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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428094/cxcr6-gene-characterization-in-two-ethnically-distinct-south-african-populations-and-association-with-viraemic-disease-control-in-hiv-1-infected-black-south-african-individuals
#2
Anabela C P Picton, Maria Paximadis, Richard E Chaisson, Neil A Martinson, Caroline T Tiemessen
CXCR6 genetic variation was described for HIV-1-uninfected black (n=41) and Caucasian (n=40) South Africans. We also investigated the CXCR6 rs2234358 and rs2234355 single nucleotide polymorphisms in HIV-1 disease control in 124 HIV-1-infected drug-naïve black individuals [elite controllers (n=11), viraemic controllers (VCs, n=30), high viral load long-term nonprogressors (HVL LTNPs, n=11) and progressors (n=72)] compared to healthy controls (HCs; n=232). The rs2234358-T allele was underrepresented in VCs (40...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426837/the-high-prevalence-of-hpv-and-hpv16-european-variants-in-cervical-and-anal-samples-of-hiv-seropositive-women-with-normal-pap-test-results
#3
Lays Paula Bondi Volpini, Neide Aparecida Tosato Boldrini, Luciana Bueno de Freitas, Angelica Espinosa Miranda, Liliana Cruz Spano
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-seropositive women are more likely to have anogenital cancer, and high risk-HPV (HR-HPV) infection is the main associated factor. Between August 2013 and December 2015, we conducted a descriptive study to determine the HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in cervical and anal samples of HIV-seropositive women with a normal Pap test. The viral DNA was amplified by PCR using the PGMY09/11 set of primers. Reverse line blot (RLB), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing assays were used to determine the HPV genotypes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#4
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#5
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423662/comparative-analysis-of-hpv16-gene-expression-profiles-in-cervical-and-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Andrea Cerasuolo, Clorinda Annunziata, Marianna Tortora, Noemy Starita, Giovanni Stellato, Stefano Greggi, Maria Grazia Maglione, Franco Ionna, Simona Losito, Gerardo Botti, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco M Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422376/spontaneous-remission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-during-direct-acting-antiviral-agent-based-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Ken Sato, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuichi Yamazaki, Satoshi Takakusagi, Norio Horiguchi, Satoru Kakizaki, Motoyasu Kusano, Masanobu Yamada
The administration of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been reported to cause hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. However, the actual conditions of HBV reactivation and the ideal timing of medical intervention have not been fully evaluated. We reported the cases of two female patients dually infected with HBV and HCV. Both patients were inactive HBV carriers. Although the serum HCV RNA levels promptly decreased after the initiation of DAA-based therapy, the serum HBV DNA levels gradually increased during DAA-based therapy, with the peak serum HBV DNA levels observed at 16 weeks after the initiation of DAA-based therapy in both cases...
April 19, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422043/real-world-efficacy-and-safety-of-ritonavir-boosted-paritaprevir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-%C3%A2-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-final-results-of-the-rev1tal-study
#8
John Lubel, Simone Strasser, Katherine A Stuart, Gregory Dore, Alexander Thompson, Stephen Pianko, Steven Bollipo, Joanne L Mitchell, Vincenzo Fragomeli, Tracey Jones, Sarah Chivers, Paul Gow, David Iser, Miriam Levy, Edmund Tse, Alessia Gazzola, Wendy Cheng, Saroj Nazareth, Sam Galhenage, Amanda Wade, Martin Weltman, Alan Wigg, Gerry MacQuillan, Joe Sasadeusz, Jacob George, Amany Zekry, Stuart K Roberts
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment. METHODS: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included...
April 19, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421367/ns3-protease-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-liver-tissue-and-plasma-samples-from-patients-infected-by-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1a-or-1b
#9
Giulia Morsica, Andrea Andolina, Marco Merli, Emanuela Messina, Hamid Hasson, Adriano Lazzarin, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Sabrina Bagaglio
The presence of naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV-protease domain has been poorly investigated in the liver, the main site of HCV replication. We evaluated the natural resistance of the virus to NS3 protease inhibitors in liver tissue and plasma samples taken from HCV-infected patients. RASs were investigated by means of viral population sequencing in liver tissue samples from 18 HCV-infected patients harbouring genotype 1a or genotype 1b; plasma samples from 12 of these patients were also available for virological investigation...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421170/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-induces-stress-granule-formation-depending-on-protein-kinase-r-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk-in-marc-145-cells
#10
Yanrong Zhou, Liurong Fang, Dang Wang, Kaimei Cai, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, including TIA1, G3BP1, and eIF3η...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421051/in-situ-capture-rt-qpcr-a-new-simple-and-sensitive-method-to-detect-human-norovirus-in-oysters
#11
Zhenhuan Zhou, Zhengan Tian, Qianqian Li, Peng Tian, Qingping Wu, Dapeng Wang, Xianming Shi
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause worldwide for non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we applied a novel viral receptor mediated in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) to detect HuNoVs in oysters and compared with the traditional RT-qPCR method. Ten HuNoVs RT-PCR positive and 5 negative clinical samples from gastroenteritis patients were used to compare specificity and sensitivity of ISC-RT-qPCR against that of the RT-qPCR assay. ISC-RT-qPCR had at a one-log and a two-log increase in sensitivity over that of the RT-qPCR assay for genotype I (GI) and GII, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420390/a-novel-viewrna-in-situ-hybridization-method-for-the-detection-of-the-dynamic-distribution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-rna-in-pk15-cells
#12
Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao, Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of CSF. With the development of novel RNA in situ Hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus RNA molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. In this study, we established ViewRNA ISH method to reveal the dynamic distribution of CSFV RNA in PK15 cells...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#13
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419488/interferon-%C3%AE-3-gene-il28b-is-associated-with-spontaneous-or-treatment-induced-viral-clearance-in-hepatitis%C3%A2-c-virus-infected-multitransfused-patients-with-thalassemia
#14
Aritra Biswas, Rushna Firdaus, Debanjali Gupta, Monika Ghosh, Kallol Saha, Prosanto Chowdhury, Maitreyee Bhattacharyya, Provash C Sadhukhan
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major posttransfusion infection in multitransfused individuals in India with thalassemia major. To our knowledge, this study is the first conducted to correlate and comprehend the effects of the host interleukin (IL)28B gene polymorphism at loci rs12979860 and rs8099917 in spontaneous or interferon (IFN)-induced treatment response in the HCV-seroreactive individuals with thalassemia major. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 557 HCV-seroreactive individuals with thalassemia were processed for HCV viral genotyping and host IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis at loci rs12979860 and rs8099917...
April 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418311/reemergence-of-african-swine-fever-in-zimbabwe-2015
#15
Juanita van Heerden, Kerstin Malan, Biko M Gadaga, Reverend M Spargo
Zimbabwe is the only country in southern Africa with no reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks during 1993-2014. However, the 2015 discovery of genotype II ASF virus in Zimbabwe indicates the reemergence of ASF in this country and suggests that this viral genotype may be spreading through eastern and southern Africa.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416383/comparative-characterization-analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-bias-in-classical-swine-fever-virus
#16
Xin Xu, Dongliang Fei, Huansheng Han, Honggui Liu, Jiayong Zhang, Yulong Zhou, Chuang Xu, Hongbin Wang, Hongwei Cao, Hua Zhang
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is responsible for the highly contagious viral disease of swine, and causes great economic loss in the swine-raising industry. Considering the significance of CSFV, a systemic analysis was performed to study its codon usage patterns. In this study, using the complete genome sequences of 76 CSFV representing three genotypes, we firstly analyzed the relative nucleotide composition, effective number of codon (ENC) and synonymous codon usage in CSFV genomes. The results showed that CSFV is GC-moderate genome and the third-ended codons are not preferentially used...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414004/clinical-virological-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-dengue-outbreak-in-myanmar-2015
#17
A K Kyaw, M M Ngwe Tun, M L Moi, T Nabeshima, K T Soe, S M Thwe, A A Myint, K T T Maung, W Aung, D Hayasaka, C C Buerano, K Z Thant, K Morita
Hospital-based surveillance was conducted at two widely separated regions in Myanmar during the 2015 dengue epidemic. Acute phase serum samples were collected from 332 clinically diagnosed dengue patients during the peak season of dengue cases. Viremia levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and plaque assays using FcγRIIA-expressing and non-FcγRIIA-expressing BHK cells to specifically determine the infectious virus particles. By serology and molecular techniques, 280/332 (84·3%) were confirmed as dengue patients...
April 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410351/viral-dynamics-among-hepatitis-c-virus-chronic-infected-patients-during-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-therapy-impact-for-monitoring-and-optimizing-treatment-duration
#18
Andres Tabernilla, Marta Grandal, Berta Pernas, Angeles Castro-Iglesias, Iria Rodríguez-Osorio, Alvaro Mena, Manuel Delgado, Purificacion Cid, Jose D Pedreira, Eva Poveda
OBJECTIVES: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have provided an ultimate treatment duration of 12 weeks for most hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The opportunity to reduce treatment duration to 6 or 8 weeks is being evaluated. Here, the HCV viral dynamics at short times during HCV therapies and its implications for monitoring and optimizing treatment duration have been assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HCV chronic infected patients who began HCV therapy (March 2014 to June 2015) at a reference hospital of the Northwest of Spain were selected...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409290/comparison-of-clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-during-two-major-paediatric-meningitis-outbreaks-of-echovirus-30-and-other-non-polio-enteroviruses-in-germany-in-2008-and-2013
#19
H Rudolph, R Prieto Dernbach, M Walka, P Rey-Hinterkopf, V Melichar, E Muschiol, S Schweitzer-Krantz, J W Richter, C Weiss, S Böttcher, S Diedrich, H Schroten, T Tenenbaum
Viral meningitis is mainly caused by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). Large-scale data on the clinical characteristics between different outbreaks within the same region are lacking. This study aimed to analyse a possible influence of the circulating NPEV genotype on the disease outcome of affected children. A retrospective cohort study analysing two major outbreaks of NPEV meningitis in Germany in 2008 and 2013 was conducted in cooperation with the National Reference Centre for Poliomyelitis and Enteroviruses (NRC PE) and five German children's hospitals...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408931/drug-induced-pneumonitis-secondary-to-treatment-with-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-viekira-pak%C3%A2-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-case-report-of-an-unexpected-life-threatening-adverse-reaction
#20
Shih Yea Sylvia Wu, Bridget Faire, Edward Gane
VIEKIRA PAK (ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir) is an approved treatment for compensated patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This oral regimen has minimal adverse effects and is well tolerated. Cure rates are 97% in patients infected with HCV GT 1a and 99% in those with HCV GT 1b. We report the first case of life-threatening allergic pneumonitis associated with VIEKIRA PAK. This unexpected serious adverse event occurred in a 68-year-old Chinese female with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
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