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knee cartilage

Klaus Häfelein, Andrea Preuße-Prange, Peter Behrendt, Bodo Kurz
Meniscal integrity is a prerequisite for sustained knee joint health and prevention of meniscal degeneration is a main research goal. Cartilage-protective effects of selenium have been described, but little is known about the impact on the meniscus. We therefore investigated the influence of sodium selenite on meniscal explants under tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory conditions. Meniscal explant disks (3 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were isolated from 2-year-old cattle and incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and sodium selenite (low dose, LoD 6...
October 25, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
A Neubert, Z Yang, C Engstrom, Y Xia, M W Strudwick, S S Chandra, J Fripp, S Crozier
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Akihiko Hasegawa, Tomo Yonezawa, Noboru Taniguchi, Koji Otabe, Yukio Akasaki, Tetsuya Matsukawa, Masahiko Saito, Masashi Neo, Lihua Y Marmorstein, Martin K Lotz
OBJECTIVES: The EFEMP1 gene encoding fibulin-3 is specifically expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. This study examined fibulin-3 expression patterns in joint aging and osteoarthritis (OA) and the role of fibulin-3 in OA pathogenesis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on normal and OA human and mouse knee cartilage. Experimental OA was induced in wild type and fibulin-3(-/-) mice and OA severity was evaluated by histological scoring...
October 25, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Riccardo Gottardi, Uwe Hansen, Roberto Raiteri, Marko Loparic, Marcel Düggelin, Daniel Mathys, Niklaus F Friederich, Peter Bruckner, Martin Stolz
Cartilage matrix is a composite of discrete, but interacting suprastructures, i.e. cartilage fibers with microfibrillar or network-like aggregates and penetrating extrafibrillar proteoglycan matrix. The biomechanical function of the proteoglycan matrix and the collagen fibers are to absorb compressive and tensional loads, respectively. Here, we are focusing on the suprastructural organization of collagen fibrils and the degradation process of their hierarchical organized fiber architecture studied at high resolution at the authentic location within cartilage...
2016: PloS One
Denise Clavijo-Cornejo, Karina Martínez-Flores, Karina Silva-Luna, Gabriela Angélica Martínez-Nava, Javier Fernández-Torres, Yessica Zamudio-Cuevas, Mónica Guadalupe Santamaría-Olmedo, Julio Granados-Montiel, Carlos Pineda, Alberto López-Reyes
Osteoarthritis is characterized by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. We aimed to clarify the role of prooxidant enzyme content at the synovial membrane level and how it correlates with the inflammatory process in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In synovial membranes from KOA patients and control group, we analyzed the protein content of prooxidant enzymes such as Nox2, xanthine oxidase (XO), and prolidase as well as the proinflammatory NALP3. Results show that protein content of prolidase and Nox2 increased 4...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Cynthia A Kahlenberg, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Kamran S Hamid, Michael E Steinhaus, Riley J Williams
PURPOSE: To evaluate reported medium- to long-term outcomes after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with associated cartilage restoration procedures. METHODS: A review of the MEDLINE database was performed. The inclusion criteria were English language, clinical outcome study with HTO as the primary procedure, use of a form of cartilage repair included, and the mean follow-up period of at least 2 years. Each identified study was reviewed for study design, patient demographics, type of procedures performed, clinical outcomes, progression to total knee arthroplasty, and complications...
October 20, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Xiaodan Yu, Hiroko Kawakami, Naoyuki Tahara, Merissa Olmer, Shinichi Hayashi, Ryutaro Akiyama, Anindya Bagchi, Martin Lotz, Yasuhiko Kawakami
Increasing evidence supports the idea that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate cartilage maintenance in the adult skeleton. The aim of this study is to obtain insight into the regulation of BMP activities in the adult skeletal system. We analyzed expression of Noggin and Gremlin1, BMP antagonists that are known to regulate embryonic skeletal development, in the adult skeletal system by Noggin-LacZ and Gremlin1-LacZ knockin reporter mouse lines. Both reporters are expressed in the adult skeleton in a largely overlapping manner with some distinct patterns...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ingrid Eitzen, Hege Grindem, Agnethe Nilstad, Håvard Moksnes, May Arna Risberg
BACKGROUND: Reduced quadriceps strength influences knee function and increases the risk of knee osteoarthritis. Thus, it is of significant clinical relevance to precisely quantify strength deficits in patients with knee injuries. PURPOSE: To evaluate isokinetic concentric quadriceps muscle strength torque values, assessed both from peak torque and at specific knee flexion joint angles, in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, focal cartilage lesions, and degenerative meniscus tears...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Qi Zhang, Shuxian Lin, Ying Liu, Baozhi Yuan, Steph E Harris, Jian Q Feng
Patients with hypophosphatemia rickets (including DMP1 mutations) develop severe osteoarthritis (OA), although the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified the expression of DMP1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and X-gal analysis of Dmp1-knockout-lacZ-knockin heterozygous mice. Next, we characterized the OA-like phenotype in Dmp1 null mice from 7-week-old to one-year-old using multiple techniques, including X-ray, micro-CT, H&E staining, Goldner staining, scanning electronic microscopy, IHC assays, etc...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
B Deng, F Wang, L Yin, C Chen, L Guo, H Chen, X Gong, Y Li, L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological feature of calcified cartilage zone (CCZ) in mild to moderate degeneration of cartilages from patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), revealing the pattern of CCZ during OA progression and its correlation to the surrounding structures. METHODS: Osteochondral specimens were collected from the center of the lateral tibial plateau of 42 OA patients undergoing total knee replacement. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Safranin-O/Fast green...
July 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Radu Prejbeanu, Dan V Poenaru, Andrei Dan Balanescu, Mihail-Lazar Mioc
PURPOSE: The medial plica (MP) is a normal anatomic structure consisting of a fold in the synovial layer of the joint. Arthroscopic resection is currently used as a gold standard procedure in patients with medial plica syndrome (MPS), but there are few prospective studies that analyze the long-term functional outcomes of plica resection. METHODS: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the long-term results of arthroscopic resection of the medial plicae of the knee...
October 20, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Sebastian Zabierek, Jakub Zabierek, Adam Kwapisz, Marcin E Domzalski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The patella plays an important role in knee biomechanics and provides anterior coverage of the knee joint. One to two percent of the population has an anatomical variant of patella called a bipartite patella that usually does not case pain. However, occasionally after injury or overuse during sport it can be a source of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare variant of bipartite patella and highlight conservative treatment of this condition...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Zhenlong Liu, Xiaoqing Hu, Zhentao Man, Jiying Zhang, Yanfang Jiang, Yingfang Ao
Though many surgical animal models have been used to induce osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint, they always open the capsule of the joint. Any surgical procedures that incises the capsule may cause inflammation, pain, and possibly altered gait. One common disadvantage of these surgically induced animal models is that they may affect the initial structures and synovial fluid in joint. These animal models may not be suitable for research into synovial fluid changes during early OA. This study aimed to create an animal model of early OA by resecting the medial collateral ligament (MCL) outside of the capsule...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kristine M Fischenich, Hannah M Pauly, Keith D Button, Ryan S Fajardo, Charles E DeCamp, Roger C Haut, Tammy L Haut Donahue
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. METHODS: A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic MRI record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of ACL and meniscal transection (mACLT)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Kenji Murata, Naohiko Kanemura, Takanori Kokubun, Tsutomu Fujino, Yuri Morishita, Katsuya Onitsuka, Shuhei Fujiwara, Aya Nakashima, Daisuke Shimizu, Kiyomi Takayanagi
OBJECTIVE: Joint instability induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection is commonly considered as a predisposing factor for osteoarthritis of the knee; however, the influence of re-stabilization on the protection of articular cartilage is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of joint re-stabilization on articular cartilage using an instability and re-stabilization ACL transection model. DESIGN: To induce different models of joint instability, our laboratory created a controlled abnormal joint movement (CAJM) group and an anterior cruciate ligament transection group (ACL-T)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sophie C Warner, Ana M Valdes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteoarthritis is a common complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Other identified risk factors such as increasing age and overweight do not fully explain the risk of osteoarthritis. Here, we highlight the main findings from genetic association studies on osteoarthritis to date. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, genetic association studies have identified 21 independent susceptibility loci for osteoarthritis. Studies have focused on hip, knee and hand osteoarthritis, as well as posttotal joint replacement and minimum joint space width, a proxy for cartilage thickness...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Priyanka Srivastava, Himani Pandey, Divya Agarwal, Kausik Mandal, Shubha R Phadke
We describe three consanguineous Indian families with a distinct form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED Omani type). It is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in CHST3 gene. CHST3 gene encodes the enzyme chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) which mediates the sulfation of proteoglycans, (chondroitin sulfate), in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. CHST3 gene was sequenced in probands from three different families with SED. In two families missense mutations (c.904G>C predicting the substitution D302H) and c...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Fei Yu, Hui Zeng, Ming Lei, De-Ming Xiao, Wei Li, Hao Yuan, Jian-Jing Lin
This study investigated the effects of SIRT1 gene knock-out on osteoarthritis in mice, and the possible roles of SREBP2 protein and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the effects. Mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a SIRT1 gene knock-out group (6 mice in each group). In these groups, one side of the knee anterior cruciate ligament was traversed, and the ipsilateral medial meniscus was cut to establish an osteoarthritis model of knee joint. The countralateral synovial bursa was cut out, serving as controls...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Sung Il Wang
In symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, partial meniscectomy is the principal treatment method and can yield promising short-term results. However, unlike the nondiscoid meniscus, discoid medial meniscus is frequently associated with horizontal cleavage tears, attributable to the presence of myxoid degeneration in the intrameniscal substance, in that it may potentially occur deteriorating long-term results because of re-tearing of remaining meniscus or secondary degeneration of cartilage of the medial compartment after meniscectomy...
October 14, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Hongbo Hu, Baohui Yang, Yumin Li, Subin Zhang, Zheng Li
P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R) is known to play a significant role in inflammation and pain-causing diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms of action of P2X7R and its role in OA remain unclear. The articular cartilage is the crucial region in which pathological changes occur in OA, involving the dysregulation of degradation and maintenance mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of action of P2X7R in articular cartilage in OA-induced pain and inflammation by using AZD9056, an antagonist of P2X7R...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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