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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705351/stimulation-of-nitric-oxide-sensitive-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#1
Masashi Tawa, Takahide Furukawa, Hiroko Tongu, Mai Sugihara, Satoko Taguwa, Misaki Yamanaka, Yoko Yano, Hiroaki Matsumori, Rie Kitada, Tatsuya Sawano, Ryosuke Tanaka, Mamoru Ohkita, Yasuo Matsumura
AIMS: In this study, we examined whether a disruption in the balance between nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive and -insensitive soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and whether treatment with NO-enhancing drugs can halt disease progression. MAIN METHODS: Rats were injected subcutaneously with saline or 60 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT). At 14 days after injection, the vascular reactivity of isolated extralobar pulmonary arteries was assessed by organ chamber technique...
April 26, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701491/effects-of-shiitake-intake-on-serum-lipids-in-rats-fed-different-high-oil-or-high-fat-diets
#2
Norihiko Asada, Rumi Kairiku, Mika Tobo, Akifumi Ono
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651749/medium-chain-triglycerides-supplement-therapy-with-a-low-carbohydrate-formula-can-supply-energy-and-enhance-ammonia-detoxification-in-the-hepatocytes-of-patients-with-adult-onset-type-ii-citrullinemia
#3
Kiyoshi Hayasaka, Chikahiko Numakura, Mitsunori Yamakawa, Tetsuo Mitsui, Hisayoshi Watanabe, Hiroaki Haga, Masahide Yazaki, Hiromasa Ohira, Yasuo Ochiai, Toshiyuki Tahara, Tamio Nakahara, Noriyo Yamashiki, Takahiro Nakayama, Takashi Kon, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi Yoshida
Citrin, encoded by SLC25A13, constitutes the malate-aspartate shuttle, the main NADH-shuttle in the liver. Citrin deficiency causes neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD) and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2). Citrin deficiency is predicted to impair hepatic glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis, resulting in hepatic energy deficit. Secondary decrease in hepatic argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) expression has been considered a cause of hyperammonemia in CTLN2. We previously reported that medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplement therapy with a low-carbohydrate formula was effective in CTLN2 to prevent a relapse of hyperammonemic encephalopathy...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597044/ex-vivo-absorption-study-of-lysine-r-lipoate-salt-a-new-pharmaceutical-form-of-r-ala
#4
Francesco Amenta, Michela Buccioni, Diego Dal Ben, Catia Lambertucci, Aleix Martí Navia, Michael A Ngouadjeu Ngnintedem, Massimo Ricciutelli, Andrea Spinaci, Rosaria Volpini, Gabriella Marucci
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) oral supplements were used in many pathologies associated with increased oxidative stress. Although only R-ALA is considered the biologically active form, R,S-ALA is used in therapeutic applications even showing poor water solubility. The aim of this work was to study the absorption and transport mechanism across the intestinal barrier of new R-ALA stable and water soluble form, consisting in the lysine R-ALA salt, in presence and absence of specific inhibitors of Na+ /multivitamin (SMVT) and monocarboxylic acids (MCT)...
March 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596218/dietary-supplementation-with-medium-chain-triglycerides-reduces-candida-gastrointestinal-colonization-in-preterm-infants
#5
Amanda B Arsenault, Kearney T W Gunsalus, Sonia S Laforce-Nesbitt, Lynn Przystac, Erik J DeAngelis, Michaela E Hurley, Ethan S Vorel, Richard Tucker, Nirupa R Matthan, Alice H Lichtenstein, Carol A Kumamoto, Joseph M Bliss
BACKGROUND: Candida is an important cause of infections in premature infants. Gastrointestinal colonization with Candida is a common site of entry for disseminated disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary supplement of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) reduces Candida colonization in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants with Candida colonization (n=12) receiving enteral feedings of either infant formula (n=5) or breastmilk (n=7) were randomized to MCT supplementation (n=8) or no supplementation (n=4)...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556839/proposal-for-an-individualized-dietary-strategy-in-patients-with-very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#6
Jeannette C Bleeker, Irene L Kok, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Maaike de Vries, Terry G J Derks, Margot F Mulder, Monique Williams, Estela Rubio Gozalbo, Annet M Bosch, Dorine T van den Hurk, Monique G M de Sain-van der Velden, Hans R Waterham, Frits A Wijburg, Gepke Visser
BACKGROUND: Patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), a long chain fatty acid oxidation disorder, are traditionally treated with a long chain triglyceride (LCT) restricted and medium chain triglyceride (MCT) supplemented diet. Introduction of VLCADD in newborn screening (NBS) programs has led to the identification of asymptomatic newborns with VLCADD, who may have a more attenuated phenotype and may not need dietary adjustments. OBJECTIVE: To define dietary strategies for individuals with VLCADD based on the predicted phenotype...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520223/anxiolytic-effect-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-is-abolished-by-adenosine-a1-receptor-inhibition-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#7
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Csilla Ari
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508680/medium-chain-tag-improve-intestinal-integrity-by-suppressing-toll-like-receptor-4-nucleotide-binding-oligomerisation-domain-proteins-and-necroptosis-signalling-in-weanling-piglets-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#8
Xiao Xu, Shaokui Chen, Haibo Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Shuhui Wang, Xiuying Wang, Huiling Zhu, Chunwei Wang, Jiadong Zhu, Yulan Liu
This study was conducted to evaluate whether medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial inflammatory response, as well as necroptosis. A total of twenty-four weanling piglets were randomly allotted to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement including diet type (5 % maize oil v. 4 % MCT+1 % maize oil) and immune stress (saline v. E. coli LPS). The piglets were fed diets containing maize oil or MCT for 21 d...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433249/emulsions-as-delivery-systems-for-gamma-and-delta-tocotrienols-formation-properties-and-simulated-gastrointestinal-fate
#9
Fei Xu, Janam K Pandya, Cheryl Chung, David Julian McClements, Amanda J Kinchla
Tocotrienols have been reported to have stronger bioactivities than tocopherols, and may therefore be suitable as a potent source of vitamin E in functional foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. However, their inclusion into new products is hindered by their low water-solubility and oral bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions (O/W) could provide an adequate delivery system for these bioactive compounds. Tocotrienols were tested in bulk oil and within O/W conventional emulsions (>10μm) and nanoemulsions (<350nm)...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430661/glucose-and-lactate-as-metabolic-constraints-on-presynaptic-transmission-at-an-excitatory-synapse
#10
Sarah J Lucas, Christophe B Michel, Vincenzo Marra, Joshua L Smalley, Matthias H Hennig, Bruce P Graham, Ian D Forsythe
KEY POINTS: Synapses have high energy demands which increase during intense activity. We show that presynaptic terminals can utilise extracellular glucose or lactate to generate energy to maintain synaptic transmission. Reducing energy substrates induces a metabolic stress: presynaptic ATP depletion impaired synaptic transmission through a reduction in the number of functional synaptic vesicle release sites and a slowing of vesicle pool replenishment, without a consistent change in release probability...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420554/medium-chain-triglycerides-enhances-exercise-endurance-through-the-increased-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-metabolism
#11
Ying Wang, Zhenzhen Liu, Yi Han, Jiping Xu, Wen Huang, Zhaoshen Li
Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) is a dietary supplement and usually used along with medications for treating food absorption disorders including diarrhea, steatorrhea and liver disease. It has been shown that MCT plays a role in lowering weight, and decreasing metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity and inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether MCT enhances exercise endurance. Here, we demonstrated that MCT containing diet improves high temperature induced exercise performance impairment. We found that MCT up-regulates the expression and protein levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310893/effect-of-fat-composition-in-enteral-nutrition-for-crohn-s-disease-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alastair Forbes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of enteral nutrition (EN) fat composition in regulating inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) is not clear. There is, moreover, insufficient evidence to guide the choice of EN in CD with any confidence. We have reanalysed the findings of previous studies in a systematic review focussing on the relationship between EN fat content and remission rates (RR). METHODS: A systematic search with no language restriction was undertaken in Medline and Embase databases supplemented by a manual search in the reference lists of identified studies...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111778/multi-carotenoids-at-physiological-levels-inhibit-vegf-induced-tube-formation-of-endothelial-cells-and-the-possible-mechanisms-of-action-both-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#13
Chien-Hao Huang, Chin-Shiu Huang, Miao-Lin Hu, Cheng-Hung Chuang
Carotenoids have been shown to exhibit antiangiogenic activities. Several studies have indicated that carotenoids used in combination were more effective on antioxidation and anticancer actions than carotenoids used singly. However, it is unclear whether multi-carotenoids have antiangiogenic effects. We investigated the effects of multi-carotenoids at physiological plasma levels of Taiwanese (abbreviated as MCT, with a total of 1.4 μM) and Americans (abbreviated as MCA, with a total of 1.8 μM), and of post-supplemental plasma levels (abbreviated as HMC with a total of 3...
January 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871440/triheptanoin-versus-trioctanoin-for-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-disorders-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Melanie B Gillingham, Stephen B Heitner, Julie Martin, Sarah Rose, Amy Goldstein, Areeg Hassan El-Gharbawy, Stephanie Deward, Michael R Lasarev, Jim Pollaro, James P DeLany, Luke J Burchill, Bret Goodpaster, James Shoemaker, Dietrich Matern, Cary O Harding, Jerry Vockley
BACKGROUND: Observational reports suggest that supplementation that increases citric acid cycle intermediates via anaplerosis may have therapeutic advantages over traditional medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAODs) but controlled trials have not been reported. The goal of our study was to compare the effects of triheptanoin (C7), an anaplerotic seven-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, to trioctanoin (C8), an eight-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, in patients with LC-FAODs...
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832554/contribution-of-intrinsic-lactate-to-maintenance-of-seizure-activity-in-neocortical-slices-from-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-in-rat-entorhinal-cortex
#15
Eskedar Ayele Angamo, Rizwan ul Haq, Jörg Rösner, Siegrun Gabriel, Zoltán Gerevich, Uwe Heinemann, Richard Kovács
Neuronal lactate uptake supports energy metabolism associated with synaptic signaling and recovery of extracellular ion gradients following neuronal activation. Altered expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) hampers lactate removal into the bloodstream. The resulting increase in parenchymal lactate levels might exert both, anti- and pro-ictogen effects, by causing acidosis and by supplementing energy metabolism, respectively. Hence, we assessed the contribution of lactate to the maintenance of transmembrane potassium gradients, synaptic signaling and pathological network activity in chronic epileptic human tissue...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790891/adenosine-a1-receptor-antagonism-abolished-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#16
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Arpád Dobolyi, Csilla Ari
The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578704/dietary-supplementation-with-n-3-fatty-acids-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-and-cachexia-marine-phospholipids-versus-fish-oil-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristin Werner, Daniela Küllenberg de Gaudry, Lenka A Taylor, Tobias Keck, Clemens Unger, Ulrich T Hopt, Ulrich Massing
BACKGROUND: Like many other cancer patients, most pancreatic carcinoma patients suffer from severe weight loss. As shown in numerous studies with fish oil (FO) supplementation, a minimum daily intake of 1.5 g n-3-fatty acids (n-3-FA) contributes to weight stabilization and improvement of quality of life (QoL) of cancer patients. Given n-3-FA not as triglycerides (FO), but mainly bound to marine phospholipids (MPL), weight stabilization and improvement of QoL has already been seen at much lower doses of n-3-FA (0,3 g), and MPL were much better tolerated...
June 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552878/medium-chain-triglycerides-in-combination-with-leucine-and-vitamin-d-benefit-cognition-in-frail-elderly-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Sakiko Abe, Osamu Ezaki, Motohisa Suzuki
The combined supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) increase muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. However, their effects on cognition are unknown. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (mean age±SD, 86.6±4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: the first group received a L-leucine (1.2 g)- and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g of MCT (LD+MCT); the second group received the same supplement with 6 g of long-chain triglycerides (LD+LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450161/a-perillyl-alcohol-conjugated-analog-of-3-bromopyruvate-without-cellular-uptake-dependency-on-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-and-with-activity-in-3-bp-resistant-tumor-cells
#19
Thomas C Chen, Jiali Yu, Eslam Nouri Nigjeh, Weijun Wang, Phyo Thazin Myint, Ebrahim Zandi, Florence M Hofman, Axel H Schönthal
The anticancer agent 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is viewed as a glycolytic inhibitor that preferentially kills glycolytic cancer cells through energy depletion. However, its cytotoxic activity is dependent on cellular drug import through transmembrane monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT-1), which restricts its anticancer potential to MCT-1-positive tumor cells. We created and characterized an MCT-1-independent analog of 3-BP, called NEO218. NEO218 was synthesized by covalently conjugating 3-BP to perillyl alcohol (POH), a natural monoterpene...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361739/ghrelin-activation-and-neuropeptide-y-elevation-in-response-to-medium-chain-triglyceride-administration-in-anorexia-nervosa-patients
#20
Keisuke Kawai, Megumi Nakashima, Masayasu Kojima, Sakino Yamashita, Shu Takakura, Miki Shimizu, Chiharu Kubo, Nobuyuki Sudo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ghrelin, a peptide found in the stomach, increases appetite and fat-free mass while suppressing energy expenditure. Ghrelin requires modification by medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) to exert its physiological effects. In this study, we investigated ghrelin activation and the resulting physiological changes following MCT administration. METHODS: Thirty participants were selected from among inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). The patients were randomly divided into three groups by the MCT content of their nutritional supplement: (1) 'MCT high' (>6 g/day), (2) 'MCT moderate' (1-6 g/day), and (3) 'MCT low' (<1 g/day)...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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