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nano biology

Amandeep Sekhon, V J Ajith, Shivprasad Vitthal Patil
The flow of water confined to nanometer-sized pores is central to a wide range of subjects from biology to nanofluidic devices. Despite its importance, a clear picture about nanoscale fluid dynamics is yet to emerge. Here we measured dissipation in less than 20 nm thick water films and it was found to decrease for both wetting and non-wetting confining surfaces. The fitting of Carreau-Yasuda model of shear thinning to our measurements implies that flow is non-Newtonian and for wetting surfaces the no-slip boundary condition is valid...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
M Y Li, D W Liu, Y G Mao
Exosomes are nano-vesicles released by many kinds of cells. Exosomes play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication and substance transportation through direct effect of signaling molecules on the cell membrane surface, intracellular regulation of cellular content during membrane fusion, or regulation of release of various bioactive molecules. Several studies have reported that culture supernatant of stem cells has some related exosomes to take part in wound repair. The secretion of exosomes is depended on the source and the physiological and pathological condition of deriving cells...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Xiaoting Dong, Yawei Niu, Yi Ding, Yuemin Wang, Jialan Zhao, Wei Leng, Linghao Qin
Nano erythrocyte ghosts have recently been used as drug carriers of water-soluble APIs due to inherit biological characteristics of good compatibility, low toxicity, and small side-effect. In this study, we developed a novel drug delivery system based on nano erythrocyte ghosts (STS-Nano-RBCs) to transport Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) for intravenous use in rat. STS-Nano-RBCs were prepared by hypotonic lysis and by extrusion methods, and its biological properties were investigated compared with STS injection...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
M Hadavi, S Hasannia, Sh Faghihi, F Mashayekhi, H H Zadeh, S B Mostofi
The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and biological properties of a nanocomposite scaffold containing both mineral and polysaccharide constituents. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) was synthesized from dead abra ovata shells using wet chemical methods and was used in different ratios in concert with gum Arabic, a branched plant polysaccharide. N-HA/gum nanocomposite was fabricated with freeze-drying process and characterized by FTIR and SEM for chemical structure and morphology. Porosity was estimated using liquid substitution method...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wieland N Reichelt, Andreas Kaineder, Markus Brillmann, Lukas Neutsch, Alexander Taschauer, Hans Lohninger, Christoph Herwig
The expression of pharmaceutical relevant proteins in E. coli frequently triggers inclusion body (IB) formation caused by protein aggregation. In literature, substantial effort has been invested into the quantification of IB size. But up to this date particle based methods to analyze physical IB properties of representative numbers of IBs lack sensitivity and/or lack orthogonal verification. Using high pressure freezing and automated freeze substitution for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the cytosolic inclusion body structure was preserved within the cells...
March 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Claudio Poggio, Federico Trovati, Matteo Ceci, Marco Chiesa, Marco Colombo, Giampiero Pietrocola
BACKGROUND: The incorporation of nano silver particles (AgNPs) to improve antibacterial properties of dental materials has become increasingly common. The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity effects of different fiber posts: glass fiber post, quartz fiber post, nano fiber post and silver fiber post. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antibacterial activity against S. mutans, S. salivarius and S. sanguis was evaluated by using the agar disc diffusion test (ADT)...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Tae-Sik Jang, Hyun-Do Jung, Sungwon Kim, Byeong-Seok Moon, Jaeuk Baek, Cheonil Park, Juha Song, Hyoun-Ee Kim
Titanium (Ti)-based dental implants with multiscale surface topography have attracted great attention as a promising approach to enhance fixation and long-term stability of the implants, through the synergistic effect of nano- and microscale surface roughness, for accelerated bone regeneration and improved mechanical interlocking. However, structural integrity and mechanical stability of the multiscale roughened Ti surface under deformation need to be considered because significant deformation of dental implants is often induced during the surgical operation...
March 15, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Anwesha Barik, Satarupa Banerjee, Santanu Dhara, Nishant Chakravorty
Complexities in the full genome expression studies hinder the extraction of tracker genes to analyze the course of biological events. In this study, we demonstrate the applications of supervised machine learning methods to reduce the irrelevance in microarray data series and thereby extract robust molecular markers to track biological processes. The methodology has been illustrated by analyzing whole genome expression studies on bone-implant integration (ossointegration). Being a biological process, osseointegration is known to leave a trail of genetic footprint during the course...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Chor Yong Tay, Magdiel Inggrid Setyawati, David Tai Leong
The integrity of the vasculature system is intrinsically sensitive to a short list of biophysical cues spanning from nano to micro scales. We have earlier found that certain nanoparticles could induce endothelial leakiness (nanoparticle induced endothelial leakiness, NanoEL). In this study, we report that the intrinsic density of the nanomaterial, a basic intrinsic material property not implicated in many nanoparticle-mediated biological effects, predominantly dictates the NanoEL effect. We demonstrated that the impinging force exerted by a library of increasing effective densities but consistently sized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) could directly increase endothelial permeability...
March 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Donato Conteduca, Francesco Dell'Olio, Thomas F Krauss, Caterina Ciminelli
The ability to manipulate and sense biological molecules is important in many life science domains, such as single-molecule biophysics, the development of new drugs and cancer detection. Although the manipulation of biological matter at the nanoscale continues to be a challenge, several types of nanotweezers based on different technologies have recently been demonstrated to address this challenge. In particular, photonic and plasmonic nanotweezers are attracting a strong research effort especially because they are efficient and stable, they offer fast response time, and avoid any direct physical contact with the target object to be trapped, thus preventing its disruption or damage...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
A K M Rezaul Haque Chowdhury, Amirhossein Tavangar, Bo Tan, Krishnan Venkatakrishnan
Carbon nanomaterials have been investigated for various biomedical applications. In most cases, however, these nanomaterials must be functionalized biologically or chemically due to their biological inertness or possible cytotoxicity. Here, we report the development of a new carbon nanomaterial with a bioactive phase that significantly promotes cell adhesion. We synthesize the bioactive phase by introducing self-assembled nanotopography and altered nano-chemistry to graphite substrates using ultrafast laser...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leilei Liu, Yong Chang, Ning Xia, Peizhen Peng, Liping Zhang, Mengsha Jiang, Jiebin Zhang, Lin Liu
This work presented a simple, sensitive and label-free electrochemical method for the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs). It is based on the boronate ester covalent interaction between 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) and cis-diol at the 3'-terminal of miRNAs and the MPBA-induced in situ formation of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregates as labels on the electrode surface. In this design, MPBA acted as the cross-linker of AgNPs assembly. Specifically, the thiolated hairpin-like DNA probe was assembled onto the gold nanoparticles (nano-Au) modified electrode surface through the Ag-S interaction...
February 24, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Bing Liu, Xiao-Ming Shi, Gui-Yong Xiao, Yu-Peng Lu
A scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2·2H2O) coating was prepared in situ on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) substrates using the chemical conversion technology, and its phase composition and microstructure, as well as mechanical, chemical and biological properties were investigated to explore potential applications as a bioactive coating on bone implants. It is indicated that the coating consists mainly of monoclinic scholzite crystals with nano-thick laminar morphology. The crystals on cpTi aggregate to flower-like particles with the diameter of 5-10μm, while form a network structure homogeneously on Ti64...
March 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Aaron Sciore, E Neil G Marsh
The assembly of individual protein subunits into large-scale structures is important in many biological contexts. Proteins may assemble into geometrical cages or extended lattices that are characterized by a high degree of symmetry; examples include viral capsids and bacterial S-layers. The precisely defined higher order structure exhibited by these assemblies has inspired efforts to design such structures de novo by applying the principles of symmetry evident in natural protein assemblies. Here we discuss progress towards this goal and also examples of natural protein cages and lattices that have been engineered to repurpose them towards a diverse range of applications in materials science and nano-medicine...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Sahba TalebiFard, Shon Schmidt, Wei Shi, WenXuan Wu, Nicolas A F Jaeger, Ezra Kwok, Daniel M Ratner, Lukas Chrostowski
Evanescent field sensors have shown promise for biological sensing applications. In particular, Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)-nano-photonic based resonator sensors have many advantages for lab-on-chip diagnostics, including high sensitivity for molecular detection and compatibility with CMOS foundries for high volume manufacturing. We have investigated the optimum design parameters within the fabrication constraints of Multi-Project Wafer (MPW) foundries that result in the highest sensitivity for a resonator sensor...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Christian Santschi, Nadia Von Moos, Volodymyr B Koman, Vera I Slaveykova, Paul Bowen, Olivier J F Martin
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are key drivers for the development of highly sophisticated new technologies. As all new attainments, the rapidly increasing used of ENMs raise concerns about their safety for the environment and humans. There is growing evidence showing that if engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, there is a possibility that they could cause harm to aquatic microorganisms. Among the divers effects triggering their toxicity the ability of ENMs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of oxidizing biomolecules is currently considered a central mechanism of toxicity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Achyut J Raghavendra, Nasser Alsaleh, Jared M Brown, Ramakrishna Podila
Upon introduction into a biological system, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) rapidly associate with a variety of biomolecules such as proteins and lipids to form a biocorona. The presence of "biocorona" influences nano-bio interactions considerably, and could ultimately result in altered biological responses. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the major constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is one of the most prevalent proteins found in ENM-biocorona irrespective of ENM nature, size, and shape. Given the importance of ApoA-I in HDL and cholesterol transport, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of ApoA-I adsorption and the associated structural changes for assessing consequences of ENM exposure...
March 7, 2017: Biointerphases
Nan Xu, Peter C Doerschuk
Stochastic models of nano-biomachines have been studied by 3-D reconstruction from cryo electron microscopy images in recent years. The image data is the projection of many heterogeneous instances of the object under study (e.g., a virus). Initial reconstruction algorithms require different instances of the object, while still heterogeneous, to have the same symmetry. This paper presents a maximum likelihood reconstruction approach which allows each object to lack symmetry while constraining the statistics of the ensemble of objects to have symmetry...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yulia Ryabenkova, Niten Jadav, Marco Conte, Michael F A Hippler, Nik Reeves-McLaren, Phil D Coates, Peter Twigg, Anant Paradkar
Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is the main hard component of bone and has potential to be used to promote osseointegration of implants and to treat bone defects. Here, using active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) like ibuprofen, we report on the prospects of combining nanoHA with biologically active compounds to improve the clinical performance of these treatments. In this study we designed and investigated the possibility of API attachment to the surface of nano-HA crystals via the formation of a hydrogen-bonded complex...
March 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anastasia Mickhailovna Korotkova, Svyatoslav Valeryevich Lebedev, Irina Aleksandrovna Gavrish
The rapid development of nanotechnology raises questions assessment of their impact on living objects. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of nanoparticle (NP) CuO at concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 63.5 g/l in the test on wheat seedlings Triticum vulgare during 1-72 h. In the viability test (WST-test), cells were isolated from the roots of seedlings T. vulgare, 12 h not observed increase reductase activity after 24 h decreased rate of not more than 19% compared with the control. The number of dead cells in seedlings of T...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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