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Nonalcoholic fatty liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720429/stable-isotope-based-flux-studies-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718984/effect-of-pnpla3-i148m-polymorphism-on-histologically-proven-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#3
Hyeyoung Kim, Kwang-Woong Lee, Kyoungbun Lee, Sooin Seo, Min-Young Park, Sung Woo Ahn, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Hyo-Sin Kim, YoungRok Choi, Hae Won Lee, Nam-Joon Yi, Kyung-Suk Suh
AIM: PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism (rs738409 C>G) is the most important and the best known polymorphism for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about the effect of this polymorphism on NAFLD after liver transplantation (LT). We aimed to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and post-LT NAFLD. METHODS: We designed a prospective case-control study. Among adult recipients who underwent LT between April 2014 and October 2015, those whose whole blood were preoperatively collected for genotyping in both recipients and coupled donors and those who have undergone protocol biopsy at post-LT 1 year were enrolled...
July 18, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718703/nanoliposome-improves-inhibitory-effects-of-naringenin-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#4
Cong Chen, Xu Jie, Yangjie Ou, Yini Cao, Lu Xu, Yunxia Wang, Rong Qi
AIM: To prepare naringenin nanoliposome (NRG-Nanolipo) and investigate its inhibitory effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS & METHODS: NRG-Nanolipo was prepared by thin-film rehydration method. Its characterizations and effects on NAFLD in mice induced by methionine choline deficient diet were investigated. RESULTS: NRG-Nanolipo had high-drug loading percentage and showed a sustained release profile. The nanoliposome formulation significantly increased oral absorption of naringenin (NRG)...
July 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717372/comparison-of-platelet-number-and-function-between-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-normal-individuals
#5
Zeinab Saremi, Mahboobe Rastgoo, Mahyar Mohammadifard, Bita Bijari, Ehsan Akbari
BACKGROUND: There is interest about the role of platelet (PLT) number and function in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD patients have abnormalities of PLT number and function, especially mean platelet volume (MPV) which is known as a novel biomarker for atherosclerosis. We decided to compare PLT number and function between NAFLD and healthy participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, two groups of patients (65 cases with NAFLD and 65 cases without NAFLD) were included consecutively...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716600/the-utility-of-nafld-fibrosis-score-for-prediction-of-mortality-among-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-study
#6
Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Patompong Ungprasert
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disorder worldwide. Several noninvasive diagnostic scoring systems have been developed to determine the severity of liver fibrosis and to predict long-term outcome of patients with NAFLD in lieu of liver biopsy. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) for prediction of mortality from NAFLD. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched through October 2016 for studies that investigated the association between high NFS and mortality...
July 14, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714900/a-nutrigenomic-approach-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Paola Dongiovanni, Luca Valenti
Following the epidemics of obesity due to the consumption of high-calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of liver disease in Western countries. NAFLD is epidemiologically associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and in susceptible individuals it may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genetic factors play a key role in NAFLD predisposition by interacting with nutritional and other environmental factors. To date, there is no drug therapy for the treatment of NAFLD, and the main clinical recommendation is lifestyle modification...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714183/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-practice-guidance-from-the-american-association-for-the-study-of-liver-diseases
#8
Naga Chalasani, Zobair Younossi, Joel E Lavine, Michael Charlton, Kenneth Cusi, Mary Rinella, Stephen A Harrison, Elizabeth M Brunt, Arun J Sanyal
This guidance provides a data-supported approach to the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive aspects of NAFLD care. A "Guidance" document is different from a "Guideline." Guidelines are developed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts and rate the quality (level) of the evidence and the strength of each recommendation using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A guidance document is developed by a panel of experts in the topic, and guidance statements, not recommendations, are put forward to help clinicians understand and implement the most recent evidence...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713156/discovery-of-a-novel-calcium-sensitive-fluorescent-probe-for-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate
#9
Lin-Lin Gan, Lin-Hai Chen, Fa-Jun Nan
α-Ketoglutarate (α-KG), a pivotal metabolite in energy metabolism, has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and several cancers. It is recently proposed that plasma α-KG is a surrogate biomarker of NAFLD. Here, we report the development of a novel "turn-on" chemosensor for α-KG that contains a coumarin moiety as a fluorophore. Using benzothiazole-coumarin (BTC) as inspiration, we designed a probe for calcium ion recognition that possesses a unique fluorophore compared with previously reported probes for α-KG measurement...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712339/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Daniel Shouhed, Justin Steggerda, Miguel Burch, Mazen Noureddin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects between 25% and 33% of the population, is more common in obese individuals, and is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. However, despite rising prevalence, effective treatments remain limited. Areas covered: We performed a literature search across multiple databases (Pubmed, Medline, etc.) to identify significant original research and review articles to provide an up-to-date and concise overview of disease pathogenesis and diagnostic evaluation and to expand on available treatment options with a specific focus on the potential role of bariatric surgery...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711933/dysregulated-expression-of-proteins-associated-with-er-stress-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-tissues-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Seungwoo Lee, Soohee Kim, Seungwoo Hwang, Nathan J Cherrington, Doug-Young Ryu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is categorized into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and has emerged as a risk factor for more critical clinical conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis and autophagy were analyzed in normal, NAFL and NASH human livers by western blotting. Levels of some ER stress-transducing transcription factors, including cleaved activating transcription factor 6, were higher in NASH than in the normal tissues...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711549/a-case-of-hypocholesterolemia-and-steatosis-in-a-carrier-of-a-pcsk9-loss-of-function-mutation-and-polymorphisms-predisposing-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Mathilde Di Filippo, Benoit Vokaer, Nabil G Seidah
We report a new case of hypobetalipoproteinemia in a 44-year-old man of Peruvian origin exhibiting a heterozygous PCSK9 missense mutation (c.946 G>T, p. Gly316Cys). In vitro functional studies demonstrated that this mutation leads to a loss of function of PCSK9 on low-density lipoprotein receptor degradation. This patient exhibited liver steatosis; he was neither diabetic, nor obese or alcoholic, but is a carrier of 2 polymorphisms, p.Ile148Met (rs738409) and p.Glu167Lys (rs58542926) on PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 gene, respectively, previously shown to be associated with nonalcoholic steatosis and fibrosis evolution...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711489/time-course-microarrays-reveal-early-activation-of-the-immune-transcriptome-in-a-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-liver-injury
#13
Koji Mitsumoto, Rina Watanabe, Katsuki Nakao, Hisaki Yonenaka, Takao Hashimoto, Norihisa Kato, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Noriyuki Yanaka
AIMS: Choline-deficient diet is extensively used as a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we explored genes in the liver for which the expression changed in response to the choline-deficient (CD) diet. MAIN METHODS: Male CD-1 mice were divided into two groups and fed a CD diet with or without 0.2% choline bitartrate for one or three weeks. Hepatic levels of choline metabolites were analyzed by using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and hepatic gene expression profiles were examined by DNA microarray analysis...
July 12, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710282/function-of-inhibitor-of-brutons-tyrosine-kinase-isoform-%C3%AE-ibtk%C3%AE-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-links-autophagy-and-the-unfolded-protein-response
#14
Jeffrey A Willy, Sara K Young, Amber L Mosley, Samer Gawrieh, James L Stevens, Howard C Masuoka, Ronald C Wek
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatosis) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. One of the advanced pathologies is non Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with induction of the Unfolded protein response (UPR) and disruption of autophagic flux. However, the mechanisms by which these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases are unclear. Herein we identify the α isoform of the inhibitor of Brutons tyrosine kinase (IBTKα) as a member of the UPR whose expression is preferentially translated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707223/inhibition-of-exendin-4-induced-steatosis-by-protein-kinase-a-in-cultured-hepg2-human-hepatoma-cells
#15
Alice Y Chen-Liaw, Gabrielle Hammel, George Gomez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes, resulting in a steatotic liver. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and its analog exendin-4 can ameliorate certain aspects of this syndrome by inducing weight loss and reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation, but it is unclear whether these effects result from the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the pancreas, or from direct action on the liver. This study investigated the direct action and putative cellular mechanism of exendin-4 on steatotic hepatocytes in culture...
July 13, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706189/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reverses-diet-induced-gene-regulatory-changes-impacting-lipid-metabolism
#16
Juan Du, Jingyan Tian, Lili Ding, Candi Trac, Brian Xia, Siming Sun, Dustin E Schones, Wendong Huang
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces sustainable weight loss, remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic benefits of VSG have remained elusive. According to our previous results, diet-induced obesity induces epigenetic modifications to chromatin in mouse liver. We demonstrate here that VSG in C57BL/6J wild-type male mice can reverse these chromatin modifications and thereby impact the expression of key metabolic genes...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705785/determination-of-certain-bacterial-groups-in-gut-microbiota-and-endotoxin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Ceren Özkul, Meltem Yalınay, Tarkan Karakan, Güldal Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, the role of the gut microbiota has emerged in several diseases. Herein we aimed to determine the fecal microbiota, endotoxin levels, and inflammation markers in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 NASH patients and 38 healthy controls were included. NASH patients were diagnosed according to the steatosis, activity, and fibrosis score/fatty liver inhibition of progression algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702720/soft-drinks-consumption-is-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-independent-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-chinese-population
#18
Ge Meng, Bo Zhang, Fei Yu, Chunlei Li, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Hongbin Shi, Qian Su, Yeqing Gu, Liyun Fang, Huijun Yang, Bin Yu, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Huanli Jiao, Bangmao Wang, Qi Guo, Livia A Carvalhoa, Zhong Sun, Kun Song, Ming Yu, Kaijun Niu
PURPOSE: Excessive consumption of soft drinks is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between soft drinks consumption and NAFLD is unclear in non-Caucasian adults with relatively low soft drinks consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the association between soft drinks consumption and NAFLD in Chinese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 26,790 adults living in Tianjin, China. NAFLD (with elevated alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) was diagnosed by the liver ultrasonography and serum ALT concentrations...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701893/risk-assessment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-general-population-by-liver-stiffness-in-combination-with-controlled-attenuation-parameter-using-transient-elastography-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Takaaki Sugihara, Masahiko Koda, Tomomitsu Matono, Kinya Okamoto, Yoshikazu Murawaki, Hajime Isomoto, Shiho Tokunaga
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients without hepatitis B (HBV) and -C virus (HCV) infection are increasing in Japan. Method for detecting high-risk liver diseases of HCC in general population has still not been established. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) using transient elastography (TE; FibroScan System) are useful for detecting liver fibrosis and steatosis. The aim of this study is to clarify TE for risk assessment of HCC in general population...
June 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699662/effects-of-calycosin-against-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#20
Xingping Duan, Qiang Meng, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Jinyong Peng, Kexin Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major health concern worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calycosin against high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed with HFD to induce NAFLD model and treated with or without calycosin for 12 weeks. The levels of ALT, AST, insulin and adiponectin were measured using biochemical methods. H&E staining and Oil Red O staining were used to determine the liver histopathology changes and measure the degree of lipid accumulation respectively...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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