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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029274/mutation-driven-parallel-evolution-during-viral-adaptation
#1
Andrew M Sackman, Lindsey W McGee, Anneliese J Morrison, Jessica Pierce, Jeremy Anisman, Hunter Hamilton, Stephanie Sanderbeck, Cayla Newman, Darin R Rokyta
Convergent evolution has been demonstrated across all levels of biological organization, from parallel nucleotide substitutions to convergent evolution of complex phenotypes, but whether instances of convergence are the result of selection repeatedly finding the same optimal solution to a recurring problem or are the product of mutational biases remains unsettled. We generated 20 replicate lineages allowed to fix a single mutation from each of four bacteriophage genotypes under identical selective regimes to test for parallel changes within and across genotypes at the levels of mutational effect distributions and gene, protein, amino acid, and nucleotide changes...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029262/chikungunya-fever-outbreak-identified-in-north-bali-indonesia
#2
Kartika Sari, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ayu Rai Andayani, Putu Dwi Adi, Rama Dhenni, Aditya Perkasa, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Dewi Megawati, Ann M Powers, Ungke Anton Jaya
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported sporadically within the last 5 years in several areas of Indonesia including Bali. Most of the reports, however, have lacked laboratory confirmation. Method: A recent fever outbreak in a village in the North Bali area was investigated using extensive viral diagnostic testing including both molecular and serological approaches. Results and conclusions: Ten out of 15 acute febrile illness samples were confirmed to have CHIKV infection by real-time PCR or CHIKV-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 5, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029102/nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-for-adult-patients-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-infection-with-genotype-c-hepatitis-b-virus-a-nationwide-real-life-study
#3
Young Chang, Won Hyeok Choe, Dong Hyun Sinn, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn, Hyewon Lee, Jae-Jun Shim, Dae Won Jun, Soo Young Park, Joon Yeul Nam, Eun Ju Cho, Su Jong Yu, Dong Ho Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Yoon Jun Kim, So Young Kwon, Seung Woon Paik, Jung-Hwan Yoon
Background/Aim: Antiviral treatment for patients in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still controversial. We assessed whether antiviral treatment reduces liver disease progression in those patients. Methods: This study included consecutive patients that tested positive for HBeAg with an HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL, ALT <40 IU/L and without evidence of cirrhosis in eight large-volume hospitals in Korea. The primary endpoint was the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the secondary endpoint was the development of cirrhosis...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028659/differences-in-acute-retroviral-syndrome-by-hiv-1-subtype-in-a-multicentre-cohort-study-in-africa
#4
Eduard J Sanders, Matthew A Price, Etienne Karita, Anatoli Kamali, William Kilembe, Linda-Gail Bekker, Shabir Lakhi, Mubiana Inambao, Omu Anzala, Patricia E Fast, Jill Gilmour, Kimberly A Powers
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) may be used to identify patients with acute HIV-1 infection who seek care. ARS symptoms in African adults differ by region. We assessed whether reporting of ARS was associated with HIV-1 subtype in a multicentre African cohort study representing countries with predominant HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D. METHODOLOGY: ARS symptoms were assessed in adults enrolling ≤6 weeks after the estimated date of infection (EDI) in an acute and early HIV-1 infection cohort study...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028002/cyanophage-encoded-lipid-desaturases-oceanic-distribution-diversity-and-function
#5
Sheila Roitman, Ellen Hornung, José Flores-Uribe, Itai Sharon, Ivo Feussner, Oded Béjà
Cyanobacteria are among the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in the oceans; viruses infecting cyanobacteria (cyanophages) can alter cyanobacterial populations, and therefore affect the local food web and global biochemical cycles. These phages carry auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), which rewire various metabolic pathways in the infected host cell, resulting in increased phage fitness. Coping with stress resulting from photodamage appears to be a central necessity of cyanophages, yet the overall mechanism is poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026792/antiretroviral-drug-resistance-mutations-among-hiv-treatment-failure-patients-in-tehran-iran
#6
Molood Farrokhi, Samaneh Moallemi, Reza Shirkoohi, Reza Golmohammadi, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Sara Sardashti, Ladan Abbasian, Kazem Baesi, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine drug resistance mutations in patients with virological failure and find correlation between HIV drug resistance test and viral load. METHODS: Blood sample was collected from 51 patients who suspicious treatment failure in the center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2015. Viral voluntary counseling and testing load test was done and the patients with viral load above 1000 copies choose for detection of drug resistance mutations by genotyping method (29 patients)...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026473/hepatitis-c-genotypes-in-libya-correlation-with-patients-characteristics-level-of-viremia-and-degree-of-liver-fibrosis
#7
Abdel-Naser Elzuoki, Islam Elzouki, Sabah Albarassi, Mohamed Gammo, Abdalla Burwaiss
OBJECTIVES: Our study sought to determine the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotypes among patients attending two tertiary care hospitals in Benghazi and Tripoli, Libya, and correlate this with patient's characteristics, viral load, and degree of fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 286 HCV-RNA positive Libyan patients referred from different health care facilities in east and west Libya for specific HCV treatment. HCV genotyping was carried out by gene amplification...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024035/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-in-p16-positive-oral-cancers
#8
Simone Belobrov, Alyssa M Cornall, Richard J Young, Kendrick Koo, Christopher Angel, David Wiesenfeld, Danny Rischin, Suzanne M Garland, Michael McCullough
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16 positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), to assess if the virus were transcriptionally active, and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16 negative tumours...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022996/molecular-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-in-children-under-five-in-africa-2006-2016-a-systematic-review
#9
D Ouermi, D Soubeiga, W M C Nadembega, P M Sawadogo, T M Zohoncon, D Obiri-Yeboah, F W Djigma, J Nordgren, J Simpore
Group A human rotaviruses (RVA) are the most common causes of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The available vaccines, while effective in Europe and North America have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. One issue raised is the genetic variability of RVA. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review of molecular epidemiology to determine the prevalence of RVA genotypes circulating in Africa so as to establish a mapping of reliable data on these various genotypes...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022122/association-of-interferon-lambda-polymorphisms-with-elevated-baseline-viral-loads-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-6-infection
#10
Linh Thuy Nguyen, Dzung Van Nguyen, Michael J Carr, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen
Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. For clinical decision making, genetic variation in the interferon-λ (IFNL) cluster has been utilised as a baseline predictor of natural and interferon-based treatment-induced viral clearance. In Vietnam, where HCV genotypes 1 (g1) and g6 predominate, no prior studies have been conducted investigating associations of IFNL3/4 polymorphisms with spontaneous clearance (SC) or HCV viral load (VL) in chronic infection...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#11
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020199/viral-surveillance-in-serum-samples-from-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-by-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing
#12
Sneha Somasekar, Deanna Lee, Jody Rule, Samia N Naccache, Mars Stone, Michael P Busch, Corron Sanders, William M Lee, Charles Y Chiu
Background: Twelve percent of all acute liver failure (ALF) cases are of unknown origin, often termed indeterminate. A previously unrecognized hepatotropic virus has been suspected as a potential etiologic agent. Methods: We compared the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) with confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT) to routine clinical diagnostic testing in detection of known or novel viruses associated with ALF. Serum samples from 204 adult ALF patients collected from 1998 to 2010 as part of a nationwide registry were analyzed...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018314/experimental-infection-of-different-tomato-genotypes-with-tomato-mosaic-virus-led-to-a-low-viral-population-heterogeneity-in-the-capsid-protein-encoding-region
#13
Nina Sihelská, Zuzana Vozárová, Lukáš Predajňa, Katarína Šoltys, Martina Hudcovicová, Daniel Mihálik, Ján Kraic, Michaela Mrkvová, Otakar Kúdela, Miroslav Glasa
The complete genome sequence of a Slovak SL-1 isolate of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was determined from the next generation sequencing (NGS) data, further confirming a limited sequence divergence in this tobamovirus species. Tomato genotypes Monalbo, Mobaci and Moperou, respectively carrying the susceptible tm-2 allele or the Tm-1 and Tm-2 resistant alleles, were tested for their susceptibility to ToMV SL-1. Although the three tomato genotypes accumulated ToMV SL-1 to similar amounts as judged by semi-quantitative DAS-ELISA, they showed variations in the rate of infection and symptomatology...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016603/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-amerindian-children-and-mothers-from-amazonas-state-colombia
#14
Carlos Mario Jaramillo, Fernando de La Hoz, Alexandra Porras, Diana di Filippo, Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Edra Payares, Neyla Montes, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. METHODS: Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016291/chikungunya-detection-during-dengue-outbreak-in-sumatra-indonesia-clinical-manifestations-and-virological-profile
#15
R Tedjo Sasmono, Aditya Perkasa, Benediktus Yohan, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Frilasita A Yudhaputri, Rahma F Hayati, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Jeremy P Ledermann, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Ann M Powers
Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an acute viral infection caused by infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The disease affects people in areas where certain Aedes species mosquito vectors are present, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Indonesia has witnessed CHIK disease since the early 1970s with sporadic outbreaks occurring throughout the year. The CHIK clinical manifestation, characterized by fever, headache, and joint pain, is similar to that of dengue (DEN) disease. During a molecular study of a DEN outbreak in Jambi, Sumatra, in the early 2015, DEN-negative samples were evaluated for evidence of CHIKV infection...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994560/epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-fulminant-viral-hepatitis-in-pregnant-women-a-review
#16
Grazia Tosone, Davide Simeone, Anna M Spera, Giulio Viceconte, Vincenzo Bianco, Raffaele Orlando
The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994445/diagnostic-performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antigen-assay-in-hepatitis-e-virus-acute-infection
#17
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993299/circulating-micrornas-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-therapy-efficacy-in-hepatitis-c-patients-with-different-genotypes
#18
Zhicheng Fan, Qiaoxin Zhang, Huanzhu Chen, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Mengya Si, Xiaoyang Jiao
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype exerts a major influence on therapeutic response; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the circulating microRNAs as the biomarkers to predict the response to therapy in chronic hepatitisC patients (HepC) with different genotypes. METHODS: HepC patients were separated into 4 groups by genotype, healthy individuals were enrolled as the control. microRNA-122 (miR-122), microRNA-155 (miR-155) and HCV RNA in serum and exosome were measured, associations between microRNAs, viral load and other conventional biomarkers were analyzed...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993161/new-class-of-early-stage-enterovirus-inhibitors-with-a-novel-mechanism-of-action
#19
Yipeng Ma, Rana Abdelnabi, Leen Delang, Mathy Froeyen, Walter Luyten, Johan Neyts, Carmen Mirabelli
4-dimethylamino benzoic acid (compound 12, synonym: 4EDMAB) was identified as an in vitro inhibitor of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) replication in CPE-based assays (EC50 of 9.1 ± 1.5 μM). Next, the activity of twenty-three analogues was assessed, their structure-activity relationship was deduced and a more potent analogue was identified (EC50 of 2.6 ± 0.5 μM). The antiviral activity of 4EDMAB was further confirmed by quantifying viral RNA yield. Time-of-drug-addition assay revealed that 4EDMAB exerts its antiviral activity at the early stages of virus replication...
October 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992427/effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-human-subjects-and-mice
#20
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
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