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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925398/cell-based-biohybrid-drug-delivery-systems-the-best-of-the-synthetic-and-natural-worlds
#1
Samagya Banskota, Parisa Yousefpour, Ashutosh Chilkoti
The goal of drug delivery is to deliver therapeutics to the site of disease while reducing unwanted side effects. In recent years, a diverse variety of synthetic nano and microparticles have been developed as drug delivery systems. The success of these systems for drug delivery lies in their ability to overcome biological barriers such as the blood-brain barrier, to evade immune clearance and avoid nonspecific biodistribution. This Review provides an overview of recent advances in the design of biohybrid drug delivery systems, which combine cells with synthetic systems to overcome some of these biological hurdles...
December 7, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922833/x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-analysis-of-silver-coated-gold-nanorods-designed-for-bionanotechnology-applications
#2
Fumiya Watanabe, Zeid A Nima, Takumi Honda, Masatoshi Mitsuhara, Minoru Nishida, Alexandru S Biris
Multicomponent nano-agents were designed and built via a core-shell approach to enhance their surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. These nano-agents had 36 nm × 12 nm gold nanorod cores coated by 4 nm thick silver shell films and a subsequent thin bifunctional thiolated polyethylene glycol (HS-PEG-COOH) layer. Ambient time-lapsed SERS signal measurements of these functionalized nanorods taken over a two-week period indicated no signal degradation, suggesting that large portions of the silver shells remained in pure metallic form...
December 6, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920500/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-vegf-sirna-crs-as-a-novel-vector-for-gene-delivery
#3
Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ) measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919539/nanostructured-fusiform-hydroxyapatite-particles-precipitated-from-aquaculture-wastewater
#4
Covadonga Correas, Michael L Gerardo, Alexander M Lord, Michael B Ward, Enrico Andreoli, Andrew R Barron
The present work represents a new approach for the isolation of uniform nano particulate hydroxyapatite (HAp). The chemical characterization of a calcium phosphate product obtained from industrial trout farm aquaculture wastewater by two different routes, washing either with a basic aqueous medium (washNaOH) or followed by a further washing with ethanol (washEtOH), is explored. Characterization of the isolated materials includes morphology studies (SEM and TEM), structural (XRD, electron diffraction), compositional (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919268/air-liquid-interface-exposure-to-aerosols-of-poorly-soluble-nanomaterials-induces-different-biological-activation-levels-compared-to-exposure-to-suspensions
#5
Thomas Loret, Emmanuel Peyret, Marielle Dubreuil, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol, Christophe Bressot, Olivier le Bihan, Tanguy Amodeo, Bénédicte Trouiller, Anne Braun, Christophe Egles, Ghislaine Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Recently, much progress has been made to develop more physiologic in vitro models of the respiratory system and improve in vitro simulation of particle exposure through inhalation. Nevertheless, the field of nanotoxicology still suffers from a lack of relevant in vitro models and exposure methods to predict accurately the effects observed in vivo, especially after respiratory exposure. In this context, the aim of our study was to evaluate if exposing pulmonary cells at the air-liquid interface to aerosols of inhalable and poorly soluble nanomaterials generates different toxicity patterns and/or biological activation levels compared to classic submerged exposures to suspensions...
November 3, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916566/extracellular-vesicle-mimetics-novel-alternatives-to-extracellular-vesicle-based-theranostics-drug-delivery-and-vaccines
#6
REVIEW
Oh Youn Kim, Jaewook Lee, Yong Song Gho
Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized spherical bilayered proteolipids encasing various components. Cells of all domains of life actively release these vesicles to the surroundings including various biological fluids. These extracellular vesicles are known to play pivotal roles in numerous pathophysiological functions. Extracellular vesicles have distinct characteristics, like high biocompatibility, safety, and nano-sized diameters that allow efficient drug loading capacity and long blood circulation half-life...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913083/different-biosorption-mechanisms-of-uranium-vi-by-live-and-heat-killed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-environmentally-relevant-conditions
#7
Tieshan Wang, Xinyan Zheng, Xiaoyu Wang, Xia Lu, Yanghao Shen
Uranium adsorption mechanisms of live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different pH values and biomass concentrations were studied under environmentally relevant conditions. Compared with live cells, the adsorption capacity of heat-killed cells is almost one order of magnitude higher in low biomass concentration and highly acidic pH conditions. To explore the mesoscopic surface interactions between uranium and cells, the characteristic of uranium deposition was investigated by SEM-EDX, XPS and FTIR...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905527/towards-nano-optical-tweezers-with-graphene-plasmons-numerical-investigation-of-trapping-10-nm-particles-with-mid-infrared-light
#8
Jianfa Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Zhihong Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Shiqiao Qin
Graphene plasmons are rapidly emerging as a versatile platform for manipulating light at the deep subwavelength scale. Here we show numerically that strong optical near-field forces can be generated under the illumination of mid-IR light when dielectric nanoparticles are located in the vicinity of a nanostructured graphene film. These near-field forces are attributed to the excitation of the graphene's plasmonic mode. The optical forces can generate an efficient optical trapping potential for a 10-nm-diameter dielectric particle when the light intensity is only about about 4...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904525/exosomes-as-nanocarriers-for-sirna-delivery-paradigms-and-challenges
#9
Fahimeh Shahabipour, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that facilitate intercellular communications through carrying genetic materials and functional biomolecules. Owing to their unique size and structure, exosomes have emerged as a useful tool to overcome the limitations of siRNA delivery. The use of exosomes as siRNA delivery vehicles lacks certain disadvantages of the existing foreign delivery systems such as viruses, polycationic polymers and liposomes, and introduces several advantages including inherent capacity to pass through biological barriers and escape from phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system, as well as being biocompatible, non-toxic, and immunologically inert...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903819/towards-designing-new-nano-scale-protein-architectures
#10
REVIEW
Jana Aupič, Fabio Lapenta, Žiga Strmšek, Roman Jerala
The complexity of designed bionano-scale architectures is rapidly increasing mainly due to the expanding field of DNA-origami technology and accurate protein design approaches. The major advantage offered by polypeptide nanostructures compared with most other polymers resides in their highly programmable complexity. Proteins allow in vivo formation of well-defined structures with a precise spatial arrangement of functional groups, providing extremely versatile nano-scale scaffolds. Extending beyond existing proteins that perform a wide range of functions in biological systems, it became possible in the last few decades to engineer and predict properties of completely novel protein folds, opening the field of protein nanostructure design...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901397/a-systems-toxicology-approach-reveals-the-wnt-mapk-crosstalk-pathway-mediated-reproductive-failure-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-graphene-oxide-go-but-not-to-reduced-graphene-oxide-rgo
#11
Nivedita Chatterjee, Young-Ho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
November 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896599/inflammatory-cell-response-to-ultra-thin-amorphous-and-crystalline-hydroxyapatite-surfaces
#12
Louise Rydén, Omar Omar, Anna Johansson, Ryo Jimbo, Anders Palmquist, Peter Thomsen
It has been suggested that surface modification with a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) coating enhances the osseointegration of titanium implants. However, there is insufficient information about the biological processes involved in the HA-induced response. This study aimed to investigate the inflammatory cell response to titanium implants with either amorphous or crystalline thin HA. Human mononuclear cells were cultured on titanium discs with a machined surface or with a thin, 0.1 μm, amorphous or crystalline HA coating...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895531/follicular-fluid-biomarkers-for-human-in-vitro-fertilization-outcome-proof-of-principle
#13
Fang Chen, Carl Spiessens, Thomas D'Hooghe, Karen Peeraer, Sebastien Carpentier
BACKGROUND: Human follicular fluid (FF) is a unique biological fluid in which the oocyte develops in vivo, and presents an optimal source for non-invasive biochemical predictors. Oocyte quality directly influences the embryo development and hence, may be used as a predictor of embryo quality. Peptide profiling of FF and its potential use as a biomarker for oocyte quality has never been reported. METHODS: This study screened FF for peptide biomarkers that predict the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
2016: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888928/analytical-prediction-of-sub-surface-thermal-history-in-translucent-tissue-phantoms-during-plasmonic-photo-thermotherapy-pptt
#14
Purbarun Dhar, Anup Paul, Arunn Narasimhan, Sarit K Das
Knowledge of thermal history and/or distribution in biological tissues during laser based hyperthermia is essential to achieve necrosis of tumour/carcinoma cells. A semi-analytical model to predict sub-surface thermal distribution in translucent, soft, tissue mimics has been proposed. The model can accurately predict the spatio-temporal temperature variations along depth and the anomalous thermal behaviour in such media, viz. occurrence of sub-surface temperature peaks. Based on optical and thermal properties, the augmented temperature and shift of the peak positions in case of gold nanostructure mediated tissue phantom hyperthermia can be predicted...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885997/the-enhancement-of-osteogenic-capacity-in-a%C3%A2-synthetic-bmp-2-derived-peptide-coated-mineralized-collagen-composite-in-the-treatment-of-the-mandibular-defects
#15
Lei Zhang, Weidong Mu, Shuangfeng Chen, Dawei Yang, Fei Xu, Yaping Wu
The novel synthetic peptide P17-BMP-2 could promote cell attachment and enhance osteogenic capability. A composite, comprising nano-hydroxyapatite, collagen and poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLLA), was an efficient scaffold for carrier of P17-BMP-2. Our aim was to investigate whether nHAC/PLLA/P17-BMP-2 accelerates the osteogenesis as a reliable method for mandibular defect healing in this study. The repair capability was assessed by the gross observation, X-ray test and histological observation in four animal experiment groups at 2 week and 4 week after surgery: Group A (control), Group B (nHAC/PLLA treatment), Group C (nHAC/PLLA with 2 mg/g P17-BMP-2 treatment) and Group D (nHAC/PLLA with 10 mg/g P17-BMP-2 treatment)...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884808/biodegradable-nano-polymers-as-delivery-vehicles-for-therapeutic-small-non-coding-ribonucleic-acids
#16
REVIEW
Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Abbas Alibakhshi, Maryam Hashemi, Maryam Hejazi, Vahedeh Hosseini, Miguel de la Guardia, Mohammad Ramezani
Nowadays, small non-coding Ribo Nucleic Acids (sncRNAs) such as siRNA, miRNA and shRNA are extremely serving to gene regulation. They are involved in many biological processes and in an increasing number of studies regarding a variety of application of sncRNAs toward human health and relieving diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to those involving various organ systems as well as different types of cancer. One of the most severe limitations for applying RNA interference technology is the absence of safe and effective carriers for in vivo delivery, including localizing the molecules to a specific site of interest and sustaining the presentation of the payloads for a controlled period of time...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873029/induction-of-pluripotency-in-long-term-cryopreserved-human-neonatal-fibroblasts-in-feeder-free-condition
#17
Maria Csobonyeiova, Lubica Krajciova, Andreas Nicodemou, Stefan Polak, Lubos Danisovic
A novel approach for stem cell generation is the attempt to induce conversion of the adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells so called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introducing specific transcription factors. iPSCs have two essential cell characteristics, they are pluripotent and posses long term cell-renewal capacity. Additionally, iPSCs can be derived from patient-specific somatic cells, thus bypassing ethical and immunological issues. The aim of our study was to reprogram long-term cryopreserved human neonatal fibroblasts by new method using lipid nano-particle technology (Lipofectamine 3000 reagent transfection system) in combination with Epi 5 reprogramming vectors...
November 21, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871756/response-of-wastewater-biofilm-to-cuo-nanoparticle-exposure-in-terms-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-and-microbial-community-structure
#18
Lingzhan Miao, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Yanhui Ao, Yi Li, Yu Yao, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Qihao Gu
The growing production and application of CuO nanoparticles increase the chance that these particles will be released into wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and interact with microorganisms. However, the toxicity response mechanism of biofilm to NP exposure may be different from that of activated sludge due to the denser and stronger microbial aggregate structure of biofilm. Thus, in this study, the response to CuO NPs of wastewater biofilm collected from a rotating biological contactor was investigated. Short-term exposure (24h) to CuO NPs led to a great loss in cell viability, and SEM-EDS images revealed that the nano-CuO aggregates were not transformed to Cu-S species in the biofilm samples...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870847/creating-high-resolution-multiscale-maps-of-human-tissue-using-multi-beam-sem
#19
André F Pereira, Daniel J Hageman, Tomasz Garbowski, Christof Riedesel, Ulf Knothe, Dirk Zeidler, Melissa L Knothe Tate
Multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM) enables high-throughput, nano-resolution imaging of macroscopic tissue samples, providing an unprecedented means for structure-function characterization of biological tissues and their cellular inhabitants, seamlessly across multiple length scales. Here we describe computational methods to reconstruct and navigate a multitude of high-resolution mSEM images of the human hip. We calculated cross-correlation shift vectors between overlapping images and used a mass-spring-damper model for optimal global registration...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866614/in-vivo-synthesis-of-nano-selenium-by-tetrahymena-thermophila-sb210
#20
Yin-Hua Cui, Ling-Li Li, Nan-Qing Zhou, Jing-Hua Liu, Qing Huang, Hui-Juan Wang, Jie Tian, Han-Qing Yu
Nano-selenium has a great potential to be used in chemical, biological, medical and environmental fields. Biological methods for nano-selenium synthesis have attracted wide interests, because they can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure without complicated equipments. In this work, a protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) SB210, was used to in vivo synthesize nano-selenium. The biosynthesized nano-selenium was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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