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free fatty acid

Laura A Colangelo, Pamela Ouyang, Sherita Hill Golden, Moyses Szklo, Susan M Gapstur, Dhananjay Vaidya, Kiang Liu
INTRODUCTION: Considering that estradiol (E2) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have roles in neurogenesis and in neurotransmission, we examined whether the association of PUFAs with incident depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women is modified by hormone therapy (HT) use or estrogen status. METHODS: Women (N=1616) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2002) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were classified by HT usage and quartiles of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the sum EPA+DHA...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Daniel Jaeger, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Elina Oberländer, Robin Wördenweber, Julian Wichmann, Jan H Mussgnug, Thomas Huser, Olaf Kruse
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this study, both techniques were applied to the oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium neglectum, a biotechnologically promising microalga resistant to commonly applied lipid staining techniques...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
P K Prasanth Kumar, T Jeyarani, A G Gopala Krishna
Phytonutrients retained palm olein (PRPOL) was prepared and blended into butterfat at different ratios. The physicochemical characteristics and the phytonutrient composition of blends, as well as its utilization in the preparation of functional chocolate spread were evaluated. The results showed that the redness, yellowness, slip melting point, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol increased while lightness, saponification value, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased upon incorporation of increased quantities of PRPOL into butterfat...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
M G Mattera, D Hornero-Méndez, S G Atienza
The increase of lutein retention through the food chain is desirable for wheat breeding. Lutein esters are more stable than free lutein during post-harvest storage and two loci on chromosomes 7D and 7H(ch) are important for esterification. We investigated the effect of temperature during grain filling on carotenoid accumulation and lutein ester profile including fatty acid selectivity (palmitic vs. linoleic) and regioselectivity (esterification at positions 3 vs. 3'). Three different temperature regimes were assayed (controlled, semi-controlled and non-controlled)...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yu Hua Wong, Halimah Muhamad, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Kar Lin Nyam, Chin Ping Tan
The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K232 and K268), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ryo Kamata, Batmunkh Bumdelger, Hiroki Kokubo, Masayuki Fujii, Koichi Yoshimura, Takafumi Ishida, Mari Ishida, Masao Yoshizumi
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture with a high mortality rate. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to prevent AAA formation, the mechanism by which EPA works on vascular smooth muscle cells is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which orally-administered EPA prevents the formation of severe AAAs that develop in Osteoprotegerin (Opg) knockout (KO) mice. In the CaCl2-induced AAA model, EPA attenuated the enhanced progression of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, including the increase in aortic diameter with destruction of elastic fibers in the media...
2016: PloS One
Francesco Siano, Francesco Addeo, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci, Gianluca Picariello
Fatty acid composition of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) is dominated by punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (18:3, ω-5). As a free fatty acid, punicic acid is rapidly oxidized in air and extensively isomerizes upon acid-catalyzed methylation at 90 °C. In contrast, triacylglycerol-bound punicic acid in PSO was unchanged by simulated gastric conditions and was degraded for 5-7% by severe heating (up to 170 °C for 4 h), as herein assessed by gas chromatography, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Amit Ghosh, David Ando, Jennifer Gin, Weerawat Runguphan, Charles Denby, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Chris Shymansky, Jay D Keasling, Héctor García Martín
Efficient redirection of microbial metabolism into the abundant production of desired bioproducts remains non-trivial. Here, we used flux-based modeling approaches to improve yields of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined (13)C labeling data with comprehensive genome-scale models to shed light onto microbial metabolism and improve metabolic engineering efforts. We concentrated on studying the balance of acetyl-CoA, a precursor metabolite for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. A genome-wide acetyl-CoA balance study showed ATP citrate lyase from Yarrowia lipolytica as a robust source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and malate synthase as a desirable target for downregulation in terms of acetyl-CoA consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kwang Soo Shin, Sangwoo Kim, Sung Kuk Lee
BACKGROUND: Microbial production of oleochemicals has been actively studied in the last decade. Free fatty acids (FFAs) could be converted into a variety of molecules such as industrial products, consumer products, and fuels. FFAs have been produced in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing a signal sequence-deficient acyl-CoA thioesterase I ('TesA). Nonetheless, increasing the expression level of 'TesA seems not to be an appropriate approach to scale up FFA production because a certain ratio of each component including fatty acid synthase and 'TesA is required for optimal production of FFAs...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Julie Reygner, Lydia Lichtenberger, Ghada Elmhiri, Samir Dou, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Larbi Rhazi, Flore Depeint, Veronique Bach, Hafida Khorsi-Cauet, Latifa Abdennebi-Najar
Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water)...
2016: PloS One
Da Zhou, Bing-Hang Li, Jing Wang, Yong-Nian Ding, Yan Dong, Yuan-Wen Chen, Jian-Gao Fan
BACKGROUND: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is a serine endopeptidase that is widely distributed in vivo, particularly in the liver. Significant changes in functional mitochondrial proteins involved with mitochondrial oxidoreductases/transporters and nucleic acid binding proteins were observed after POP inhibition in the liver, which suggested a role of POP in regulating liver energy metabolism. Steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with disturbances in lipid and energy metabolism in hepatocytes...
2016: PloS One
Gang Chen, Dongsheng Yu, Xue Nian, Junyi Liu, Ronald J Koenig, Bin Xu, Liang Sheng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease, manifests as an over-accumulation of hepatic fat. We have recently shown that mice with genetic knockout of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) (SRAKO) are resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity with a phenotype that includes improved glucose tolerance and attenuated hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanism was investigated in the present study. We found that hepatic levels of SRA and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a major hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase, were inversely regulated by fasting in mice, and the expression of liver ATGL was induced by SRAKO under normal and high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Irina G Tikhonova
Five G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified to be activated by free fatty acids (FFA). Among them, FFA1 (GPR40) and FFA4 (GPR120) bind long-chain fatty acids, FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) bind short-chain fatty acids and GPR84 binds medium-chain fatty acids. Free fatty acid receptors have now emerged as potential targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and immune diseases. The recent progress in crystallography of GPCRs has now enabled the elucidation of the structure of FFA1 and provided reliable templates for homology modelling of other FFA receptors...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Brian D Hudson
The free fatty acid (FFA) family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) has generated significant interest for exploiting its members as potential drug targets. However, unravelling the complex pharmacology of this family of receptors has proven challenging. In recent years the use of biosensor technologies capable of assessing biological functions in living cells, and in real time, has greatly enhanced our ability to study GPCR pharmacology and function. These include genetically encoded sensors that change the intensity or wavelength of light emitted from a bioluminescent or fluorescent protein in response to a stimulus, as well as non-genetically encoded sensors able to measure more global cellular changes, such as mass redistribution within a cell...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Takafumi Hara
FFA1 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids. FFA1 plays important roles in various physiological processes such as insulin secretion and energy metabolism. FFA1 expressed on pancreatic β-cells and intestine contributes to insulin and incretin secretion, respectively. These physiological functions of FFA1 are interesting as an attractive drug target for type II diabetes and metabolic disorders. A number of synthetic FFA1 ligands have been developed and they have contributed to our current understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of FFA1 both in in vitro and in vivo studies...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Graeme Milligan, Daniele Bolognini, Eugenia Sergeev
A large number of reviews and commentaries have highlighted the potential role of the short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41 (FFA3) and, particularly, GPR43 (FFA2) as an interface between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic and inflammatory disorders. However, short-chain fatty acids have very modest potency and display limited selectivity between these two receptors, and studies on receptor knockout mice have resulted in non-uniform conclusions; therefore, selective and high-potency/high-affinity synthetic ligands are required to further explore the contribution of these receptors to health and disease...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
XianJun Yuan, AiYou Wen, Seare T Desta, ZhiHao Dong, Tao Shao
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of 4 chemical compounds with antimicrobial property on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. RESULTS: Potassium diformate and formic acid rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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