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nano biology

Nishone Thompson, Zainab Boone-Kukoyi, Raquel Shortt, Carisse Lansiquot, Bridgit Kioko, Enock Bonyi, Salih Toker, Birol Ozturk, Kadir Aslan
Gout is caused by the overproduction of uric acid and the inefficient metabolism of dietary purines in humans. Current treatments of gout, which include anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and systemic glucocorticoids, have harmful side-effects. Our research laboratory has recently introduced an innovative approach for the decrystallization of biological and chemical crystals using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Decrystallization (MAMAD) technique. In the MAMAD technique, microwave energy is used to heat and activate gold nanoparticles that behave as "nano-bullets" to rapidly disrupt the crystal structure of biological crystals placed on planar surfaces...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
J Panek, E Koziolova, P Stepanek, T Etrych, O Janouskova
Nanocarriers bearing anticancer drugs are promising candidates to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and minimize side effects. The most potent cytostatics used in the treatment of various cancers are anthracyclines, e.g. doxorubicin or pirarubicin. Recently, polymer therapeutics carrying anthracyclines have been intensively studied. The precise characterization of in vitro nanocarrier biological behavior brings a better understanding of the nanocarrier characteristics and enables prediction of the behavior of the nanocarrier during in vivo application...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
Manuela Kellner, Marko Heidrich, Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer, Georgios C Antonopoulos, Lars Knudsen, Christoph Wrede, Nicole Izykowski, Roman Grothausmann, Danny Jonigk, Matthias Ochs, Tammo Ripken, Mark P Kühnel, Heiko Meyer
Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pramod Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Bhupinder Singh, Ruchi Malik, Om Prakash Katare, Kaisar Raza
In various neurological disorders, antioxidants are frequently prescribed along with the specific treatment modalities. One such promising natural flavonoid is quercetin, offering better outcomes than established vitamins E and C. Though with immense promises, various challenges like poor oral-bioavailability (<2%), extensive first-pass metabolism, poor brain permeability, hydrophobic nature and physiological pH instability hinder its proper usage. Hence, it was planned to prepare quercetin-loaded nano lipidic carriers (NLCs) employing biocompatible components like phospholipids and tocopherol acetate for enhanced brain delivery...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Chengcheng Yin, Yanjing Zhang, Qing Cai, Baosheng Li, Hua Yang, Heling Wang, Hua Qi, Yanmin Zhou, Weiyan Meng
In clinical applications, osseointegration is essential for the long-term stability of dental implants. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of natural bone, we applied the electrochemical etching (EC) technique to form a micro-nano structure on a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrate, called EC surface. Sand blasting and acid etching (SLA) and machined (M) methods were employed to generate micro and smooth textures, respectively, as the control groups. The surface topographies of the three substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yanping Cheng, Masahiko Shibuya, Jenn McGregor, Gerard B Conditt, Geng-Hua Yi, Greg L Kaluza, William Gray, Manish Doshi, Prakash Sojitra, Juan F Granada
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological efficacy of a novel lower-dose (2.5 µg/mm2) encapsulated paclitaxel nanocrystal-coated balloon (Nano-PCB) in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of iliofemoral in-stent restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nano-PCB pharmacokinetics were assessed in 20 femoral arteries (domestic swine). Biological efficacy was evaluated in ten FHS: 14 days following bare metal stent implantation each stent segment was randomised to a clinically available PCB (IN...
October 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
Gaoxing Su, Xiaofei Zhou, Hongyu Zhou, Ye Li, Xianren Zhang, Yin Liu, Dapeng Cao, Bing Yan
Understandings of how biomolecules modify nanoparticles in a biological context and how these exchanges impact nano-bio interactions are fundamental to nanomedicine and nanotoxicology research. In this work, cancer-targeting gold nanoparticles (TGNPs) with different sizes (5, 15, and 40 nm) were designed and synthesized. These nanoparticles spontaneously adsorbed proteins in complete cell culture medium (DMEM with 10% human serum). Although the targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles were likely to be shielded by adsorbed proteins, the targeting capability of nanoparticles was maintained due to the highly dynamic nature of protein adsorption...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Sadaf Fatima
This review helps to understand protein misfolding events, which results in protein aggregation, and hence to related neurodegenerative diseases. Many chaperones and folding factors are found inside the cell system for the proper folding of protein. If protein gets misfolded, it may accumulate in cells and can lead to several fatal diseases. In some cases, misfolded proteins aggregated in form of loop-sheet polymer and amyloid fibril when they escape the degradation process and leads to neurodegenerative disorders...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Erica Roitero, Federico Lasserre, Marc Anglada, Frank Mücklich, Emilio Jiménez-Piqué
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to generate micrometric linear patterns with different topography on dental grade zirconia by means of UV laser interference and to assess the quality of the produced surface, both in term of the geometry produced and of the surface damage induced in the material. METHODS: The third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (355nm, pulse duration of 10ns and repetition rate of 1Hz) was employed to pattern the surface of 3Y-TZP with micrometric-spaced lines...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jacques Joubert, Germaine B Foka, Benjamin P Repsold, Douglas W Oliver, Erika Kapp, Sarel F Malan
A series of 7-substituted coumarin derivatives were designed and synthesised to display ChE and MAO-B inhibitory activity. The compounds consisted out of a coumarin structure (MAO-B inhibitor) and benzyl-, piperidine-, N-benzylpiperidine- or p-bromo-N-benzylpiperizine moiety, resembling the N-benzylpiperidine function of donepezil (ChE inhibitor), connected via an alkyl ether linkage at the 7 position. The biological assay results indicated that all the compounds (1-25) displayed selective inhibition to hMAO-B over hMAO-A, with the benzyloxy series (1-8, 10-13) showing nano-molar hMAO-B inhibition (IC50: 0...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lei Zhou, Jing Liu, Faqin Dong
Mackinawite (FeS), widespread in low temperature aquatic environments, is generally considered to be the first Fe sulfide formed in sedimentary environments which has shown effective immobilization of heavy metals and toxic oxyanions through various sorption reactions. The spectroscopic study researches on mackinawite formed by FRB and SRB and its environmental implication for in-situ remediation of acid mine drainage where contains large amounts of Fe(3+) and SO4(2-). The XRD result of biologically synthetic particles shows that these particles are mainly composed of mackinawite (FeS0...
September 29, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Louis T Curtis, Hermann B Frieboes
Although extensive research effort and resources have been dedicated to the development of nanotherapeutics to treat cancer, few formulations have reached clinical application. A major reason is that the large number of parameters available to tune nanotherapy characteristics coupled with the variability in tumor tissue precludes evaluation of complex interactions through experimentation alone. In order to optimize the nanotechnology design and gain further insight into these phenomena, mathematical modeling and computational simulation have been applied to complement empirical work...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
F Gorrini, M Cazzanelli, N Bazzanella, R Edla, M Gemmi, V Cappello, J David, C Dorigoni, A Bifone, A Miotello
Nanodiamonds are the subject of active research for their potential applications in nano-magnetometry, quantum optics, bioimaging and water cleaning processes. Here, we present a novel thermodynamic model that describes a graphite-liquid-diamond route for the synthesis of nanodiamonds. Its robustness is proved via the production of nanodiamonds powders at room-temperature and standard atmospheric pressure by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite in water. The aqueous environment provides a confinement mechanism that promotes diamond nucleation and growth, and a biologically compatible medium for suspension of nanodiamonds...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tzu-Fang Lou, Chase A Weidmann, Jordan Killingsworth, Traci M Tanaka Hall, Aaron C Goldstrohm, Zachary T Campbell
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) collaborate to control virtually every aspect of RNA function. Tremendous progress has been made in the area of global assessment of RBP specificity using next-generation sequencing approaches both in vivo and in vitro. Understanding how protein-protein interactions enable precise combinatorial regulation of RNA remains a significant problem. Addressing this challenge requires tools that can quantitatively determine the specificities of both individual proteins and multimeric complexes in an unbiased and comprehensive way...
October 8, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Jie Cheng, Xiao-Li Hu, Ling Wang, Da Li, Kun Gao
It is very important to have a good understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on marine diatoms. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) and cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2) were compared and evaluated using 96h growth tests in a batch-culture system. At 96h of exposure, the growth inhibition rate (IR, %) of P. tricornutum increased from 5.46 to 27.31% with increasing nano-TiO2 concentrations from 2...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Liu, Viktoriia Y Postupalenko, Samuel Loercher, Dalin Wu, Mohamed Chami, Wolfgang Meier, Cornelia G Palivan
Self-organization of nano-components was mainly focused on solid nanoparticles, quantum dots or liposomes to generate complex architectures with specific properties, but intrinsically limited or not developed enough, to mimic sophisticated structures with biological functions in cells. Here, we present a biomimetic strategy to self-organize synthetic nano-compartments (polymersomes) into clusters with controlled properties and topology by exploiting DNA hybridization to interconnect polymersomes. Molecular- and external factors affecting the self-organization served to design clusters mimicking the connection of natural organelles: fine tune of the distance between tethered polymersomes, different topologies, no fusion of clustered polymersomes and no aggregation...
October 11, 2016: Nano Letters
Shanshan Hu, Tong Wang, Xibo Pei, He Cai, Junyu Chen, Xin Zhang, Qianbing Wan, Jian Wang
In the present study, a cell-penetrating peptide, the transactivating transcriptional factor (TAT) domain from HIV, was linked to PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to develop a highly effective antitumor drug delivery system. FITC was conjugated on MWCNTs-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and MWCNTs-PEG-TAT to provide fluorescence signal for tracing the cellular uptake of the nanocarrier. After loaded with an anticancer agent, doxorubicin (DOX) via π - π stacking interaction, the physicochemical characteristics, release profile and biological evaluation of the obtained nano-sized drug carrier were investigated...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Nadia C Lara, Asad A Haider, Jason C Ho, Lon J Wilson, Andrew R Barron, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
For potential applications in nano-mediated radiofrequency cancer hyperthermia, the nanomaterial under investigation must increase the heating of any aqueous solution in which it is suspended when exposed to radiofrequency electric fields. This should also be true for a broad range of solution conductivities, especially those that artificially mimic the ionic environment of biological systems. Herein we demonstrate enhanced heating of biologically relevant aqueous solutions using kosmotropes and a hexamalonoserinolamide fullerene...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lei Wang
The genetic code can be expanded to include unnatural amino acids (Uaas) by engineering orthogonal components involved in protein translation. To be compatible with live cells, side chains of Uaas have been limited to either chemically inert or bio-orthogonal (i.e., nonreactive toward biomolecules) functionalities. To introduce bioreactivity into live systems, the genetic code has recently been engineered to encode a new class of Uaas, the bioreactive Uaas. These Uaas, after being incorporated into proteins, specifically react with target natural amino acid residues via proximity-enabled bioreactivity, enabling the selective formation of new covalent linkages within and between proteins both in vitro and in live systems...
October 6, 2016: New Biotechnology
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