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Yumi Fujiwara, Michiho Ito
Perilla produces the cyclohexanoid monoterpene perillaldehyde as a major constituent of an essential oil that is accumulated in its glandular trichomes. Perillaldehyde is a marker compound for quality control of soyo and has biological activities such as antibacterial, sedative, or vasodilatory effects. The predicted perillaldehyde formation involves the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, hydroxylation, and oxidation, and cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in perillaldehyde biosynthesis. In this study, a cytochrome P450-type enzyme with perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde synthase activities was isolated by analyzing an expressed sequence tag library from several oil types of pure lines of perilla...
November 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
Hua Yu, Jian Feng Qiu, Li Juan Ma, Yuan Jia Hu, Peng Li, Jian Bo Wan
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., a worldwide distributed plant, is an important economic crop and with a long cultivation history in China as well as some other countries in Asia. Except for the edible applications, the plant of P. frutescens is also traditionally used as a medicinal herb in China for thousands years. The leaves, seeds and stems of P. frutescens are recommended by the Chinese Pharmacopeia as three medicinal materials for various therapeutic applications. In the past decades, amount investigations have been done about different aspects for P...
November 24, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Hee Soon Shin, Min-Kyoung Kim, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional herb that is consumed in East Asian countries as a traditional medicine. This traditional herb has been documented for centuries to treat various diseases such as depression, allergies, inflammation and asthma. However, the effect of Perilla frutescens on skin has not been characterized well. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Perilla frutescens leaves extract (PLE) on ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Min Jee Kim, Sang Hun Kim
The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Min-Jun Park, Ji-Hye Song, Myung-Soo Shon, Hae Ok Kim, O Jun Kwon, Seong-Soo Roh, Choon Young Kim, Gyo-Nam Kim
Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Yeseul Cha, Ja Young Jang, Young-Hwan Ban, Haiyu Guo, Kyungha Shin, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, Jieun Choi, Eun-Suk An, Da-Woom Seo, Jung-Min Yon, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Anti-atherosclerosis effects of perilla oil were investigated, in comparison with lovastatin, in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding the HCD containing 0.5% cholesterol and 1% corn oil, and perilla oil (0.1 or 0.3%) was added to the diet containing 0.5% cholesterol for 10 weeks. HCD greatly increased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, and caused thick atheromatous plaques, covering 74% of the aortic wall. Hyper-cholesterolemia also induced lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys, leading to lipid peroxidation...
September 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
Huilan Zhang, Guangjin Hou, Manman Lu, Jinwoo Ahn, In-Ja L Byeon, Christopher J Langmead, Juan R Perilla, Ivan Hung, Peter L Gor'kov, Zhehong Gan, William W Brey, David A Case, Klaus Schulten, Angela M Gronenborn, Tatyana Polenova
HIV-1 CA capsid protein possesses intrinsic conformational flexibility, which is essential for its assembly into conical capsids and interactions with host factors. CA is dynamic in the assembled capsid, and residues in functionally important regions of the protein undergo motions spanning many decades of timescales. Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors, recorded in magic-angle-spinning NMR experiments, provide direct residue-specific probes of motions on nano- to microsecond timescales. We combined NMR, MD, and Density-Functional-Theory calculations, to gain quantitative understanding of internal backbone dynamics in CA assemblies, and found that the dynamically averaged (15)N CSA tensors calculated by this joined protocol are in remarkable agreement with experiment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ah Young Lee, Ji Myung Choi, Jaemin Lee, Myoung Hee Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of three kinds of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions against cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. After intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta25-35 (Aβ25-35) into the brain of institute of cancer research mice, olive oil (rich in oleic acid, C18:1), corn oil (rich in linoleic acid, C18:2), and perilla oil (rich in α-linolenic acid [ALA], C18:3) were administered at the oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 14 days...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Yupeng He, Enguang Nie, Chengming Li, Qingfu Ye, Haiyan Wang
The increasing discharge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has generated serious public concern. The recent awareness of the environmental impact of this emerging class of pollutants and their potential adverse effects on human health have been documented in many reports. However, information regarding uptake and intracellular distribution of PPCPs in hydrophytes under hydroponic conditions, and potential human exposure is very limited. A laboratory experiment was conducted using (14)C-labeled triclosan (TCS) to investigate uptake and distribution of TCS in six aquatic plants (water spinach, purple perilla, cress, penny grass, cane shoot, and rice), and the subcellular distribution of (14)C-TCS was determined in these plants...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Kai Liao, Jing Yan, Songlin Li, Tianjiao Wang, Wei Xu, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a mechanism to cope with perturbed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions or accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER in eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, the UPR also participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as nutrient sensing, lipid synthesis, and inflammatory response. In this study, four UPR-related genes (GRP78/BiP, ATF6α, XBP1 and CHO) were isolated characterized from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and their expression in response to dietary lipid sources (various fatty acids) such as fish oil (FO), palmic acid (PA), olive oil (OO), sunflower oil (SO), and perilla oil (PO), were examined following feeding...
September 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Jiakun Wang, Mei Liu, Yuelei Wu, Liang Wang, Jianxin Liu, Linshu Jiang, Zhongtang Yu
Mitigation of the methane (CH4) emission from ruminants is needed to decrease the environmental impact of ruminant animal production. Different plant materials and chemicals have been tested, but few are both effective and practical. Medicinal herbs contain biological compounds and antimicrobials that may be effective in lowering the CH4 production. However, few studies have systematically evaluated medicinal herbs for their effect on CH4 production or on the rumen microbiota. In this study, extracts from 100 medicinal herbs were assessed for their ability to decrease CH4 production by rumen microbiota in vitro...
September 22, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ting Chen, Fahu Yuan, Hualin Wang, Yu Tian, Lei He, Yang Shao, Na Li, Zhiguo Liu
Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kyeong-Ryeol Lee, Yongjik Lee, Eun-Ha Kim, Seul-Bee Lee, Kyung Hee Roh, Jong-Bum Kim, Han-Chul Kang, Hyun Uk Kim
We described identification, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of genes that encode fatty acid desaturase enzymes in Perilla frutescens var. frutescens. Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. frutescens) seeds contain approximately 40 % of oil, of which α-linolenic acid (18:3) comprise more than 60 % in seed oil and 56 % of total fatty acids (FAs) in leaf, respectively. In perilla, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized and chloroplast-localized ω-3 FA desaturase genes (PfrFAD3 and PfrFAD7, respectively) have already been reported, however, microsomal oleate 12-desaturase gene (PfrFAD2) has not yet...
September 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Cheryl A Hobbs, Sean V Taylor, Carol Beevers, Melvyn Lloyd, Rachael Bowen, Lucinda Lillford, Robert Maronpot, Shim-Mo Hayashi
Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential...
September 1, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sun Hee Hong, Mijeong Kim, Jeong Sook Noh, Yeong Ok Song
Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. Perilla oil (PO) is a vegetable oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 PUFA. In this study, antiatherogenic effects and related mechanisms of PO were investigated in atherosclerotic mice. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice (male, n = 27) were fed high-cholesterol and high-fat diets containing 10 % w/w lard (LD), PO, or sunflower oil (SO) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations reduced in the PO and SO groups compared to the concentrations in the LD group (P < 0...
October 2016: Lipids
Chang Hyun Jin, Yang Kang So, Sung Nim Han, Jin-Baek Kim
Isoegomaketone (IK) was isolated from Perilla frutescens, which has been widely used as a food in Asian cuisine, and evaluated for its biological activity. We have already confirmed that IK induced the HO-1 expression via Nrf2 activation in RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of IK on the mechanism of HO-1 expression. IK upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose dependent manner. The level of HO-1 mRNA peaked at 4 h after 15 μM IK treatment. To investigate the mechanisms of HO-1 expression modulation by IK, we used pharmacological inhibitors for the protein kinase C (PKC) family, PI3K, and p38 MAPK...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Eun-Yeong Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Tae-Wook Chung, Jun-Yong Choi, Hyung Sik Kim, Yeon-Seop Jung, Syng-Ook Lee, Ki-Tae Ha
The leaves and stems of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo (PF) have been used to prevent threatened abortion in traditional medicine in the East Asian countries. Because reduced receptivity of endometrium is a cause of abortion, we analyzed the action of PF on the endometrial receptivity. PF increased the level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a major cytokine regulating endometrial receptivity, and LIF receptor in human endometrial Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced LIF expression was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Laura M Perilla-Henao, Clare L Casteel
Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant-virus-vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant-bacteria-vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yangkang So, Seung Young Lee, Ah-Reum Han, Jin-Baek Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong, Chang Hyun Jin
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME) isolated from a mutant cultivar of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. We found that RAME inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with an IC50 of 14.25 µM, in RAW 264.7 cells. RAME inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xingchen Zhao, Ce Shi, Rizeng Meng, Zonghui Liu, Yanjun Huang, Ziwen Zhao, Na Guo
In the present study, in vitro interaction of nisin and perilla oil (PO) against 20 food-borne isolates of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were assessed using a checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism was observed in tested strains with the fractional inhibitory concentration indexs (FICIs) ranges from 0.125-0.25 and 0.19-0.375, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to investigate the effect of nisin and PO on the integrity of cell wall and membrane of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus...
June 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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