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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#1
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634485/nitrogen-can-alleviate-the-inhibition-of-photosynthesis-caused-by-high-temperature-stress-under-both-steady-state-and-flecked-irradiance
#2
Guanjun Huang, Qiangqiang Zhang, Xinghai Wei, Shaobing Peng, Yong Li
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for plants and is closely related to photosynthesis. High temperature stress significantly inhibits photosynthesis under both steady-state and flecked irradiance. However, it is not known whether nitrogen can affect the decrease in photosynthesis caused by high temperature, especially under flecked irradiance. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted under two nitrogen (N) supplies with rice plants, and the steady-state and dynamic photosynthesis rates were measured under 28 and 40°C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633427/genotypic-variation-in-tolerance-to-drought-stress-is-highly-coordinated-with-hydraulic-conductivity-photosynthesis-interplay-and-aquaporin-expression-in-field-grown-mulberry-morus-spp
#3
Kanubothula Sitarami Reddy, Kalva Madhana Sekhar, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Hydraulic conductivity quantifies the efficiency of a plant to transport water from root to shoot and is a major constriction on leaf gas exchange physiology. Mulberry (Morus spp.) is the most economically important crop for sericulture industry. In this study, we demonstrate a finely coordinated control of hydraulic dynamics on leaf gas exchange characteristics in 1-year-old field-grown mulberry genotypes (Selection-13 (S13); Kollegal Local (KL) and Kanva-2 (K2)) subjected to water stress by withholding water for 20 days and subsequent recovery for 7 days...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633378/the-cost-of-avoiding-freezing-in-stems-trade-off-between-xylem-resistance-to-cavitation-and-supercooling-capacity-in-woody-plants
#4
Nadia S Arias, Fabián G Scholz, Guillermo Goldstein, Sandra J Bucci
Stems and leaves of Olea europaea L. (olive) avoid freezing damage by substantial supercooling during the winter season. Physiological changes during acclimation to low temperatures were studied in five olive cultivars. Water relations and hydraulic traits, ice nucleation temperature (INT) and temperatures resulting in 50% damage (LT50) were determined. All cultivars showed a gradual decrease in INT and LT50 from the dry and warm summer to the wet and cold winter in Patagonia, Argentina. During acclimation to low temperatures there was an increase in leaf cell wall rigidity and stomatal conductance (gs), as well as a decrease in leaf apoplastic water content, leaf water potential (Ψ), sap flow and stem hydraulic conductivity (ks)...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633087/in-field-study-on-traditional-italian-tomato-landraces-the-constitutive-activation-of-the-ros-scavenging-machinery-reduces-effects-of-drought-stress
#5
Simone Landi, Alessia De Lillo, Roberta Nurcato, Stefania Grillo, Sergio Esposito
The involvement and the efficiency of the antioxidants scavenging system upon drought were examined by comparing traditional tomato landraces with respect to an industrial commercial genotype (Red Setter); for the first time, comprehensive analyses of physiological, biochemical and molecular parameters were investigated directly under real field conditions, in a typical agricultural environment of Southern Italy. The characterization of the responses upon drought evidenced peculiar changes in stomatal conductance, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities and expression in drought tolerant tomato landraces, with respect to the industrial genotype...
June 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631704/-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-intracardiac-thrombosis-a-description-of-two-cases-and-a-review-of-literature
#6
Z S Alekberova, P S Ovcharov, T A Lisitsyna, A V Volkov, T V Popkova
Behçet's disease (BD) is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, which is more common in the countries located along the Great Silk Road. The disease is diagnosed if a patient has 4 key diagnostic signs: aphthous stomatitis, genital sores, and eye and skin lesions. Vascular diseases referred to as minor criteria for BD are characterized by the formation of aneurysms and thrombosis, predominantly in the venous bed. In venous disorders, a blood clot can form in any vessel, including caval, cerebral, pulmonary, and other veins...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631132/adaptive-biochemical-and-physiological-responses-of-eriobotrya-japonica-to-fluoride-air-pollution
#7
Nada Elloumi, Mohamed Zouari, Imed Mezghani, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Steve Woodward, Monem Kallel
The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant...
June 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630358/assessing-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-ebola-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
May S ElSherif, Catherine Brown, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Li Li, Trina Racine, Judie Alimonti, Thomas L Rudge, Carol Sabourin, Peter Silvera, Jay W Hooper, Steven A Kwilas, Nicole Kilgore, Christopher Badorrek, W Jay Ramsey, D Gray Heppner, Tracy Kemp, Thomas P Monath, Teresa Nowak, Shelly A McNeil, Joanne M Langley, Scott A Halperin
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the most widespread in history. In response, alive attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP) was evaluated in humans. METHODS: In a phase 1, randomized, dose-ranging, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-65 years were randomized into 4 groups of 10 to receive one of 3 vaccine doses or placebo...
June 19, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#9
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626039/the-role-of-idioblasts-in-leaf-water-relations-of-tropical-rhododendron
#10
Tatpong Tulyananda, Erik T Nilsen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although much is known about the anatomy of idioblasts, the relationship of leaf idioblasts to leaf physiology is poorly known. Our goal was to understand the relationship between idioblast abundance and leaf water relations. Tropical epiphytic and shrub Rhododendron species were the model system. METHODS: Leaf succulence and idioblast metrics of 61 plants representing 17 species were compared with stomatal and water relation metrics. Correlation, ANOVA, and regression were used to understand which water relation traits were best aligned with the proportion of the leaf occupied by idioblasts for epiphytic and shrub species...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626008/a-dual-role-for-the-osk5-2-ion-channel-in-stomatal-movements-and-k-loading-into-xylem-sap
#11
Thanh Hao Nguyen, Shouguang Huang, Donaldo Meynard, Christian Chaine, Rémy Michel, Rob Roelfsema, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Herve Sentenac, Anne-Aliénor Véry
The roles of potassium channels from the Shaker family in stomatal movements have been investigated by reverse genetics analyses in Arabidopsis, but corresponding information is lacking outside this model species. Rice and other cereals possess stomata that are more complex than those of Arabidopsis. We examined the role of the outward Shaker K+ channel gene OsK5.2. Expression of the OsK5.2 gene (GUS reporter strategy) was observed in the whole stomatal complex (guard cells and subsidiary cells), in the root vasculature and root cortex...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624683/drought-responsive-micrornas-in-two-barley-cultivars-differing-in-their-level-of-sensitivity-to-drought-stress
#12
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Reza Keshavarznia, Nava Nikpay, Maryam Shahbazi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of genes involved in the response to stress. Here, a comparison has been drawn between the miRNA profiles of a drought susceptible, 'Morocco 9-75', and a drought tolerant, 'Yousef', barley cultivars. Leaf water content, shoot dry matter and chlorophyll content decreased in 'Morocco 9-75' more considerably compared with 'Yousef' under drought stress. Furthermore, lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature were observed in 'Morocco 9-75' compared with 'Yousef'...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624639/ozone-exposure-and-flux-based-response-relationships-with-photosynthesis-leaf-morphology-and-biomass-in-two-poplar-clones
#13
Bo Shang, Zhaozhong Feng, Pin Li, Xiangyang Yuan, Yansen Xu, Vicent Calatayud
Poplar clones 546 (P. deltoides cv. '55/56'×P. deltoides cv. 'Imperial') and 107 (P. euramericana cv. '74/76') were exposed to five ozone concentrations in 15 open-top chambers (OTCs). Both ozone exposure (AOT40, Accumulation Over a Threshold hourly ozone concentration of 40ppb) and flux-based (POD7, Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above an hourly flux threshold of 7nmol O3 m(-2) PLA (projected leaf area) s(-1)) response relationships were established with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass variables. Increases in both metrics showed significant negative relationships with light-saturated photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per area, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light and root biomass but not with stomatal conductance (gs), leaf and stem biomass...
June 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623868/ozone-induced-foliar-damage-and-release-of-stress-volatiles-is-highly-dependent-on-stomatal-openness-and-priming-by-low-level-ozone-exposure-in-phaseolus-vulgaris
#14
Shuai Li, Peter C Harley, Ülo Niinemets
Acute ozone exposure triggers major emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), but quantitatively, it is unclear how different ozone doses alter the start and the total amount of these emissions, and the induction rate of different stress volatiles. It is also unclear whether priming (i.e., pre-exposure to lower O3 concentrations) can modify the magnitude and kinetics of volatile emissions. We investigated photosynthetic characteristics and VOC emissions in Phaseolus vulgaris following acute ozone exposure (600 nmol mol(-1) for 30 min) under illumination and in darkness and after priming with 200 nmol mol(-1) O3 for 30 min...
June 17, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622431/loss-of-cdkc-2-increases-both-cell-division-and-drought-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Lina Zhao, Yaqiong Li, Qi Xie, Yaorong Wu
Drought stress is one of abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity. To further understand the mechanism of drought tolerance and identify the genes involved in this process, a genetic screen for altered drought response was conducted in Arabidopsis. One mutant with enhanced drought tolerance was isolated and named atdtm1 (Arabidopsis drought tolerance mutant 1), which has larger lateral organs, prolonged growth duration, increased relative water content and a reduced leaf stomatal density compared with the wild type...
June 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621288/photodvnamic-therapy-in-endodontics
#16
Zahed Mohammadi, Hamid Jafarzadeh, Sousan Shalavi, Jun-Ichiro Kinoshita
Commonly used irrigants do not always eradicate the entire microbial flora in infected root canals. Therefore, several other strategies, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed. Photoactivated disinfection is based on the interaction of a photosensitive antibacterial agent and a light source. It uses a nontoxic dye named photosensitizer (PS) and low-intensity visible light. In oxygen presentation, these combine to produce some cytotoxic species. The PS molecules attach to bacteria membrane. Irradiation with a specific wavelength of the light may lead to the production of singlet oxygen, resulting in rupture of the microbial cell wall...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620951/persistent-negative-temperature-response-of-mesophyll-conductance-in-red-raspberry-rubus-idaeus-l-leaves-under-both-high-and-low-vapour-pressure-deficits-a-role-for-abscisic-acid
#17
Changpeng Qiu, Gilbert Ethier, Steeve Pepin, Pascal Dubé, Yves Desjardins, André Gosselin
The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (gm ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (Tleaf ) rise from 20°C to 35°C. Contrary to the great majority of gm temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of gm with increasing Tleaf irrespective of leaf chamber O2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0...
June 15, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620915/gas-exchange-recovery-following-natural-drought-is-rapid-unless-limited-by-loss-of-leaf-hydraulic-conductance-evidence-from-an-evergreen-woodland
#18
Robert P Skelton, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam, Patrick J Mitchell
Drought can cause major damage to plant communities, but species damage thresholds and postdrought recovery of forest productivity are not yet predictable. We used an El Niño drought event as a natural experiment to test whether postdrought recovery of gas exchange could be predicted by properties of the water transport system, or if metabolism, primarily high abscisic acid concentration, might delay recovery. We monitored detailed physiological responses, including shoot sapflow, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and foliar abscisic acid (ABA), during drought and through the subsequent rehydration period for a sample of eight canopy and understory species...
June 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620861/testing-a-ratio-of-photosynthesis-to-o3-uptake-as-an-index-for-assessing-o3-induced-foliar-visible-injury-in-poplar-trees
#19
Yasutomo Hoshika, Elisa Carrari, Lu Zhang, Giulia Carriero, Sara Pignatelli, Gianni Fasano, Alessandro Materassi, Elena Paoletti
Visible foliar injury by ozone (ozone visible injury) is known as a biomarker to assess potential phytotoxicity of ozone. We investigated ozone visible injury in an ozone-sensitive poplar (Oxford clone) under a 2-year free-air controlled exposure (FACE) experiment and calculated three ozone indices (i.e., accumulative ozone exposure over 40 ppb during daylight hours (AOT40), phytotoxic ozone dose above a flux threshold of 0 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (POD0), and the cumulative value of the ratio of hourly ozone uptake to net photosynthesis (ΣU/P n ) to assess the critical level (CL) at the time of the first symptom onset of ozone visible injury...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618305/phase-i-study-of-temsirolimus-in-combination-with-cetuximab-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumours
#20
A Hollebecque, R Bahleda, L Faivre, J Adam, V Poinsignon, A Paci, C Gomez-Roca, J C Thery, M C Le Deley, A Varga, A Gazzah, E Ileana, M Gharib, E Angevin, K Malekzadeh, C Massard, J C Soria, J P Spano
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest synergistic antitumour effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor such as temsirolimus combined with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody such as cetuximab. METHODS: Temsirolimus (T) and cetuximab (C) were combined and escalated in cohorts of patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumours, respectively from 15 to 25 mg and 150-250 mg/m(2), until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined. Effort was made in the expansion cohort to enrol patients harbouring a molecular aberration in the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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