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Wendy A de Heer, Alexander G Huth, Thomas L Griffiths, Jack L Gallant, Frédéric E Theunissen
Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxel-wise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulation, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bruce Arroll, Henry B Wallace, Vicki Mount, Stephen P Humm, Douglas W Kingsford
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the comparative efficacy of psychological, behavioural and medical therapies for acrophobia (fear of heights). DATA SOURCES: Multiple databases were searched through the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders review group on 1 December 2015. DATA SYNTHESIS: The data were extracted independently and were pooled using RevMan version 5.3.5. The main outcome measures were changes from baseline on questionnaires for measurement of fear of heights, such as the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ), Attitude Towards Height Questionnaire (ATHQ), and behavioural avoidance tests...
April 3, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Zoi Tsimtsiou, Charitini Stavropoulou, Noni Papastefanou, Christos Lionis
OBJECTIVES: Effective communication is a vital component of patient-centered consultations with favourable treatment outcomes. This study aimed in testing the effectiveness of a personalized, communication training program for dermatologists in their practices. METHODS: Fifteen dermatologists were offered the educational intervention NO.TE.S. (Non Technical Skills). Depending on the dermatologists' needs, seven to nine sessions with a 60-minute duration were performed, focusing on: patient-centered care, principles of Neurolinguistic Programming, a guide to the medical interview, principles of motivational interviewing and self-care...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
T Goucha, E Zaccarella, A D Friederici
The core capacity of human language is described as the faculty to combine words into hierarchical structures. This review aims to isolate the fundamental computation behind the language faculty together with its neural implementation. First, we present our central hypothesis by confronting recent linguistic theory with evolutionary arguments: linguistic humaniqueness is reflected in the labeling of word combinations forming asymmetric hierarchical structures. Second, we review the neurolinguistic literature, especially focusing on dual-stream connectivity models...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
M Keidel, F Vauth, J Richter, B Hoffmann, H Soda, B Griewing, M Scibor
The use of modern information and telecommunication technologies enables telerehabilitation of neurological deficits in the domestic environment. The current state of studies on rehabilitative teletherapy for improvement of motor function and mobility deficits due to stroke is reviewed. Two neurolinguistic proof of concept studies investigating the efficacy of online interactive telespeech therapy are reported, which compared virtual screen to screen interactive telerehabilitation of aphasia after stroke and dysarthrophonia in Parkinson's disease to conventional face to face rehabilitation...
February 2017: Der Nervenarzt
Tatiana Goregliad Fjaellingsdal, Esther Ruigendijk, Stefan Scherbaum, Martin G Bleichner
Language occurs naturally in conversations. However, the study of the neural underpinnings of language has mainly taken place in single individuals using controlled language material. The interactive elements of a conversation (e.g., turn-taking) are often not part of neurolinguistic setups. The prime reason is the difficulty to combine open unrestricted conversations with the requirements of neuroimaging. It is necessary to find a trade-off between the naturalness of a conversation and the restrictions imposed by neuroscientific methods to allow for ecologically more valid studies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Horabail S Venkatagiri, Nuggehalli P Nataraja, M Deepthi
The present study investigated the effect of certain unique morphophonemic features of Kannada words on the rate of stutters in a group of 22 adolescent and adult persons who stuttered in an oral reading task. A linear regression analysis showed that word length ranging from 1 to 8 syllables was a potent variable in the occurrence of stutters accounting for 25.3% of stutters. A composite index of morphophonemic complexity with points assigned for sandhi, geminates, consonant clusters, and number of morphemes accounted for a small 7...
2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Pascale Bédard, Anne-Marie Audet, Patrick Drouin, Johanna-Pascale Roy, Julie Rivard, Pascale Tremblay
Sublexical phonotactic regularities in language have a major impact on language development, as well as on speech processing and production throughout the entire lifespan. To understand the impact of phonotactic regularities on speech and language functions at the behavioral and neural levels, it is essential to have access to oral language corpora to study these complex phenomena in different languages. Yet, probably because of their complexity, oral language corpora remain less common than written language corpora...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Vadim Ushakov, Maksim G Sharaev, Sergey I Kartashov, Viktoria V Zavyalova, Vitaliy M Verkhlyutov, Boris M Velichkovsky
The purpose of this paper was to study causal relationships between left and right hippocampal regions (LHIP and RHIP, respectively) within the default mode network (DMN) as represented by its key structures: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the inferior parietal cortex of left (LIPC) and right (RIPC) hemispheres. Furthermore, we were interested in testing the stability of the connectivity patterns when adding or deleting regions of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a group of 30 healthy right-handed subjects in the resting state were collected and a connectivity analysis was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yuri I Arshavsky
The main paradigm of cognitive neuroscience is the connectionist concept postulating that the higher nervous activity is performed through interactions of neurons forming complex networks, whereas the function of individual neurons is restricted to generating electrical potentials and transmitting signals to other cells. In this article, I describe the observations from three fields-neurolinguistics, physiology of memory, and sensory perception-that can hardly be explained within the constraints of a purely connectionist concept...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Guillaume Thierry
The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing...
September 2016: Language Learning
Jingling Chang, Hua Zhang, Zhongjian Tan, Juan Xiao, Shuren Li, Ying Gao
BACKGROUND: In this study we investigated the neurolinguistic and neuroimaging characteristics of post-stroke motor aphasia patients. The effects of acupuncture on cortex activation by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with motor aphasia were also studied. METHODS: In this study 43 patients with motor aphasia after stroke were assessed according to Clinical Rehabilitation Research Center aphasia examination (CRRCAE) for linguistic evaluation and MRI and computed tomography (CT) were used for the analyses of brain lesions...
February 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri
Implicit strategies are known to increase persuasion performances. Implicits of content (vagueness, implicatures) and implicits of responsibility (presuppositions, topics) will be compared semiotically to non-linguistic implicits such as images and sounds. The results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments will be used to propose that presuppositions and topics arose in language as means to spare addressees processing effort on already known contents, but they were subsequently "exapted" to spare effort on unknown marginal contents, and eventually to reduce the probability for doubtful contents to be processed thoroughly and rejected...
2016: SpringerPlus
Joanna Taylor
This article is an exploration of some of the causes of stress within the dental profession and a discussion on how some of the models and philosophies of NLPt could help improve the levels of psychological wellbeing within the profession. Some of the fundamental concepts of NLPt are explored, with particular reference to their application in regard to stress. It is concluded that NLPt could provide a robust methodology for reducing psychological distress within the profession, by helping dentists to understand the concept of unuseful constructs, to improve behavioural choice and to discover the possibility of a more resourceful way of being...
April 2016: Dental Update
Michael A Arbib
The approach to language evolution suggested here focuses on three questions: How did the human brain evolve so that humans can develop, use, and acquire languages? How can the evolutionary quest be informed by studying brain, behavior, and social interaction in monkeys, apes, and humans? How can computational modeling advance these studies? I hypothesize that the brain is language ready in that the earliest humans had protolanguages but not languages (i.e., communication systems endowed with rich and open-ended lexicons and grammars supporting a compositional semantics), and that it took cultural evolution to yield societies (a cultural constructed niche) in which language-ready brains could become language-using brains...
February 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Jonathan R Brennan, Edward P Stabler, Sarah E Van Wagenen, Wen-Ming Luh, John T Hale
Neurolinguistic accounts of sentence comprehension identify a network of relevant brain regions, but do not detail the information flowing through them. We investigate syntactic information. Does brain activity implicate a computation over hierarchical grammars or does it simply reflect linear order, as in a Markov chain? To address this question, we quantify the cognitive states implied by alternative parsing models. We compare processing-complexity predictions from these states against fMRI timecourses from regions that have been implicated in sentence comprehension...
June 2016: Brain and Language
Stefanie Keulen, Jo Verhoeven, Louis De Page, Roel Jonkers, Roelien Bastiaanse, Peter Mariën
This paper presents the case of a 33-year-old, right-handed, French-speaking Belgian lady who was involved in a car accident as a pedestrian. Six months after the incident she developed a German/Flemish-like accent. The patient's medical history, the onset of the FAS and the possible psychological causes of the accent change are analyzed. Relevant neuropsychological, neurolinguistic, and psychodiagnostic test results are presented and discussed. The psychodiagnostic interview and testing will receive special attention, because these have been underreported in previous FAS case reports...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rik Vandenberghe
Highly influential recommendations published in 2011 for the classification of the primary progressive aphasias (PPA) distinguished three subtypes: the semantic variant, the nonfluent/agrammatic variant, and the logopenic variant. We review empirical evidence published after 2011 that bears relevance to the validity of the recommended classification scheme. The studies that we review principally rely on monocentric, memory clinic-based consecutive series of PPA patients. We review whether a data-driven analysis of neurolinguistic test scores confirms the subtyping that was based on expert consensus, whether the 2011 subtyping covers the diversity of PPA in a comprehensive manner, and whether the proposed subgroups differ along dimensions that are not explicitly part of the defining criteria, such as diffusion tractography...
April 21, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Jesse Heckman, Brigit McGuinness, Tansu Celikel, Bernhard Englitz
Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality...
June 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Stefanie Keulen, Peter Mariën, Peggy Wackenier, Roel Jonkers, Roelien Bastiaanse, Jo Verhoeven
This paper presents the case of a 17-year-old right-handed Belgian boy with developmental FAS and comorbid developmental apraxia of speech (DAS). Extensive neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations demonstrated a normal IQ but impaired planning (visuo-constructional dyspraxia). A Tc-99m-ECD SPECT revealed a significant hypoperfusion in the prefrontal and medial frontal regions, as well as in the lateral temporal regions. Hypoperfusion in the right cerebellum almost reached significance. It is hypothesized that these clinical findings support the view that FAS and DAS are related phenomena following impairment of the cerebro-cerebellar network...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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