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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912126/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-effect-of-triton-x-100-on-ebola-virus-infectivity
#1
Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899562/the-chembl-database-in-2017
#2
Anna Gaulton, Anne Hersey, Michał Nowotka, A Patrícia Bento, Jon Chambers, David Mendez, Prudence Mutowo, Francis Atkinson, Louisa J Bellis, Elena Cibrián-Uhalte, Mark Davies, Nathan Dedman, Anneli Karlsson, María Paula Magariños, John P Overington, George Papadatos, Ines Smit, Andrew R Leach
ChEMBL is an open large-scale bioactivity database (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl), previously described in the 2012 and 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issues. Since then, alongside the continued extraction of data from the medicinal chemistry literature, new sources of bioactivity data have also been added to the database. These include: deposited data sets from neglected disease screening; crop protection data; drug metabolism and disposition data and bioactivity data from patents. A number of improvements and new features have also been incorporated...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884478/vaccine-provision-delivering-sustained-widespread-use
#3
Scott Preiss, Nathalie Garçon, Anthony L Cunningham, Richard Strugnell, Leonard R Friedland
The administration of a vaccine to a recipient is the final step in a development and production process that may have begun several decades earlier. Here we describe the scale and complexity of the processes that brings a candidate vaccine through clinical development to the recipient. These challenges include ensuring vaccine quality (between 100 and 500 different Quality Control tests are performed during production to continually assess safety, potency and purity); making decisions about optimal vaccine presentation (pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials) that affect capacity and supply; and the importance of maintaining the vaccine cold chain (most vaccines have stringent storage temperature requirements necessary to maintain activity and potency)...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872506/harmonising-adult-reference-intervals-in-australia-and-new-zealand-the-continuing-story
#4
REVIEW
Gus Koerbin, Jillian R Tate
Reference intervals (RIs) are used to help clinicians determine if a patient can be classified as being in a diseased or healthy state and there are often sound scientific and clinical reasons for differences in RIs. One of the current strategic priorities for the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists is to encourage and assist laboratories to achieve harmonisation of RIs for common clinical chemistry analytes where sound calibration and traceability are in place. This need is based on good laboratory practice, providing the clinician with results that allow appropriate and reliable clinical interpretation and progression further toward the national e-health framework and a single electronic health record...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867948/supra-therapeutic-plasma-concentrations-of-haloperidol-induce-moderate-inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-8-release-in-human-monocytes
#5
Herbert Bosshart
BACKGROUND: The clinical use of antipsychotics and mood-stabilizing drugs with proven efficacy is largely determined by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and routine clinical chemistry and haematology data, which together define the safety and tolerability profile of these psychopharmaceuticals. Whereas the effects of mood-stabilizing drugs on functional properties of blood cells have been poorly investigated, the effects of antipsychotics have received more attention...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858150/coffee-and-oxidative-stress-a-human-intervention-study
#6
Sergey Shaposhnikov, Thomas Hatzold, Naouale El Yamani, Philip Mark Stavro, Yolanda Lorenzo, Maria Dusinska, Astrid Reus, Wilrike Pasman, Andrew Collins
PURPOSE: Coffee is known to contain phytochemicals with antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to investigate possible antioxidant effects of coffee in healthy human volunteers. METHODS: A placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out on 160 healthy human subjects, randomised into three groups, receiving 3 or 5 cups of study coffee or water per day, for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after the intervention. Serum was used for analysis of blood lipids and standard clinical chemistry analytes...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797468/host-cell-interactions-are-a-significant-barrier-to-the-clinical-utility-of-peptide-antibiotics
#7
Charles G Starr, Jing He, William C Wimley
Despite longstanding promise and many known examples, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed, thus far, to impact human medicine. Based on the physical chemistry and mechanism of action of AMPs, we hypothesized that host cell interactions could contribute to loss of activity in vivo where host cells are highly concentrated. To test this idea, we characterized AMP activity in the presence of human red blood cells (RBC). Indeed, we show that most of a representative set of natural and synthetic AMPs tested are significantly inhibited by preincubation with host cells, and would be effectively inactive at physiological cell density...
October 31, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784162/multicomponent-chemistry-in-the-synthesis-of-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors
#8
Stanislav Kalinin, Claudiu T Supuran, Mikhail Krasavin
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are of growing interest since various isoforms of the enzyme are identified as promising drug targets for treatment of disease. The principal drawback of the clinically used CAIs is the lack of isoform selectivity, which may lead to observable side effects. Studies aiming at the design of isoform-selective CAIs entail generation and biological testing of arrays of compounds, which is a resource- and time-consuming process. Employment of multicomponent reactions is an efficient synthetic strategy in terms of gaining convenient and speedy access to a range of scaffolds with a high degree of molecular diversity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779667/lipopolysaccharide-induced-cytokine-expression-pattern-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-childhood-obesity
#9
Yu Wu, Bin Yue, Jia Liu
Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health and extensive increase in body mass index (BMI). Childhood obesity may occur due to disturbances in metabolic regulation, which lead to metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Peripheral blood suspended immune cells are responsible for immune surveillance. The aim of the present study was to map the inflammatory cytokine expression pattern of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in vitro and clinical chemistry parameters in the plasma of subjects...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777860/the-study-of-statistical-methods-for-evaluating-the-comparability-of-routine-chemistry-analytes-among-3-routine-laboratory-measurement-systems-in-china
#10
Kun Zhong, Wei Wang, Chuanbao Zhang, Falin He, Shuai Yuan, Zhiguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory tests are important for clinicians to make diagnostic decisions, but discrepancies may directly lead to incorrect diagnosis. We would like to introduce some statistical methods to evaluate the comparability of chemistry analytes while comparing the performances of different measurement systems. METHODS: We used a panel of 10 fresh-frozen single donation serum samples to assess assays for the measurement of glucose and other 13 analytes...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768244/detection-limits-of-quantitative-and-digital-pcr-assays-and-their-influence-in-presence-absence-surveys-of-environmental-dna
#11
Margaret E Hunter, Robert M Dorazio, John S S Butterfield, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Leo G Nico, Jason A Ferrante
A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low-concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species' presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750201/antitubercular-activity-of-1-2-3-triazolyl-fatty-acid-derivatives
#12
Diego G Ghiano, Agustina de la Iglesia, Nina Liu, Peter J Tonge, Héctor R Morbidoni, Guillermo R Labadie
A collection of 1,2,3-triazoles unsaturated fatty acid mimics were efficiently synthesized by click chemistry. The 1,4-disubstituted analogs prepared covered different alkyl chain lengths and triazole positions. The compounds were subsequently tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, being most of them active with some of the analogs displaying activity at micromolar concentration. The most potent member of the series has the triazole moiety on the C-2 position with a carbon chain of eight or ten carbon atoms...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750199/potent-anticancer-activity-of-photo-activated-oxo-bridged-diiron-iii-complexes
#13
S Binita Chanu, Samya Banerjee, Mithun Roy
Cancer-specific anticancer drugs are still an elusive goal. Using light as the temporal control to generate cytotoxic species from photo-activated prodrug in the presence or absence of molecular oxygen has shown potential application targeted chemotherapy as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present work we explored the chemistry of several photo-active (μ-oxo)diiron(III) complexes of the following formulation [{Fe(μ-O) (L-his)(B)}2](ClO4)2 (1a-1c), [Fe2(μ-O)(H2O)2B4](ClO4)4 (2b, 2c) and [Fe2(μ-O)(μ-O2CMe)B4](ClO4)3 (3b, 3c), L-his = l-histidine, B is 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) complexes for tumor-specific anticancer activity...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718484/progress-and-impact-of-enzyme-measurement-standardization
#14
Ilenia Infusino, Erika Frusciante, Federica Braga, Mauro Panteghini
International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has established reference measurement procedures (RMPs) for the most popular enzymes. Manufacturers should assign values to commercial calibrators traceable to these RMPs to achieve equivalent results in clinical samples, independent of reagent kits, instruments, and laboratory where the measurement is carried out. The situation is, however, far from acceptable. Some manufacturers continue to market assays giving results that are not traceable to internationally accepted RMPs...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683502/harmonization-of-clinical-laboratory-information-current-and-future-strategies
#15
Mario Plebani
According to a patient-centered viewpoint, the meaning of harmonization in the context of laboratory medicine is that the information should be comparable irrespective of the measurement procedure used and where and/or when a measurement is made. Harmonization represents a fundamental aspect of quality in laboratory medicine as its ultimate goal is to improve patient outcomes through the provision of an accurate and actionable laboratory information. Although the initial focus has to a large extent been to harmonize and standardize analytical processes and methods, the scope of harmonization goes beyond to include all other aspects of the total testing process (TTP), such as terminology and units, report formats, reference intervals and decision limits, as well as tests and test profiles request and criteria for interpretation...
February 2016: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651683/hematology-and-serum-biochemistry-of-indian-spectacled-cobra-naja-naja-and-indian-rat-snake-ptyas-mucosa
#16
Sanath Krishna Muliya, Mudraje Narayana Bhat
AIM: To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), wild Indian rat snakes (n=10), captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), and captive Indian rat snake (n=10). The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637879/the-redox-cofactor-f420-protects-mycobacteria-from-diverse-antimicrobial-compounds-and-mediates-a-reductive-detoxification-system
#17
Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Blair Ney, Matthew C Taylor, Andrew C Warden, Shahana Afroze, Robyn J Russell, Brendon M Lee, Colin J Jackson, John G Oakeshott, Gunjan Pandey, Chris Greening
: A defining feature of mycobacterial redox metabolism is the use of an unusual deazaflavin cofactor, F420 This cofactor enhances the persistence of environmental and pathogenic mycobacteria, including following antimicrobial treatment, though the molecular basis for this remains to be understood. In this work, we explored our hypothesis that F420 enhances persistence by serving as a cofactor in antimicrobial-detoxifying enzymes. To test this, we performed a series of phenotypic, biochemical, and analytical chemistry studies in relation to the model soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis Mutant strains unable to synthesize or reduce F420 were found to be more susceptible to a wide range of antibiotic and xenobiotic compounds...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629827/a-novel-turbidimetric-immunoassay-for-fecal-calprotectin-optimized-for-routine-chemistry-analyzers
#18
Tom Nilsen, Kathrin Sunde, Lars-Olof Hansson, Aleksandra Mandic Havelka, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin assays are widely used to exclude inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with suspected IBD. A problem with the fecal calprotectin assays is the rather long test-turnaround times. A particle enhanced turbidimetric immunoassays (PETIA) for fecal calprotectin would reduce test-turnaround times and would permit more laboratories to perform the measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new feces calprotectin PETIA. METHOD: Using routine fecal samples the feces calprotectin PETIA was validated on two chemistry analyzers, Mindray BS-380 and Cobas 501...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604182/measurement-of-the-hematocrit-using-paper-based-microfluidic-devices
#19
Samuel B Berry, Syrena C Fernandes, Anjali Rajaratnam, Nicholas S DeChiara, Charles R Mace
The quantification of blood cells provides critical information about a patient's health status. Sophisticated analytical equipment, such as hematology analyzers, have been developed to perform these measurements, but limited-resource settings often lack the infrastructure required to purchase, operate, and maintain instrumentation. To address these practical challenges, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a platform to develop diagnostic assays specifically for use at the point-of-care. To date, paper-based microfluidic devices have been used broadly in diagnostic assays that apply immunoassay, clinical chemistry, and electrochemistry techniques...
October 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573832/a-novel-orvinol-analog-bu08028-as-a-safe-opioid-analgesic-without-abuse-liability-in-primates
#20
Huiping Ding, Paul W Czoty, Norikazu Kiguchi, Gerta Cami-Kobeci, Devki D Sukhtankar, Michael A Nader, Stephen M Husbands, Mei-Chuan Ko
Despite the critical need, no previous research has substantiated safe opioid analgesics without abuse liability in primates. Recent advances in medicinal chemistry have led to the development of ligands with mixed mu opioid peptide (MOP)/nociceptin-orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonist activity to achieve this objective. BU08028 is a novel orvinol analog that displays a similar binding profile to buprenorphine with improved affinity and efficacy at NOP receptors. The aim of this preclinical study was to establish the functional profile of BU08028 in monkeys using clinically used MOP receptor agonists for side-by-side comparisons in various well-honed behavioral and physiological assays...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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