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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449122/up-regulation-of-nced3-and-aba-biosynthesis-occur-within-minutes-of-a-decrease-in-leaf-turgor-but-ahk1-is-not-required
#1
Frances C Sussmilch, Timothy J Brodribb, Scott A M McAdam
A major environmental signal influencing day-time stomatal aperture is the vapour pressure deficit between the leaf and atmosphere (VPD). In angiosperms, increased VPD triggers biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), prompting rapid stomatal closure. Altered cell turgor has been proposed as the trigger for ABA biosynthesis, but the timing and nature of the genetic signals linking these processes have remained uncertain. We investigated this in Arabidopsis by examining changes induced by a decrease in leaf turgor, simulating a natural increase in VPD...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446638/stomatal-function-across-temporal-and-spatial-scales-deep-time-trends-land-atmosphere-coupling-and-global-models
#2
Peter J Franks, Joseph A Berry, Danica L Lombardozzi, Gordon B Bonan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446637/drought-enhanced-xylem-sap-sulfate-closes-stomata-by-affecting-almt12-and-guard-cell-aba-synthesis
#3
Frosina Malcheska, Altaf Ahmad, Sundas Batool, Heike M Müller, Jutta Ludwig-Müller, Juergen Kreuzwieser, Dörte Randewig, Robert Hänsch, Ralf R Mendel, Ruediger Hell, Markus Wirtz, Dietmar Geiger, Peter Ache, Rainer Hedrich, Cornelia Herschbach, Heinz Rennenberg
Water limitation of plants causes stomatal closure to prevent water loss by transpiration. For this purpose, progressing soil water deficit is communicated from roots to shoots. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key signal in stress-induced stomatal closure, however, ABA as early xylem-delivered signal is still a matter of debate. In the present study, poplar plants were exposed to water stress to investigate xylem sap sulfate and ABA, stomatal conductance and sulfate transporter (SULTR) expression. In addition, stomatal behavior and expression of ABA receptors, drought responsive genes, transcription factors and NCED3 were studied after feeding sulfate and ABA to detached poplar leaves and epidermal peels of Arabidopsis...
April 26, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444603/physiological-functioning-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-l-under-heavy-roadside-traffic-an-approach-to-screen-potential-species-for-abatement-of-urban-air-pollution
#4
H Singh, Savita, R Sharma, S Sinha, M Kumar, P Kumar, A Verma, S K Sharma
The mitigation potential of avenue tree species needs a sound understanding, especially for landscape planning or planting tree species on roadside, especially in city limits where there is huge traffic due to more number of vehicles. A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the impact of heavy traffic movement and pollution thereof on physiological functioning of Lagerstroemia speciosa trees planted on roadside in terms of carbon absorption, mitigation potential and adaptive behavior. Trees on roadside exhibited reduced carbon assimilation (36...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444356/long-term-effects-of-drought-on-tree-ring-growth-and-carbon-isotope-variability-in-scots-pine-in-a-dry-environment
#5
Galina Timofeeva, Kerstin Treydte, Harald Bugmann, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Rolf Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer
Drought frequency is increasing in many parts of the world and may enhance tree decline and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood, however, particularly regarding chronic effects of long-term drought and the response to increasing temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We combined analyses of radial growth and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over the 20th century to elucidate causes of tree mortality in one of the driest parts of the European Alps (Pfynwald, Switzerland)...
April 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444313/genotypic-variation-in-transpiration-efficiency-due-to-differences-in-photosynthetic-capacity-among-sugarcane-related-clones
#6
Chunjia Li, Phillip Jackson, Xin Lu, Chaohua Xu, Qing Cai, Jayapathi Basnayake, Prakash Lakshmanan, Oula Ghannoum, Yuanhong Fan
Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444114/efficacy-of-everolimus-plus-octreotide-lar-in-patients-with-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumor-and-carcinoid-syndrome-final-overall-survival-from-the-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-3-radiant-2-study
#7
M E Pavel, E Baudin, K E Öberg, J D Hainsworth, M Voi, N Rouyrre, M Peeters, D J Gross, J C Yao
Background: In the phase 3 RADIANT-2 study, everolimus plus octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) showed improvement of 5.1 months in median progression-free survival vs placebo plus octreotide LAR among patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors associated with carcinoid syndrome. The progression-free survival P-value was marginally above the prespecified threshold for statistical significance. Here, we report final overall survival (OS) and key safety update from RADIANT-2. Patients and methods: The RADIANT-2 trial compared everolimus (10 mg/day, orally; n= 216) vs placebo ( n= 213), both in conjunction with octreotide LAR (30 mg, intramuscularly, every 28 days)...
April 24, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442201/temporal-variations-in-physiological-responses-of-kandelia-obovata-seedlings-exposed-to-multiple-heavy-metals
#8
Shanshan Cheng, Nora Fung Yee Tam, Ruili Li, Xiaoxue Shen, Zhiyuan Niu, Minwei Chai, Guo Yu Qiu
A study was conducted to quantify temporal variations in physiological responses of Kandelia obovata under multiple heavy metal stress. The results showed that plant growth was not significantly affected by multiple heavy metal stress during the 120-days experiment. At the start, levels of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) showed effects of "low-promotion, high-inhibition", but Pn and Gs reduced with increasing heavy metal stress at the end. Temporary lipid oxidation was shown by high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) under high heavy metal stress at the start but was unaffected at the end of the experiment...
April 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441628/potassium-deficiency-affects-the-carbon-nitrogen-balance-in-cotton-leaves
#9
Wei Hu, Taylor D Coomer, Dimitra A Loka, Derrick M Oosterhuis, Zhiguo Zhou
Potassium (K) plays important roles in the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but studies of K deficiency affecting C-N balance are lacking. This study explored the influence of K deficiency on C-N interaction in cotton leaves by conducting a field experiment with cotton cultivar DP0912 under two K rates (K0: 0 kg K2O ha(-1) and K67: 67 kg K2O ha(-1)) and a controlled environment experiment with K-deficient solution (K1: 0 mM K(+)) and K-sufficient solution (K2: 6 mM K(+)). The results showed that leaf K content, leaf number, leaf area, boll number, reproductive dry weight and total dry weight were significant lower under K deficiency (K0 or K1)...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438792/reconstitution-of-abscisic-acid-signaling-from-the-receptor-to-dna-via-bhlh-transcription-factors
#10
Yohei Takahashi, Yuta Ebisu, Ken-Ichiro Shimazaki
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) confers drought tolerance in plants through stomatal closure and regulation of gene expression. The complex consisting of the ABA receptor PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTOR (PYR/RCAR), type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C), and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) has a key role in ABA signaling. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional activator ABA-RESPONSIVE KINASE SUBSTRATE1 (AKS1, also known as FBH3), is released from DNA by phosphorylation-induced monomerization in response to ABA in guard cells...
April 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436049/elevated-carbon-dioxide-reduces-emission-of-herbivore-induced-volatiles-in-zea-mays
#11
Anna Block, Martha M Vaughan, Shawn A Christensen, Hans T Alborn, James H Tumlinson
Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defense. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defense, we measured herbivore induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor treated Z...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434944/dose-dependent-t-cell-dynamics-and-cytokine-cascade-following-rvsv-zebov-immunization
#12
Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Sebastian Lunemann, Verena Krähling, Madeleine E Zinser, Nadine Biedenkopf, Sarah K Fehling, My L Ly, Anne Rechtien, Hans C Stubbe, Flaminia Olearo, Saskia Borregaard, Alen Jambrecina, Felix Stahl, Thomas Strecker, Markus Eickmann, Marc Lütgehetmann, Michael Spohn, Stefan Schmiedel, Ansgar W Lohse, Stephan Becker, Marylyn M Addo
BACKGROUND: The recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date...
April 5, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434686/effects-of-trimethylsilane-plasma-coating-on-the-hydrophobicity-of-denture-base-resin-and-adhesion-of-candida-albicans-on-resin-surfaces
#13
Tianshuang Liu, Changqi Xu, Liang Hong, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Timothy Hottel, Jegdish Babu, Qingsong Yu
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal lesion among denture wearers. Trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coating may inhibit the growth of Candida albicans on denture surfaces. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate whether TMS plasma coatings can effectively reduce C albicans adhesion on denture base acrylic resin surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty denture base acrylic resin disks with smooth and rough surfaces were prepared and were either left untreated (control group) or coated with TMS monomer (experimental group) by using plasma...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#14
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432976/cuticular-wax-coverage-and-composition-differ-among-organs-of-taraxacum-officinale
#15
Yanjun Guo, Lucas Busta, Reinhard Jetter
Primary plant surfaces are coated with hydrophobic cuticular waxes to minimize non-stomatal water loss. Wax compositions differ greatly between plant species and, in the few species studied systematically so far, also between organs, tissues, and developmental stages. However, the wax mixtures of more species in diverse plant families must be investigated to assess overall wax variability, and ultimately to correlate organ-specific composition with local water barrier properties. Here, we present comprehensive analyses of the waxes covering five organs of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), to help close a gap in our understanding of wax chemistry in the Asteraceae family...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432256/global-sensitivity-analysis-of-onguard-models-identifies-key-hubs-for-transport-interaction-in-stomatal-dynamics
#16
Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Adrian Hills, Yizhou Wang, Howard Griffiths, Virgilio Lew, Tracy Lawson, Mike R Blatt, Simon Rogers
The physical requirement for charge to balance across biological membranes means that transmembrane transport of each ionic species is inter-related, and manipulating solute flux through any one transporter will affect other transporters at the same membrane, often with unforeseen consequences. The OnGuard systems modelling platform has helped to resolve the mechanics of stomatal movements, uncovering previously unexpected behaviors of stomata. To date, however, the manual approach to exploring model parameter space has captured little formal information about the emergent connections between parameters that define the most interesting properties of the system as a whole...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432226/everolimus-plus-exemestane-in-advanced-breast-cancer-safety-results-of-the-ballet-study-on-patients-previously-treated-without-and-with-chemotherapy-in-the-metastatic-setting
#17
Daniele Generali, Filippo Montemurro, Roberto Bordonaro, Antonino Mafodda, Sante Romito, Andrea Michelotti, Pierluigi Piovano, Maria Teresa Ionta, Claudia Bighin, Donata Sartori, Antonio Frassoldati, Marina Elena Cazzaniga, Ferdinando Riccardi, Franco Testore, Patrizia Vici, Carlo Antonio Barone, Alessio Schirone, Federico Piacentini, Franco Nolè, Annamaria Molino, Luciano Latini, Edda Lucia Simoncini, Fausto Roila, Francesco Cognetti, Francesco Nuzzo, Jennifer Foglietta, Alessandro Marco Minisini, Francesca Goffredo, Giuseppe Portera, Gilda Ascione, Gabriella Mariani
BACKGROUND: The BALLET study was an open-label, multicenter, expanded access study designed to allow treatment with everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer progressed following prior endocrine therapy. A post hoc analysis to evaluate if previous chemotherapy in the metastatic setting affects the safety profile of the combination regimen of everolimus and exemestane was conducted on the Italian subset, as it represented the major part of the patients enrolled (54%)...
April 21, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431119/survival-benefit-of-adding-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-induction-chemotherapy-to-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-with-nodal-stage-n2-3
#18
Masahiro Kawahira, Tomoya Yokota, Satoshi Hamauchi, Yusuke Onozawa, Hirofumi Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Onoe, Tomoyuki Kamijo, Yoshiyuki Iida, Tetsuo Nishimura, Tetsuro Onitsuka, Hirofumi Yasui
Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (CCRT-AC) has been established as the standard of care in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). The survival benefit of induction chemotherapy (ICT) for LA-NPC remains controversial. We analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) ICT followed by CCRT for LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 LA-NPC patients with nodal Stage N2-3 receiving induction TPF followed by CCRT (TPF group; n = 12) or CCRT-AC (CCRT group; n = 16) between October 2006 and May 2016...
April 20, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427845/development-of-a-micro-neutralization-assay-for-ebolaviruses-using-a-replication-competent-vesicular-stomatitis-hybrid-virus-and-a-quantitative-pcr-readout
#19
Stella S Lee, Kathryn Phy, Keith Peden, Li Sheng-Fowler
Development of vaccines against highly pathogenic viruses that could also be used as agents of bioterrorism is both a public health issue and a national security priority. Methods that can quantify neutralizing antibodies will likely be crucial in demonstrating vaccine effectiveness, as most licensed viral vaccines are effective due to their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Assays to determine whether antibodies are neutralizing traditionally involve infectious virus, and the assay most commonly used is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
April 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426140/stomatal-kinetics-and-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-along-a-continuum-of-iso-to-anisohydric-regulation-of-plant-water-status
#20
Frederick C Meinzer, Duncan D Smith, David R Woodruff, Danielle E Marias, Katherine A McCulloh, Ava R Howard, Alicia L Magedman
Species' differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of iso- to anisohydric behavior. However, little is known about how quasi-steady state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behavior of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this continuum. Here we evaluated kinetics of light-induced stomatal opening, activation of photosynthesis and features of quasi-steady state photosynthetic gas exchange in ten woody species selected to represent different degrees of anisohydry...
April 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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