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S Centi, F Ratto, F Tatini, S Lai, R Pini
BACKGROUND: Gold nanorods (GNRs) display unique capacity to absorb and scatter near infrared light, which arises from their peculiar composition of surface plasmon resonances. For this reason, GNRs have become an innovative material of great hope in nanomedicine, in particular for imaging and therapy of cancer, as well as in photonic sensing of biological agents and toxic compounds for e.g. biomedical diagnostics, forensic analysis and environmental monitoring. As the use of GNRs is becoming more and more popular, in all these contexts, there is emerging a latent need for simple and versatile protocols for their modification with targeting units that may convey high specificity for any analyte of interest of an end-user...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Marcin Szalkowski, Karolina Sulowska, Justyna Grzelak, Joanna Niedziółka-Jönsson, Ewa Roźniecka, Dorota Kowalska, Sebastian Maćkowski
We apply wide-field fluorescence microscopy to measure real-time attachment of photosynthetic proteins to plasmonically active silver nanowires. The observation of this effect is enabled, on the one hand, by sensitive detection of fluorescence and, on the other hand, by plasmonic enhancement of protein fluorescence. We examined two sample configurations with substrates being a bare glass coverslip and a coverslip functionalized with a monolayer of streptavidin. The different preparation of the substrate changes the observed behavior as far as attachment of the protein is concerned as well as its subsequent photobleaching...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
Fernando Albericio, Saba Alapour, Beatriz G de la Torre, Deresh Ramjugernath, Neil Anthony Koorbanally
Considerable attention has been devoted to fluorinated compounds due to their unique and interesting properties. Many modern pharmaceuticals contain fluorinated substituents, which are commonly synthesized using selective fluorinating reagents. Decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) as a fluorinated linker is susceptible to nucleophilic attack. This nucleophilic reaction has been widely studied using various nucleophiles. Sulfur and nitrogen containing nucleophiles have been of particular interest, especially in bioconjugated reactions...
January 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
A Jackowska, M Chromiński, M Giedyk, D Gryko
Vitamin B12 is an attractive candidate for a drug or an imaging-agent carrier into cells, due to its dietary uptake and well established transport through glycoproteins. Utilization of this system requires an appropriate functionalization of vitamin B12 that both allows for the conjugation of therapeutics and does not interrupt its recognition by transport proteins. Modifications at the 5'-position on the ribose moiety are among a few approaches which meet the criteria. In this article we present vitamin B12 derivatives bearing either the amino or the carboxylic group at the 5'-position...
January 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Robert Edgington, Katelyn M Spillane, George Papageorgiou, William Wray, Hitoshi Ishiwata, Mariana Labarca, Sergio Leal-Ortiz, Gordon Reid, Martin Webb, John Foord, Nicholas Melosh, Andreas T Schaefer
Nanodiamonds have many attractive properties that make them suitable for a range of biological applications, but their practical use has been limited because nanodiamond conjugates tend to aggregate in solution during or after functionalisation. Here we demonstrate the production of DNA-detonation nanodiamond (DNA-DND) conjugates with high dispersion and solubility using an ultrasonic, mixed-silanization chemistry protocol based on the in situ Bead-Assisted Sonication Disintegration (BASD) silanization method...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bertrand Benoît, Maria A O'Connell, Zöe A E Waller, Manfred Bochmann
Cyclometalated (C^N^C)Au(III) complexes bearing functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands provide a high-yielding, modular route to bioconjugated and binuclear complexes. That methodology has been applied to the synthesis of bioconjugated complexes presenting biotin and 17α-ethynylestradiol vectors, as well as to the synthesis of bimetallic Au(III)/Au(I) complexes. The in vitro antiproliferative activities of these compounds against various cancer cells lines depend on the linker length, with the longer linker being the most potent...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Il-Hoon Cho, Jongsung Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Min-Soo Kang, Jean Kyung Paik, Seockmo Ku, Hyun-Mo Cho, Joseph Irudayaraj, Dong-Hyung Kim
An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT). Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
Robert D Healey, Jonathan Wojciechowski, Ana Monserrat-Martinez, Susan L Tan, Christopher P Marquis, Emma Sierecki, Yann Gambin, Angela Monique Finch, Pall Thordarson
A GPCR agonist protein, thaumatin, was site-specifically conjugated at the N- or C-terminus with a fluorophore for visualization of GPCR:agonist interactions. The N-terminus was specifically conjugated using a synthetic 2 pyridinecarboxyaldehyde reagent. The interaction profiles observed for N- and C-terminal conjugates were varied; N-terminal conjugates interacted very weakly with the GPCR of interest, whereas C-terminal conjugates bound to the receptor. These chemical biology tools allow interactions of therapeutic proteins:GPCR to be monitored and visualized...
January 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Peter Y Li, Zhiyuan Fan, Hao Cheng
Cell membrane engineering, including live cell membrane bioconjugation and cell membrane-derived nanomaterials is a highly promising strategy to modulate immune responses for treating diseases. Many cell membrane engineering methods have potential for translation for human clinical use in the near future. In this Topical Review, we summarize the cell membrane conjugation strategies that have been investigated for cancer immunotherapy, the prevention of immune rejection to donor cells and tissues, and the induction of antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmune diseases...
January 11, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hao Lin, Haitao Yang, Shuai Huang, Fujia Wang, Dong-Mei Wang, Bin Liu, Yi-Da Tang, Chong-Jing Zhang
Caspase-1 is a key player in pyroptosis and inflammation. Caspase-1 inhibition is found to be beneficial to various diseases. Coumarin-originated natural products have an anti-inflammation function, but their direct inhibition effect to caspase-1 remains unexplored. To evaluate their interactions, the widely used commercial coumarin-based probe (Ac-YVAD-AMC) is not suitable, as the background signal from coumarin-originated natural products could interfere with the screening results. Therefore, fluorescent probes using a large Stokes shift could help solve this problem...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christina Schwarzenböck, Andreas Schaffer, Elfriede Nößner, Peter J Nelson, Ralf Huss, Bernhard Rieger
To date, many poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) bioconjugates have been described, but they often show long response times, are not bio-inert, or lose function in biological fluids. Herein, we present a modular synthetic approach to generate polyvinylphosphonate bioconjugates. These conjugates exhibit a sharp phase transition temperature even under physiological conditions where few other examples with this property have been described to date. Furthermore, it was feasible to add biological functions to the polymers via the conjugation step...
January 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sadaf Aghevlian, Yijie Lu, Mitchell A Winnik, David W Hedley, Raymond M Reilly
A metal-chelating polymer (MCP) with a polyglutamide (PGlu) backbone presenting on average 13 DOTA (tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) chelators for complexing 111In or 177Lu and 10 polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to minimize liver and spleen uptake was conjugated to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), panitumumab. Since panitumumab-MCP may be dual-labeled with 111In and 177Lu for SPECT, or radioimmunotherapy (RIT) exploiting the Auger electrons or β-particle emissions, respectively, we propose that panitumumab-MCP could be a useful theranostic agent EGFR-positive PnCa...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
O A Goryacheva, P K Mishra, I Yu Goryacheva
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in nearly all developmental processes and human pathologies. MiRNAs are considered to be promising biomarkers, since their dysregulation correlates with the development and progress of many diseases. Short length, sequence homology among family members, susceptibility to degradation, and low abundance in total RNA samples make miRNA analysis a challenging task. Photoluminescent semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots, QDs) possess unique properties such as bright photoluminescence, photostability and narrow emission peaks, wide possibilities for surface modification and bioconjugation, which serve as the basis for the development of different analytical methods for variety of analytes...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Stephanie Longet, Mimmi L E Lundahl, Ed Lavelle
Mucosal immune responses are in the first line of defence against most infections and protective mucosal immunity can be achieved by mucosal vaccination. However, mucosal tolerance and physicochemical features of the mucosal environment pose challenging obstacles to the development of mucosal vaccines. Vaccine formulations must be designed to enhance stability at the mucosae and incorporate features that induce innate immunity at mucosal inductive sites. To face these challenges, a number of novel delivery systems for targeting of mucosal vaccines to specific mucosal locations have been developed...
January 4, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Semen O Yesylevskyy, Christophe Ramseyer, Mariia Savenko, Simona Mura, Patrick Couvreur
We have studied the interaction of three clinically promising squalenoylated drugs (gemcitabine-squalene, adenine-squalene and doxorubicin-squalene) with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that all studied squalenoylated drugs accumulated inside the LDL particles. This effect is promoted by the squalene moiety, which acts as an anchor and drives the hydrophilic drugs into the hydrophobic core of the LDL lipid droplet. Our data suggest that LDL particles could be a universal carriers of squalenoylated drugs in the blood stream...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Gemma M Dias, Caterina F Ramogida, Julie Rousseau, Nicholas A Zacchia, Cornelia Hoehr, Paul Schaffer, Kuo-Shyan Lin, François Bénard
INTRODUCTION: Zirconium-89 (89Zr, t1/2=78.4h) liquid target (LT) production offers an approach to introduce this positron-emitting isotope to cyclotron centres without the need for a separate solid target (ST) production set up. We compared the production, purification, and antibody radiolabeling yields of 89Zr-(LT) and 89Zr-(ST), and assessed the feasibility of 89Zr-(LT) for preclinical PET/CT. METHODS: 89Zr-(ST) production was performed with an 89Y foil on a TR 19 cyclotron at 13...
November 16, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Łucja Rodzik-Czałka, Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Viviana Gatta, Iole Venditti, Ilaria Fratoddi, Michał Szuwarzyński, Marek Romek, Maria Nowakowska
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system based on functionalized CdTe-guanine and AuNPs-cytosine bioconjugates for the model nucleobase - guanine detection was developed. Thioglycolic acid coated cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with guanine and sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped by cytosine were obtained and fully characterized. Successful formation of the materials was confirmed by UV-Vis, fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies. Composition of the conjugates was also characterized with elemental analysis and XPS...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chad J Pickens, Stephanie N Johnson, Melissa M Pressnall, Martin Leon, Cory Berkland
Interrogating biological systems is often limited by access to biological probes. The emergence of "click chemistry" has revolutionized bioconjugate chemistry by providing facile reaction conditions amenable to both biologic molecules and small molecule probes such as fluorophores, toxins, or therapeutics. One particularly popular version is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (AAC) reaction, which has spawned new alternatives such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction, among others...
December 29, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Mojtaba Shamsipur, Mahdi Emami, Leila Farzin, Reza Saber
The sensitive quantification of Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2), as a key prognostic tumor marker, plays a critical role in screening, early diagnosis and management of breast cancer. This paper describes a sandwich-type immunoassay with silver signal enhancement strategy for highly sensitive detection of HER2. For this purpose, the target capturing step was designed by functionalization of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane coated magnetite nanoparticles with antibody (antiHER2/APTMS-Fe3O4), as a platform bioconjugate (PB), and immobilized at a bare GCE...
December 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Abdullah A Ghawanmeh, Kwok Feng Chong, Shaheen M Sarkar, Muntaz Abu Bakar, Rizafizah Othaman, Rozida M Khalid
Antimitotic colchicine possesses low therapeutic index due to high toxicity effects in non-target cell. However, diverse colchicine analogs have been derivatized as intentions for toxicity reduction and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studying. Hybrid system of colchicine structure with nontoxic biofunctional compounds modified further affords a new entity in chemical structure with enhanced activity and selectivity. Moreover, nanocarrier formulation strategies have been used for colchicine delivery. This review paper focuses on colchicine nanoformulation, chemical synthesis of colchicine prodrugs and codrugs with different linkers, highlights linker chemical nature and biological activity of synthesized compounds...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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