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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789386/antagonistic-interactions-between-two-map-kinase-cascades-in-plant-development-and-immune-signaling
#1
Tongjun Sun, Yukino Nitta, Qian Zhang, Di Wu, Hainan Tian, Jin Suk Lee, Yuelin Zhang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling plays important roles in diverse biological processes. In Arabidopsis , MPK3/MPK6, MKK4/MKK5, and the MAPKKK YODA (YDA) form a MAPK pathway that negatively regulates stomatal development. Brassinosteroid (BR) stimulates this pathway to inhibit stomata production. In addition, MPK3/MPK6 and MKK4/MKK5 also serve as critical signaling components in plant immunity. Here, we report that MAPKKK3/MAPKKK5 form a kinase cascade with MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6 to transduce defense signals downstream of multiple plant receptor kinases...
May 22, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789369/-wolbachia-w-stri-blocks-zika-virus-growth-at-two-independent-stages-of-viral-replication
#2
M J Schultz, A L Tan, C N Gray, S Isern, S F Michael, H M Frydman, J H Connor
Mosquito-transmitted viruses are spread globally and present a great risk to human health. Among the many approaches investigated to limit the diseases caused by these viruses are attempts to make mosquitos resistant to virus infection. Coinfection of mosquitos with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis from supergroup A is a recent strategy employed to reduce the capacity for major vectors in the Aedes mosquito genus to transmit viruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus (ZIKV)...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788146/leaf-hydraulic-vulnerability-triggers-the-decline-in-stomatal-and-mesophyll-conductance-during-drought-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#3
Xiaoxiao Wang, Tingting Du, Jianliang Huang, Shaobing Peng, Dongliang Xiong
Understanding the physiological responses of crops to drought is important for ensuring sustained crop productivity under climate change, which is expected to exacerbate drought frequencies and intensities. Drought responses involve multiple traits, but the correlations between these traits are poorly understood. Using a variety of techniques, we estimated the changes in gas exchange, leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf), and leaf turgor in rice (Oryza sativa) in response to both short- and long-term soil drought and performed a photosynthetic limitation analysis to quantify the contributions of each limiting factor to the resultant overall decrease in photosynthesis during drought...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788033/embolism-and-mechanical-resistances-play-a-key-role-in-dehydration-tolerance-of-a-perennial-grass-dactylis-glomerata-l
#4
Florence Volaire, Frederic Lens, Hervé Cochard, Hueng Xu, Larissa Chacon-Doria, Pauline Bristiel, Jennifer Balachowski, Nick Rowe, Cyrille Violle, Catherine Picon-Cochard
Background and Aims: More intense droughts under climate change threaten species resilience. Hydraulic strategies determine drought survival in woody plants but have been hardly studied in herbaceous species. We explored the intraspecific variability of hydraulic and morphological traits as indicators of dehydration tolerance in a perennial grass, cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), which has a large biogeographical distribution in Europe. Methods: Twelve populations of cocksfoot originating from Mediterranean, Temperate and Northern European areas were grown in a controlled environment in pots...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785161/prevalence-and-psychological-stress-in-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-among-female-dental-students-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Muhammed Ajmal, Lujain Ibrahim, Nada Mohammed, Heba Al-Qarni
Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder which is characterized by recurrent ulcerations mainly confined to non-keratinized oral mucosa. Though the exact etiology is imprecise, stress and anxiety were found to be linked with the onset of RAS. The present study was directed to know the prevalence of RAS among female dental students in King Khalid University, to find out the association between RAS and psychological stress and the effectiveness of Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) in finding out the psychological profile of RAS patients...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784797/mutations-in-a-subfamily-of-abscisic-acid-receptor-genes-promote-rice-growth-and-productivity
#6
Chunbo Miao, Lihong Xiao, Kai Hua, Changsong Zou, Yang Zhao, Ray A Bressan, Jian-Kang Zhu
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that controls plant growth and stress responses. It is sensed by the pyrabactin resistance 1 (PYR1)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of the ABA receptor (RCAR) family of proteins. Here, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 technology to edit group I ( PYL1 - PYL6 and PYL12 ) and group II ( PYL7 - PYL11 and PYL13 ) PYL genes in rice. Characterization of the combinatorial mutants suggested that genes in group I have more important roles in stomatal movement, seed dormancy, and growth regulation than those in group II...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784139/analysis-of-data-on-capecitabine-related-adverse-drug-reactions-from-the-korean-adverse-event-reporting-system-database
#7
Jeong Yun Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and serious adverse events associated with capecitabine use in Korean patients by analyzing data from a comprehensive national database of adverse events. METHOD: Data from all reports concerning capecitabine (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code: L01BC06) generated between January 2011 and December 2014 were collected from the Korean Adverse Event Reporting System database (KAERS)...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783057/evaluation-of-water-relation-parameters-in-vitis-rootstocks-with-different-drought-tolerance-and-their-effects-on-growth-of-a-grafted-cultivar
#8
Gregorio Gullo, Antonio Dattola, Vincenzo Vonella, Rocco Zappia
Knowledge of root hydraulic resistance will allow us to better understand water relations arising in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. These are the basis for better control of plant behaviour in the current environmental context that is more and more affected by global warming and problems related to increased drought frequency and duration. The objectives of this study were to determine how the growth of a cultivar changes in response to the drought tolerance of the rootstock used in Vitis grown in a semi-arid area and how the root hydraulic resistivity and root hydraulic conductivity change with increased transpiration when adopting a rootstock with a different drought tolerance...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782538/regulatory-effects-of-root-pruning-on-leaf-nutrients-photosynthesis-and-growth-of-trees-in-a-closed-canopy-poplar-plantation
#9
Da-Wei Jing, Zhen-Yu Du, Ming-You Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Hai-Lin Ma, Fang-Chun Liu, Bing-Yao Ma, Yu-Feng Dong
A plantation of 5-year-old poplar Populus × euramericana cv. 'Neva' was used to study the regulatory effects of root pruning on nutrients, photosynthetic characteristics, and water-use efficiency (WUE) of leaves and growth rates of diameter at breast height (DBH; 1.3 m), tree height, and volume. Six root-pruning treatments were conducted with different combinations of intensity (at a distance of six, eight or ten times DBH from the trunk) and orientation (on two or four sides of the trees). Results showed that the N, P, K, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves were all significantly decreased by root pruning over the initial period following root pruning (30 days), but increased in the subsequent investigations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781573/overexpression-of-ostf1l-a-rice-hd-zip-transcription-factor-promotes-lignin-biosynthesis-and-stomatal-closure-that-improves-drought-tolerance
#10
Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Youn Shic Kim, Yang Do Choi, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought stress seriously impacts on plant development and productivity. Improvement of drought tolerance without yield penalty is a great challenge in crop biotechnology. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor gene, OsTF1L (Oryza sativa transcription factor 1-like), is a key regulator of drought tolerance mechanisms. Overexpression of the OsTF1L in rice significantly increased drought tolerance at the vegetative stages of growth and promoted both effective photosynthesis and a reduction in the water loss rate under drought conditions...
May 21, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#11
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781219/disentangling-the-effects-of-acidic-air-pollution-atmospheric-co-2-and-climate-change-on-recent-growth-of-red-spruce-trees-in-the-central-appalachian-mountains
#12
Justin M Mathias, Richard B Thomas
In the 45 years after legislation of the Clean Air Act, there has been tremendous progress in reducing acidic air pollutants in the eastern United States, yet limited evidence exists that cleaner air has improved forest health. Here, we investigate the influence of recent environmental changes on the growth and physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees, a key indicator species of forest health, spanning three locations along a 100 km transect in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We incorporated a multiproxy approach using 75-year tree ring chronologies of basal tree growth, carbon isotope discrimination (∆13 C, a proxy for leaf gas exchange), and δ15 N (a proxy for ecosystem N status) to examine tree and ecosystem level responses to environmental change...
May 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780396/effects-of-antimony-stress-on-photosynthesis-and-growth-of-acorus-calamus
#13
Xiujie Zhou, Chongyu Sun, Pengfei Zhu, Fei Liu
This study was aimed to explore that effects of Sb on physiological parameters of Acorus calamus and the possibility of using A. calamus as a remediation plant. A. calamus potted experiments were conducted using different concentrations (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) of antimony potassium tartrate (Sb3+ ) (marked as CK, T1 , T2 , T3 , and T4 , respectively) and potassium pyroantimonate (Sb5+ ) (marked as CK, T'1 , T'2 , T'3 , and T'4 , respectively). The effects of Sb stress (Sb3+ and Sb5+ ) on leaf photosynthetic pigments, biomass, photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of potted A...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779706/plant-water-transport-and-aquaporins-in-oxygen-deprived-environments
#14
Xiangfeng Tan, Hao Xu, Shanjida Khan, Maria A Equiza, Seong H Lee, Maryamsadat Vaziriyeganeh, Janusz J Zwiazek
Oxygen deprivation commonly affects plants exposed to flooding and soil compaction. The resulting root hypoxia has an immediate effect on plant water relations and upsets water balance. Hypoxia inhibits root water transport and triggers stomatal closure. The processes contributing to the inhibition of root hydraulic conductivity and conductance (hydraulic conductivity of the whole root system) are complex and involve changes in root morphology and the functions of aquaporins. Aquaporins (AQPs) comprise a group of membrane intrinsic proteins that are responsible for the transport of water, as well as some small neutral solutes and ions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778202/porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-can-be-differentially-activated-by-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-its-matrix-protein-mutants
#15
Guoyan Sun, Xinkui Fang, Hao Wu, Xinchu Zhou, Yong Ke, Tao Sun
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can cause serious vesicular lesions in pigs, and the matrix (M) protein is its predominant virulence factor. Dendritic cells (DCs) act as the bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the susceptibility of porcine DCs to VSV infection and the role of M protein in modulating the function of infected DCs are still poorly defined. Thus, this study aimed to determine the ability of virulent wild-type VSV(wtVSV) and two attenuated M protein variants (VSVΔM51 and VSVMT ) to induce maturation of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774169/phase-2-study-of-everolimus-for-relapsed-or-refractory-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#16
Patrick B Johnston, Lauren C Pinter-Brown, Ghulam Warsi, Kristen White, Radhakrishnan Ramchandren
Background: The current standard of care for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is multiagent chemotherapy with or without radiation. In patients who relapse or fail to respond, additional high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) can improve progression-free survival (PFS). Novel therapies are required for patients refractory to chemotherapy and AHSCT. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus has shown preliminary activity in preclinical models of HL and promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory HL...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774038/altered-expression-of-the-malate-permeable-anion-channel-osalmt4-reduces-the-growth-of-rice-under-low-radiance
#17
Jie Liu, Muyun Xu, Gonzalo M Estavillo, Emmanuel Delhaize, Rosemary G White, Meixue Zhou, Peter R Ryan
We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772712/inhibition-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-entry-by-a-keggin-polyoxometalate
#18
Xiaoli Wang, Jiao Wang, Wenmei Zhang, Boye Li, Ying Zhu, Qin Hu, Yishu Yang, Xiaoguang Zhang, Hong Yan, Yi Zeng
Here, we report the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) potency and underlying mechanisms of a Keggin polyoxometalate (PT-1, K₆HPTi₂W10 O40 ). Our findings showed that PT-1 exhibited highly potent effects against a diverse group of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) strains and displayed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The time-addition assay revealed that PT-1 acted at an early stage of infection, and these findings were supported by the observation that PT-1 had more potency against Env-pseudotyped virus than vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped virus...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772709/observations-on-the-early-establishment-of-foliar-endophytic-fungi-in-leaf-discs-and-living-leaves-of-a-model-woody-angiosperm-populus-trichocarpa-salicaceae
#19
Yu-Ling Huang, Naupaka B Zimmerman, A Elizabeth Arnold
Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa , which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera ( Cladosporium , Penicillium , and Trichoderma )...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772595/-case-report-metamizole-induced-agranulocytosis
#20
Falk A Gonnert, Winfried Meißner
Metamizole is primarily used for severe perioperative pain, acute injury and colic, and cancer pain. For other acute/chronic forms of pain and high fever, it should only be used if unresponsive to other agents. Metamizole should not be used for middle and low pain. Oral application should be preferred. A contraindication for metamizole is leukopenia. Clinical signs for agranulocytosis are fever, tonsillitis and aphthous stomatitis.
May 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
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