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nano biology

Mikhail A Sevost'yanov, Elena O Nasakina, Alexander S Baikin, Konstantin V Sergienko, Sergey V Konushkin, Mikhail A Kaplan, Alexey V Seregin, Alexander V Leonov, Valery A Kozlov, Alexey V Shkirin, Nikolai F Bunkin, Alexey G Kolmakov, Sergey V Simakov, Sergey V Gudkov
A technology for obtaining materials from nanostructured nitinol with titanium- or tantalum-enriched surface layers was developed. Surface layers enriched with titanium or tantalum were shown to provide a decrease in the formation of reactive oxygen species and long-lived protein radicals in comparison to untreated nitinol. It was determined that human peripheral vessel myofibroblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells grown on nitinol bases coated with titanium or tantalum-enriched surface layers exhibit a nearly two times higher mitotic index...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Irena Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Luis Antonio Corchete, Elizabeta A Rojas, Joaquín Martínez-López, Ramón García-Sanz, Albert Oriol, Joan Bladé, Juan José Lahuerta, Jesús San Miguel, María Victoria Mateos, Norma C Gutiérrez
Protein analysis in bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma has been limited by the low protein concentration obtained after CD138+ selection. A novel approach based on capillary nano-immunoassay could make it possible to automatically quantify dozens of proteins from each myeloma sample. Here, we present a method for the accurate and robust quantification of the expression of multiple proteins extracted from CD138-purified multiple myeloma samples frozen in RLT Plus buffer, which is commonly used for nucleic acid preservation and isolation...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Hidehito Adaniya, Martin Cheung, Cathal Cassidy, Masao Yamashita, Tsumoru Shintake
A new SEM-based in-line electron holography microscope has been under development. The microscope utilizes conventional SEM and BF-STEM functionality to allow for rapid searching of the specimen of interest, seamless interchange between SEM, BF-STEM and holographic imaging modes, and makes use of coherent low-energy in-line electron holography to obtain low-dose, high-contrast images of light element materials. We report here an overview of the instrumentation and first experimental results on gold nano-particles and carbon nano-fibers for system performance tests...
March 6, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Neeraj Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh
Nanotechnology is a novel arena with promising applications in the field of medicine, industry, and agriculture including fisheries. Cross-disciplinary interactions and the application of this technology in biological systems have led to the innovation of novel nanoparticle antioxidants, which are the subject of our study. In context with above background, we designed an experiment on nano-silver to elucidate its role for mitigation of abiotic and biotic stress. Three diets were formulated viz. silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) incorporated at 0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Upendra A Rathnayake, Tharindu Senapathi, Chanaka Sandaruwan, Sanja Gunawardene, Veranja Karunaratne, Nilwala Kottegoda
This study explores the potential application of rice bran (agro waste) to nano-encapsulate phytase, which is a thermally unstable biologically active enzyme. Rice bran was converted to nanofibers (20-50 nm in diameter) using electrospinning. After optimizing the pH, viscosity, voltage and the distance between electrodes for electrospinning, phytase enzyme was encapsulated and the fibers were cross-linked using sodium tripolyphosphate. Thermal stability of phytase enzyme was improved by 90 °C when they are encapsulated and cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Heerak Chugh, Damini Sood, Ishita Chandra, Vartika Tomar, Gagan Dhawan, Ramesh Chandra
Development of nanoparticles (NPs) as a part of cancer therapeutics has given rise to a new field of research - cancer nanomedicine. In comparison to traditional anti-cancer drugs, NPs provide a targeted approach which prevents undesirable effects. In this communication, we have reviewed the role of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) in the cancer nanomedicine. The preparation of gold NPs (AuNPs) and AgNPs can be grouped into three categories - physical, chemical and biological. Among the three approaches, the biological approach is growing and receiving more attention due to its safe and effective production...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Nayereh Askari, Mardali Yousefpour, Masoud Rajabi
In this research work hydroxyapatite/alumina/YSZ bio nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate were created by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and reaction bonding process. By using the EPD process, uniform green form coatings containing HA, YSZ and aluminum particles were produced on titanium. After oxidation of aluminum at 660 ˚C and sintering at 850 ˚C, a dense and adherent HA/Al2 O3 /YSZ coating was produced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometric (XRD) and mechanical tests were employed to investigate the morphologies, compositions, hardness, toughness and bonding strength of the coatings...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Prasad G Mahajan, Nilam C Dige, Netaji K Desai, Shivajirao R Patil, Vijay V Kondalkar, Seong-Karp Hong, Ki Hwan Lee
Nowadays scientist over the world are engaging to put forth improved methods to detect metal ion in an aqueous medium based on fluorescence studies. A simple, selective and sensitive method was proposed for detection of Co2+ ion using fluorescent organic nanoparticles. We synthesized a fluorescent small molecule viz. 4,4'-{benzene-1,4-diylbis-[(Z)methylylidenenitrilo]}dibenzoic acid (BMBA) to explore its suitability as sensor for Co2+ ion and biocompatibility in form of nanoparticles. Fluorescence nanoparticles (BMBANPs) prepared by simple reprecipitation method...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Daniel P Teufel, Gavin Bennett, Helen Harrison, Katerine van Rietschoten, Silvia Pavan, Catherine Stace, François Le Floch, Tine Van Bergen, Elke Vermassen, Philippe Barbeaux, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Jean H M Feyen, Marc Vanhove
Plasma kallikrein, a member of the kallikrein-kinin system, catalyzes the release of the bioactive peptide bradykinin, which induces inflammation, vasodilation, vessel permeability and pain. Preclinical evidence implicates the activity of plasma kallikrein in diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of visual loss in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Employing a technology based on phage-display combined with chemical cyclization, we have identified highly selective bicyclic peptide inhibitors with nano- and pico-molar potencies towards plasma kallikrein...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xinyu Wang, Jiahua Pu, Bolin An, Yingfeng Li, Yuequn Shang, Zhijun Ning, Yi Liu, Fang Ba, Jiaming Zhang, Chao Zhong
Programming living cells to organize inorganic nano-objects (NOs) in a spatiotemporally precise fashion would advance new techniques for creating ordered ensembles of NOs and new bio-abiotic hybrid materials with emerging functionalities. Bacterial cells often grow in cellular communities called biofilms. Here, a strategy is reported for programming dynamic biofilm formation for the synchronized assembly of discrete NOs or hetero-nanostructures on diverse interfaces in a dynamic, scalable, and hierarchical fashion...
March 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ying Shan, Bo You, Si Shi, Wei Shi, Zhenxin Zhang, Qicheng Zhang, Miao Gu, Jing Chen, Lili Bao, Dong Liu, Yiwen You
Exosomes are nano-vesicles secreted by tumor cells. Exosomes can transfer complex biological information and induce a diverse signaling response in a wide array of pathological conditions, such as hypoxia. Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotypes and poor outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Here, we analyzed the role of exosomes from hypoxic NPC cells in enhancing the metastases of normoxic cells in a hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. HIF-1α rapidly accumulates and trans-activates hundreds of genes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Antonio Benedetto, Pietro Ballone
Empirical evidence and conceptual elaboration reveal and rationalise the remarkable affinity of organic ionic liquids for biomembranes. Cations of the so-called room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), in particular, are readily absorbed into the lipid fraction of biomembranes, causing a variety of observable biological effects, including generic cytotoxicity, broad anti-bacterial potential, and anti-cancer activity. Chemical-physics analysis of model systems made of phospholipid bilayers, RTIL ions and water confirm and partly explain this evidence, quantifying the mild destabilising effect of RTILs on structural, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of lipids in biomembranes...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Danila Merino, Andrea Yamila Mansilla, Claudia A Casalongué, Vera Alejandra Alvarez
Clay based nanocomposites (nano-clays) are interesting systems to hold a wide type of active substances with a wide field of industrial applications. Bentonite-Chitosan nano-clay was obtained via cationic exchange of natural bentonite (Bent) with an aqueous solution of chitosan (CS). Their physicochemical and morphological properties were discussed under the light of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis and Scanning electron microscopy. Bent-CS characterization indicated that CS was intercalated in a 10% w/w...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bengang Xing, Xiangzhao Ai, Ming Hu, Zhimin Wang, Wenmin Zhang, Juan Li, Jun Lin, Huang-Hao Yang
In terms of the extremely small size and large specific surface area, nanomaterials often exhibit unusual physical and chemical properties, which have recently attracted considerable attention in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine. Currently, the extensive usage of nanotechnology in medicine holds the great potential for precise diagnosis and effective therapeutics of various human diseases in clinical practice in past decades. However, a detailed understanding regarding how nanomedicines interact with the intricate environment in complex living systems remains a pressing and challenging goal...
March 6, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Gen Liu, Cheng Ma, Baokang Jin, Zixuan Chen, Jun-Jie Zhu
Single-cell imaging is essential for elucidating the biological mechanism of cell function because it accurately reveals the heterogeneity among cells. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) microscopy technique has been considered a powerful tool to study cells because of its high throughput and zero cellular background light. However, since cells are immobilized on the electrode surface, the steric hindrance and the insulation from the cells make it difficult to obtain a luminous cell ECL image. To solve this problem, direct ECL imaging of a single cell was investigated and achieved on chitosan and nano-TiO2 modified fluoride-doped tin oxide conductive glass (FTO/TiO2/CS)...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing-Min Liu, Dong-Dong Zhang, Guo-Zhen Fang, Shuo Wang
Combination of biological entities with functional nanostructure would produce the excellent systemic drug-delivery vehicles that possess the ability to cross the biological barriers. Herein, from a biomimetic point of view, erythrocyte membrane bioinspired optical nanocarrier is fabricated by integrating Red blood cell (RBC) membrane vesicle with near-infrared persistent luminescence nanophosphors (PLNPs). The triple-doped zinc gallogermanate nanostructures with super-long near-infrared persistent luminescence (ZGGO) are used as optical emission center, mesoporous silica coated on the PLNPs (ZGGO@mSiO2 ) is employed for drug delivery, and the RBC membrane vesicle is introduced for biomimetic functionalization to ensure the developed nanocarriers bypass macrophage uptake and systemic clearance...
February 23, 2018: Biomaterials
Andrew J Chetwynd, Arthur David
Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) platforms are widely used to perform high throughput untargeted profiling of biological samples for metabolomics-based approaches. However, these LC-ESI platforms usually favour the detection of metabolites present at relatively high concentrations because of analytical limitations such as ion suppression, thus reducing overall sensitivity. To counter this issue of sensitivity, the latest in terms of analytical platforms can be adopted to enable a greater portion of the metabolome to be analysed in a single analytical run...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Pandeeswar Makam, Ehud Gazit
Molecular self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in nature and central to bottom-up nanotechnology. In particular, the organization of peptide building blocks into ordered supramolecular structures has gained much interest due to the unique properties of the products, including biocompatibility, chemical and structural diversity, robustness and ease of large-scale synthesis. In addition, peptides, as short as dipeptides, contain all the molecular information needed to spontaneously form well-ordered structures at both the nano- and the micro-scale...
March 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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