya Cervantes, Jaelim Cho, Victor Miranda-Soberanis, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that individuals after an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic derangements. While the link between general obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is well established, only a few studies have investigated the association between abdominal obesity and IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between abdominal obesity and several indices of IR in individuals after an episode of AP. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional study if they were previously admitted with a primary diagnosis of AP based on the recent international guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Chika Ikenoya, Shota Takemi, Arisa Kaminoda, Sayaka Aizawa, Shiomi Ojima, Zhi Gong, Rakhi Chacrabati, Daisuke Kondo, Reiko Wada, Toru Tanaka, Sachiko Tsuda, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
Ghrelin is a unique fatty acid-modified peptide hormone produced in the stomach and has important roles in energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal motility. However, the medium-chain fatty acid source for ghrelin acyl-modification is not known. We found that a fat-free diet and the removal of intestinal microbiota did not decrease acyl-ghrelin production in the stomach or plasma acyl-ghrelin levels in mice. RT-PCR analysis showed that genes involving fatty acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport were expressed in pancreas-derived ghrelinoma (PG-1) cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aditi Mukherjee, Ayan Adhikari, Priya Das, Saroj Biswas, Supratim Mukherjee, Subrata Adak
Leishmania promastigotes have the ability to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids de novo and can grow in lipid free media. Recently, we have shown that NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) enzyme in Leishmania acts as the redox partner for Δ12 fatty acid desaturase, which catalyses the conversion of oleate to linoleate. So far, the exact role of Leishmania derived linoleate synthesis is still incomplete in the literature. The viability assay by flow cytometry as well as microscopic studies suggests that linoleate is an absolute requirement for Leishmania promastigote survival in delipidated media...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yupeng Liao, Rui Hu, Zhisheng Wang, Quanhui Peng, Xianwen Dong, Xiangfei Zhang, Huawei Zou, Qijian Pu, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang
This study was to determine differences in the global metabolic profiles of serum and urine of Xuanhan yellow cattle, Simmental crossbred cattle (Simmental × Xuanhan yellow cattle) and cattle-yaks (Jersey × Maiwa yak) under heat stress (temperature-humidity index remained above 80 for 1 week). A total of 55 different metabolites associated with the three breeds were identified in the serum and urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic adaptations to heat stress are heterogeneous...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ilse C Schrieks, Anna Nozza, Barbara E Stähli, John B Buse, Robert R Henry, Klas Malmberg, Bruce Neal, Stephen J Nicholls, Lars Rydén, Linda Mellbin, Anders Svensson, Hans Wedel, Arlette Weichert, A Michael Lincoff, Jean-Claude Tardif, Diederick E Grobbee, Gregory G Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: In observational cohorts, adiponectin is inversely associated and free fatty acids (FFAs) are directly associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Adiponectin tends to be reduced and FFAs elevated in type 2 diabetes. We investigated relationships of adiponectin and FFA and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes using data from the AleCardio trial, which compared the PPAR-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo...
June 14, 2018: Diabetes Care
Ling Zhao, Yufen Huang, Lin Lu, Wei Yang, Tao Huang, Zesi Lin, Chengyuan Lin, Hiuyee Kwan, Hoi Leong Xavier Wong, Yang Chen, Silong Sun, Xuefeng Xie, Xiaodong Fang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lixin Zhu, Zhaoxiang Bian
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is closely associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder, but the mechanism(s) by which bacteria interact with and affect host GI motility remains unclear. In this study, through using metabolomic and metagenomic analyses, an animal model of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) characterized by accelerated colonic motility and gut dysbiosis was used to investigate the mechanism underlying microbiota-driven motility dysfunction. RESULTS: An excess of intracolonic saturated long-chain fatty acids (SLCFAs) was associated with enhanced bowel motility in NMS rats...
June 14, 2018: Microbiome
Qian Ping, Xiao Lu, Ming Zheng, Yongmei Li
The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2 ) addition on anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) at different temperatures (20 °C, 35 °C, and 55 °C) were investigated. The results show that CaO2 addition had significant positive effect on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production under ambient and mesophilic conditions. Polysaccharides and proteins embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were effectively released from inner fraction to outer fraction, and non-biodegradable humic-like substances were decreased while easily biodegradable tryptophan-like proteins increased...
June 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Riethorst Danny, Brouwers Joachim, Motmans Jens, Augustijns Patrick
Intestinal permeability assessment is an important aspect of drug development, which strongly depends on the solvent system used in the intestinal donor compartment. For this purpose, human intestinal fluids (HIF) can be considered as the golden standard. A recent study demonstrated a reduced apparent permeation across rat intestinal tissue from fed versus fasted state HIF for 9 out of 16 compounds tested. Commercially available fed and fasted state simulated fluids (FeSSIF and FaSSIF) reproduced this food effect for only 3 out of 16 compounds...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tao Tong, Minji Kim, Taesun Park
SCOPE: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks an effective therapy. In this study, we tested the effects of α-cedrene, a natural ligand of mouse olfactory receptor 23 (MOR23) whose ectopic function regulating myogenesis was reported recently, on skeletal muscle growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: α-Cedrene, not only stimulated hypertrophy but also attenuated free fatty acid-induced atrophy of cultured skeletal myotubes, as evidenced by an increased myotube diameter, fusion index, and total cellular protein content...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
R E Amdii, A S Al' Shukri
This literature review focuses on the use of Serenoa repens extracts in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Extracts of Serenoa repens produce marked anti-inflammatory, anti-androgenic and antiproliferative effects. Various extracts differ in their activity depending on the concentration of free fatty acids and the method of extract preparation. Extracts of Serenoa Repens from different manufacturers vary considerably in composition, effectiveness and supporting evidence...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Irina Yu Yanina, Yulia I Svenskaya, Ekaterina S Prikhozhdenko, Daniil N Bratashov, Maria V Lomova, Dmitry A Gorin, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Valery V Tuchin
Enzymatic destruction of adipose tissue has been achieved by encapsulation of lipase into the polymeric microcapsules. Adipose tissue destruction was delayed while lipase is encapsulated comparing to the direct lipase action as demonstrated by optical microscopy and optical coherence tomographyin in vitro studies. Raman spectroscopy confirms that triglycerides in fat tissue were cleaved into free fatty acids, glycerol and possible di- and monoglyceride residues. The results underpin the concept of local and controlled treatment of tissues via encapsulation...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Nurul Jadid, Rizal Kharisma Mardika, Kristanti Indah Purwani, Erlyta Vivi Permatasari, Indah Prasetyowati, Mohammad Isa Irawan
Jatropha curcas is currently known as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Beside its high free fatty acid content, J. curcas also contains typical diterpenoid-toxic compounds of Euphorbiaceae plant namely phorbol esters. This article present the transcription profile data of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phorbol esters at different developmental stages of leaves, fruit, and seed in Jatropha curcas . Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Weixiao Cheng, Carla Ng
With the phasing out of long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), production of a wide variety of alternative PFASs has increased to meet market demand. However, little is known about the bioaccumulation potential of these replacement compounds. Here, we developed a modeling workflow that combines molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation techniques to estimate the relative binding affinity of a total of 15 legacy and replacement PFASs for human and rat liver-type fatty acid binding protein (hLFABP and rLFABP)...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Philipp Aschauer, Robert Zimmermann, Rolf Breinbauer, Tea Pavkov-Keller, Monika Oberer
Monoacylglycerol lipases (MGLs) are enzymes that hydrolyze monoacylglycerol into a free fatty acid and glycerol. Fatty acids can be used for triacylglycerol synthesis, as energy source, as building blocks for energy storage, and as precursor for membrane phospholipids. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fatty acids also serve as precursor for polyketide lipids like mycolic acids, major components of the cellular envelope associated to resistance for drug. We present the crystal structure of the MGL Rv0183 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtbMGL) in open conformation...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neeraj Ramakrishanan, Travis Denna, Sridevi Devaraj, Beverley Adams-Huet, Ishwarlal Jialal
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cardio-metabolic cluster that confers an increased risk of developing both diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The mechanisms governing the increased ASCVD risk remains to be elucidated. Moreover, lipidomics poses as an exciting new tool that has potential to shed more light on the pathogenesis of MetS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the lipidome in an unbiased fashion in patients with nascent MetS uncomplicated by diabetes and CVD...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Moisés Mercado, Claudia Ramírez-Rentería
Diabetes is recognized as one of the most common acromegaly co-morbidities with a prevalence ranging 20-53%, while over one-third of these patients have an altered lipid profile. In fact, as in the non-acromegalic population, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism abnormalities are closely linked. Long term exposure to an excess of growth hormone (GH) and Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations results in insulin resistance and an increased hepatic glucose production. The lipolytic effect of GH results in the mobilization of free fatty acids that further contributes to the decreased insulin sensitivity found in these patients...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Hongxiang Li, Zhe Zhang, Xiaoyan Bao, Guangrui Xu, Ping Yao
Liver is the major organ where insulin performs its physiological function. In this study, lauric acid and oleic acid were respectively conjugated to quaternized chitosan, and the fatty acid modified chitosan derivatives were used as the carriers to deliver the loaded insulin to liver. The nanoparticles with sizes of about 280 nm were fabricated via the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between insulin and the chitosan derivative. Both of insulin loading efficiency and loading capacity of the chitosan derivatives were higher than 98%...
May 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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