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knee cartilage

S A León, X Y Mei, O A Safir, A E Gross, P R Kuzyk
AIMS: The aim of this study was to report the outcome of femoral condylar fresh osteochondral allografts (FOCA) with concomitant realignment osteotomy with a focus on graft survivorship, complications, reoperation, and function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 60 patients (16 women, 44 men) who underwent unipolar femoral condylar FOCA with concomitant realignment between 1972 and 2012. The mean age of the patients was 28.9 years (10 to 62) and the mean follow-up was 11...
January 2019: Bone & Joint Journal
Leo Massari, Franco Benazzo, Francesco Falez, Dario Perugia, Luca Pietrogrande, Stefania Setti, Raffaella Osti, Enrico Vaienti, Carlo Ruosi, Ruggero Cadossi
INTRODUCTION: Biophysical stimulation is a non-invasive therapy used in orthopaedic practice to increase and enhance reparative and anabolic activities of tissue. METHODS: A sistematic web-based search for papers was conducted using the following titles: (1) pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), capacitively coupled electrical field (CCEF), low intensity pulsed ultrasound system (LIPUS) and biophysical stimulation; (2) bone cells, bone tissue, fracture, non-union, prosthesis and vertebral fracture; and (3) chondrocyte, synoviocytes, joint chondroprotection, arthroscopy and knee arthroplasty...
January 15, 2019: International Orthopaedics
Zhi-Bo Sun, Hao Peng
OBJECTIVE: To report the design and effect of our proprietary hinged external fixator, used in combination with treadmill exercise for rabbits with intra-articular inflammation and cartilage degeneration. METHODS: Thirty-two white rabbits were randomly allocated into four groups: No treatment (NT), Distraction only (D), Exercise only (Ex), and Distraction plus exercise (D + Ex). Each rabbit underwent an anterior cruciate ligament transection on the right knee, with the contralateral knee used as a sham control (C)...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Lauren Votava, Andrea G Schwartz, Natalia S Harasymowicz, Chia-Lung Wu, Farshid Guilak
Obesity is a primary risk factor for osteoarthritis, and previous studies have shown that dietary content may play an important role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis of cartilage and bone in the knee. Several previous studies have shown that the ratio of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-6 PUFAs, and saturated fatty acids can significantly influence bone structure and osteoarthritis (OA) progression. However, the influence of obesity or dietary fatty acid content on shoulder OA is not well understood...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
G M Perretti, M Ulivi, L De Girolamo, V Meroni, M D Lombardo, L Mangiavini
Articular cartilage injuries are still unsolved due to the limited intrinsic healing potential of this tissue. Unlike other tissues, inflammation in the synovial joint causes perpetual damage and progressively leads to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adipose tissue in modulating inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the role of these cells in modifying the pathological microenvironment present in knee osteoarthritis...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
G Cassiolas, M Berni, G Marchiori, M Bontempi, L Bragonzoni, G Valente, A Grassi, S Zaffagnini, A Visani, N F Lopomo
The knee is the largest and most complex joint in the human body. Traumatic events, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, can lead to an alteration of joint tissues homeostasis. Literature reports an evident correlation between abnormal joint biomechanics and the status of articular tissues. These alterations, due to a sub-optimal ACL reconstruction, may result in an increasing risk of developing degenerative pathologies, such as osteoarthritis. Thus, the identification of the optimal surgical technique is a highly demanding issue in ACL reconstruction...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
G Vicenti, D Bizzoca, V S Nappi, F Moretti, M Carrozzo, V Belviso, B Moretti
Clinical biophysics investigates the relationship between non-ionizing physical energy and the human body. Although several types of electrical stimulation devices have received US FDA approval for orthopaedic application, the use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMFs) play a central role in joint biophysics. This narrative review aims to summarize the current evidences on the efficacy of PEMF-therapy in the treatment of knee articular diseases. Preclinical studies have assessed the effects of PEMFs on chondrocytes, synoviocytes, articular cartilage explants and animal models, showing positive effects of PEMF-therapy on cells proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) production, chondrocytes apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines down-regulation...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Eve Salonius, Virpi Muhonen, Kalle Lehto, Elina Järvinen, Tuomo Pyhältö, Markus Hannula, Antti S Aula, Peter Uppstu, Anne-Marie Haaparanta, Ari Rosling, Minna Kellomäki, Ilkka Kiviranta
Deep osteochondral defects may leave voids in the subchondral bone, increasing the risk of joint structure collapse. To ensure a stable foundation for the cartilage repair, bone grafts can be used for filling these defects. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a biodegradable material that improves bone healing and supports bone matrix deposition. We compared the reparative capacity of two investigative macroporous PLGA-based biomaterials with two commercially available bone graft substitutes in the bony part of an intra-articular bone defect created in the lapine femur...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Toshikazu Tanaka, Takehiko Matsushita, Kyohei Nishida, Koji Takayama, Kanto Nagai, Daisuke Araki, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Yasuhiko Tabata, Ryosuke Kuroda
Simvastatin is clinically used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. This study investigated the effects of the intra-articular administration of a simvastatin-conjugated gelatin hydrogel on osteoarthritis (OA) progression in a murine model. The medial meniscus of the knee joint was de-stabilized to induce OA in 10-week-old mice. Mice were then intra-articularly injected with dimethyl sulfoxide (control), drug-free gelatin hydrogel, simvastatin, or simvastatin-conjugated gelatin hydrogel. At 8 weeks postsurgery, OA progression was significantly attenuated in the simvastatin-conjugated gelatin hydrogel-treated mice compared to the other three groups...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Joseph N Liu, Anirudh K Gowd, Michael L Redondo, David R Christian, Brandon C Cabarcas, Adam B Yanke, Brian J Cole
Background: Traditionally, the primary outcome in meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) has been long-term survivorship; however, short-term clinically significant outcomes are necessary to fully evaluate patient improvement after surgery. Purpose: To (1) establish the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) with respect to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and (2) evaluate preoperative and intraoperative variables correlated with achieving these threshold values...
January 2019: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Danveer Bhadu, Siddharth Kumar Das, Archana Wakhlu, Urmila Dhakad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study to determine the preferred sites of urate crystal deposition in asymptomatic hyperuricemic individuals by ultrasound. METHODS: In two years period twenty four asymptomatic hyperuricemic individuals (serum uric acid ≥7mg/dl) and fifty controls (serum uric acid <7mg/dl) with age more than 18 years were included in this study. Double contour sign was looked for at three articular cartilage sites (first metatarsophalangeal, tibiotalar and femoral condyle) whereas hyperechoic aggregates were looked for at one joint site (radiocarpal joint) and two tendon sites (patellar tendon and triceps tendon)...
October 2018: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Yong-Beom Park, Chul-Won Ha, Jin-A Kim, Seongchan Kim, Yong-Geun Park
BACKGROUND: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have gained much interest as a promising cell source for regenerative medicine owing to the noninvasive collection, availability, high expansion capacity, and low immunogenicity. However, few in vivo studies have reported the use of hUCB-MSCs on cartilage repair. Moreover, little study has been conducted on the effects of chondrogenic predifferentiation of hUCB-MSCs on cartilage repair. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of transplanting undifferentiated versus chondrogenic predifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating osteochondral defects...
January 14, 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
S Ranguis, P Ryan, A T Cheng
OBJECTIVES: There are increasing pressures on the health system and training programs to provide adequate training opportunities for surgical trainees. This is particularly true with respect to complex procedures that are performed less commonly. We sought to develop an ovine model for the simulation of pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR) and validate its use for training. METHODS: Knee-high lamb specimens were sourced from an accredited Australian abattoir that included structures of the neck, cervical spine and subcutaneous tissues from the thyroid cartilage to the carina...
January 7, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Freija Ter Heegde, Ana P Luiz, Sonia Santana-Varela, Iain P Chessell, Fraser Welsh, John N Wood, Chantal Chenu
OBJECTIVE: Mechanisms responsible for osteoarthritic pain remain poorly understood and current analgesic therapies are often insufficient. We have characterized and pharmacologically tested the pain phenotype of a non-invasive mechanical joint loading (MJL) model of osteoarthritis thus providing an alternative murine model for osteoarthritic pain. METHODS: The right knees of male mice (12-week-old, C57BL/6) were loaded at 9N or 11N (40 cycles, three times/week for two weeks)...
January 14, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Onur Senol, Gulsah Gundogdu, Koksal Gundogdu, Fatma Demirkaya Miloglu
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA), the most encountered arthritis form, result from degeneration of articular cartilage. Obesity is accepted as a significant risk factor for knee OA (KOA). In this study, it is aimed to determine the variation of metabolites between control and patients with KOA and observe the effect of obesity on KOA via untargeted metabolomics method. METHODS: Serum samples of following groups were collected: patient group including 14 obesity (OKOA) and 14 non-obesity (NOKOA) (n = 28) and control group (n = 15) from orthopedics and traumatology policlinic...
January 14, 2019: Clinical Rheumatology
Scott R Anderson, Scott C Faucett, David C Flanigan, Ralph A Gmabardella, Nirav H Amin
Radiofrequency energy has had widespread use for a variety of surgical procedures. Its application in orthopedic surgery initiated with shoulder instability. Over the last couple decades it has been applied as surgical tool for cartilage treatment as well. There have been significant gains in its technology and our understanding of its potential benefits. We address its history and advancements in becoming a surgical tool for cartilage lesions along with a review of recent long-term follow up studies.
January 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Saranjeet Singh Jagdev, Subodh Pathak, Himanshu Kanani, Abhijeet Salunke
Background: In the challenging tibial condyle fractures despite anatomical joint reconstruction, development of osteoarthritis may still occur secondary to the initial articular cartilage and meniscal injury. The aim of the study was to know incidence of osteoarthritis in our operated cases of tibial plateau fracture and to evaluate functional outcome. Methods: Our operated 60 patients of tibial plateau fractures between 2006 to 2013 were evaluated retrospectively...
November 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Weiyi Pan, Wuwei Yin, Li Yang, Lili Xue, Jie Ren, Wei Wei, Qiuyu Lu, Handong Ding, Zhaohui Liu, Neel R Nabar, Min Wang, Liang Hao
AIM: In this study, we investigate the mechanistic link between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis to identify a novel target (cathepsin K; Ctsk) for the treatment of comorbid periodontitis and RA. METHODS: An experimental model of periodontitis with arthritis was established in DBA/1 mice. We then tested the effect of BML-244, a specific inhibitor of Ctsk, by quantifying several inflammatory markers of TLR9 signaling both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Our results showed that periodontitis-RA comorbidity causes severer periodontal bone and joint cartilage destruction than either disease alone...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
R Eberl
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures in pediatric patients with open growth plate are of concern and the number of injuries is increasing. The possibilities for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have improved and are without radiation exposure to the growing skeleton. The MRI should be performed routinely in every case of adequate trauma also to recognize additional injuries to the knee joint. Joint effusion represents an urgent indication for further clarification. Real ACL ruptures have to be distinguished from bony avulsion injuries...
January 11, 2019: Der Unfallchirurg
Franck Remy
Patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) has seen its role validated over the last decade as a treatment for severe Iwano III or IV patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). The ideal indication is PFOA with femoral trochlear dysplasia. The accumulation of data on factors influencing the likelihood of PFA failure or success when using first- or second-generation implants has led to design changes, which have been incorporated into modern third-generation implants. These implants are positioned using anatomic cuts, with instrumentation kits that ensure accurate and reproducible alignment...
January 8, 2019: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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