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Rational Use of medicines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149552/predicting-nano-bio-interactions-by-integrating-nanoparticle-libraries-and-quantitative-nanostructure-activity-relationship-modeling
#1
Wenyi Wang, Alexander Sedykh, Hainan Sun, Linlin Zhao, Daniel P Russo, Hongyu Zhou, Bing Yan, Hao Zhu
The discovery of biocompatible or bioactive nanoparticles for medicinal applications is an expensive and time-consuming process that may be significantly facilitated by incorporating more rational approaches combining both experimental and computational methods. However, it is currently hindered by two limitations: 1) the lack of high quality comprehensive data for computational modeling, and 2) the lack of an effective modeling method for the complex nanomaterial structures. In this study, we tackled both issues by first synthesizing a large library of nanoparticles and obtained comprehensive data on their characterizations and bioactivities...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148050/the-pharmacokinetics-of-morphine-and-codeine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-after-oral-administration-of-qiangli-pipa-syrup
#2
Bin-Bin Guo, Yu-Qiao Zhang, Sheng-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Ding, Wen-Hu Zhou
Papaveris pericarpium, a natural source of morphine and codeine, is the principal active component in many antitussive traditional Chinese medicines. We herein report the first PK study of papaveris pericarpium in human plasma and urine following oral administration of single (15, 30, 60 mL) and multiple dose (15 mL) of Qiangli Pipa Syrup (MOR 0.1 mg/mL, COD 0.028 mg/mL) by monitoring morphine and codeine using a HPLC-MS/MS method. Their Tmax and t1/2 values are independent of dosages, while the AUC0-t linearly increased with higher dosages, indicating linear PK characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115449/the-rational-search-for-pde10a-inhibitors-from-sophora%C3%A2-flavescens-roots-using-pharmacophore%C3%A2-and-docking%C3%A2-based-virtual-screening
#3
Han-Tian Fan, Jun-Fang Guo, Yu-Xin Zhang, Yu-Xi Gu, Zhong-Qi Ning, Yan-Jiang Qiao, Xing Wang
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) has been confirmed to be an important target for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The purpose of the present study was to identify PDE10A inhibitors from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacophore and molecular docking techniques were used to virtually screen the chemical molecule database of Sophora flavescens, a well‑known Chinese herb that has been used for improving mental health and regulating the CNS. The pharmacophore model generated recognized the common functional groups of known PDE10A inhibitors...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114561/awareness-about-rational-use-of-medicines-among-fresh-bachelor-of-medicine-and-bachelor-of-surgery-graduates
#4
Vijaya Laxman Chaudhari, Smita N Mali, Amruta V Dawari, Tushar B Nishandar
CONTEXT: Fresh Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery graduates (FMGs) are responsible for the majority of prescription errors and irrational use of medicines. Little research has explored their knowledge on rational prescribing practices. AIMS: The present study aimed to evaluate the awareness of rational use of medicines (RUMs) among the FMGs. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A multicentric, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study was conducted among 308 FMGs during the internship orientation program...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111261/recommendations-of-the-spanish-society-of-rheumatology-on-treatment-and-use-of-systemic-biological-and-non-biological-therapies-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#5
Juan Carlos Torre Alonso, Petra Díaz Del Campo Fontecha, Raquel Almodóvar, Juan D Cañete, Carlos Montilla Morales, Mireia Moreno, Chamaida Plasencia-Rodríguez, Julio Ramírez García, Rubén Queiro
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this recommendation statement is to provide clinicians with the best available evidence and the best opinion agreed upon by the panelists for a rational use of synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologicals in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. The present document also focuses on important aspects in the management of PsA, such as early diagnosis, therapeutic objectives, comorbidities and optimization of treatment. METHODS: The recommendations were agreed by consensus by a panel of 8 expert rheumatologists, previously selected by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (SER) through an open call...
October 27, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110743/rosmarinic-acid-modes-of-action-medicinal-values-and-health-benefits
#6
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mayada Ragab Farag, Marappan Gopi, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Yashpal Singh Malik, Kuldeep Dhama
The supplementation of livestock rations with herbs containing bioactive components, such as rosmarinic acid (RA), have shown promising results as a natural feed additive in promoting growth, productive and reproductive performance, feed utilization, fertility, anti-oxidant status and immunologic indices. Furthermore, RA reportedly reduces the risks of various animal diseases and mitigates side effects of chemical and synthetic drugs. RA is a natural polyphenol present in several Lamiaceae herbs like Perilla frutescens, and RA is becoming an integral component of animal nutrition as it counters the effect of reactive oxygen species induced in the body as a consequence of different kinds of stressors...
November 7, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109916/self-medication-practices-and-rational-drug-use-habits-among-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study-from-kahramanmara%C3%A5-turkey
#7
Ramazan Azim Okyay, Ayşegül Erdoğan
Background: Self-medication refers to the use of medicines to treat self-diagnosed diseases without consulting any healthcare professionals. Irrational drug use and self-medication have serious negative consequences both on health and economy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the habits related to rational use of drugs (RUD) and to estimate the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on university students in Kahramanmaraş...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108945/assessing-the-ayurvedic-prescribing-trends-on-the-basis-of-who-drug-use-indicators
#8
Sanjeev Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Ayurvedic prescriptions are often challenged for their rationality. Excessive use of proprietary medicines, rasa preparations, and samshodhana without any justification and deliverable benefits outweighing the other forms of safer, cheaper and less time consuming therapies is putting the Ayurvedic prescribing trends into question. In Ayurvedic practice, prescriptions are often individualized with substantial variability between the choices of drugs. Although being welcomed as an advanced approach of prescription writing by making it tailor made, this method also allows for lapses to creep in thus making it necessary to check common trends of prescribing in Ayurveda and to see whether it raises any caution...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102764/treatment-of-malaria-and-related-symptoms-using-traditional-herbal-medicine-in-ethiopia
#9
Sultan Suleman, Takele Beyene Tufa, Dereje Kebebe, Sileshi Belew, Yimer Mekonnen, Fanta Gashe, Seid Musa, Evelien Wynendaele, Luc Duchateau, Bart De Spiegeleer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants have always been an integral part of different cultures in Ethiopia in the treatment of different illnesses including malaria and related symptoms. However, due to lack of proper documentation, urbanization, drought, acculturation and deforestation, there is an increased risk of losing this traditional knowledge. Hence, the use of the indigenous knowledge should be well documented and validated for potential future use. AIM OF THE STUDY: To gather and document information on medicinal plants which are used in the traditional treatment of malaria and related symptoms in Ethiopia...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098837/-pharmacokinetics-of-mercury-after-oral-administration-of-cinnabaris-and-fufang-niuhuang-xiaoyan-capsule-in-rats
#10
Xiao-Ni Song, Yu-Ting Lu, Dan-Yi Yang, Sheng Wang, Tai-Jun Hang, Min Song
Fufang Niuhuang Xiaoyan capsule was a classical compound prescription with the efficacy of heat-clearing, detoxification, sedation and anti-inflammation, with cinnabaris as one of its active ingredients. The study focuses on the pharmacokinetics of mercury in rats after oral administration of cinnabaris and Fufang Niuhuang Xiaoyan capsule, in order to explore the effect of combined traditional Chinese medicines on mercury metabolism. In this study, the method of nitric-perchloric acid digestion system coupled with cold atomic-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) was adopted to accurately determine mercury in whole blood of rats...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096701/assessment-of-utilization-pattern-of-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-healthcare-centers-in-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
BACKGROUND: Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for different levels of health care centers, several studies from Nepal and other countries in the region have revealed poor medicine use practices, including irrational use of fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs). This research aimed at assessing the utilization pattern of FDCs among primary (PHC), secondary (SHC) and tertiary health care (THC) centers in Western region of Nepal...
November 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092052/long-lasting-successful-dissemination-of-resistance-to-oxazolidinones-in-mdr-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-isolates-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-france
#12
Laurent Dortet, Philippe Glaser, Najiby Kassis-Chikhani, Delphine Girlich, Philippe Ichai, Marc Boudon, Didier Samuel, Elodie Creton, Dilek Imanci, Rémy Bonnin, Nicolas Fortineau, Thierry Naas
Objectives: Patient- and procedure-related changes in modern medicine have turned CoNS into one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Treatments of CoNS infections are challenging owing to the large proportion of MDR strains and oxazolidinones often remain the last active antimicrobial molecules. Here, we have investigated a long-lasting outbreak (2010-13) due to methicillin- and linezolid-resistant (LR) CoNS (n = 168), involving 72 carriers and 49 infected patients. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by the disc diffusion method and MICs were determined by broth microdilution or Etest...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084236/derivation-and-validation-of-a-preoperative-risk-model-for-postoperative-mortality-sampe-model-an-approach-to-care-stratification
#13
Luciana Cadore Stefani, Claudia De Souza Gutierrez, Stela Maris de Jezus Castro, Rafael Leal Zimmer, Felipe Polgati Diehl, Leonardo Elman Meyer, Wolnei Caumo
Ascertaining which patients are at highest risk of poor postoperative outcomes could improve care and enhance safety. This study aimed to construct and validate a propensity index for 30-day postoperative mortality. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, over a period of 3 years. A dataset of 13524 patients was used to develop the model and another dataset of 7254 was used to validate it. The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Overall mortality in the development dataset was 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082695/-study-on-relationship-between-efficacy-against-lung-cancer-and-different-parts-of-schizonepeta-tenuifolia-based-on-microfluidic-chip-technology
#14
Jia-Xin Fan, Yong-Rui Bao, Xian-Sheng Meng, Shuai Wang, Tian-Jiao Li
In order to further clarify the rational use of different medicinal parts of Schizonepeta, microfluidic technology was used in this study to investigate the differences in drug efficacy against lung cancer in vitro. The ethanol extracts were examined with HPLC to establish their fingerprints in order to analyze the relationship between the spectrum and efficacy index through Grey Correlation software, and a rapid HPLC-Q-TOF/MS method was established. The result in vitro shows that the effect and components of different medicinal parts had a certain differences, and apoptosis and necrosis rate from big to small in turn is leaf, flower, root, stem...
May 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071767/communicating-value-in-simulation-cost-benefit-analysis-and-return-on-investment
#15
Carl V Asche, Minchul Kim, Alisha Brown, Antoinette Golden, Torrey A Laack, Javier Rosario, Christopher Strother, Vicken Y Totten, Yasuharu Okuda
Value-based health care requires a balancing of medical outcomes with economic value. Administrators need to understand both the clinical and economic effects of potentially expensive simulation programs to rationalize the costs. Given the often-disparate priorities of clinical educators relative to health care administrators, justifying the value of simulation requires the use of economic analyses few physicians have been trained to conduct. Clinical educators need to be able to present thorough economic analyses demonstrating returns on investment and cost effectiveness to effectively communicate with administrators...
October 26, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066406/an-ethnopharmacological-survey-of-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-for-cancer-treatment-in-the-ashanti-region-ghana
#16
Christian Agyare, Verena Spiegler, Alex Asase, Michael Scholz, Georg Hempel, Andreas Hensel
AIMS: Cancer represents a major health burden and drain on healthcare resources in the world. The majority of the people of Africa still patronize traditional medicine for their health needs, including various forms of cancer. The aim of the following study is the identification of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment by the traditional healers in the Ashanti area of Ghana and to cross-reference the identified plant species with published scientific literature. METHODOLOGY: Validated questionnaires were administered to 85 traditional healers in 10 communities within Ashanti region...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055857/coumarinyl-pyranopyrimidines-as-new-neuropeptide-s-receptor-antagonists-design-synthesis-homology-and-molecular-docking
#17
Rasha Z Batran, Dina H Dawood, Samia A El-Seginy, Timothy J Maher, Kuljeet S Gugnani, Alejandro N Rondon-Ortiz
In this work, we described the design, synthesis and characterization of a new class of NPSR antagonists bearing the tetracyclic coumarinyl pyranopyrimidine scaffold incorporated with different acyclic and/or heterocyclic moieties. These compounds are highlighted in this study as never being used as NPSR antagonists before which provides a model for the discovery of new bioactive inhibitors that may hold potential for drug development towards anxiety, food, and addiction disorders. Synthetic and medicinal chemistry studies led to the identification of four potent antagonists, compounds 7d, 10, 12 and 13, which were able to significantly inhibit the stimulatory effect of NPS through counteracting the increased intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation...
October 12, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055811/access-to-treatment-with-controlled-medicines-rationale-and-recommendations-for-neutral-precise-and-respectful-language
#18
REVIEW
W Scholten, O Simon, I Maremmani, C Wells, J F Kelly, R Hämmig, L Radbruch
The European Pain Federation EFIC, the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care, International Doctors for Healthier Drug Policies, the Swiss Romandy College for Addiction Medicine, the Swiss Society of Addiction Medicine, and the World Federation for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence called on medical journals to ensure that authors always use terminology that is neutral, precise, and respectful in relation to the use of psychoactive substances. It has been shown that language can propagate stigma, and that stigma can prevent people from seeking help and influence the effectiveness of social and public-health policies...
October 19, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054871/engineering-the-enantioselectivity-and-thermostability-of-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-microbacterium-hydrocarbonoxydans-for-the-kinetic-resolution-of-vince-lactam
#19
Shuaihua Gao, Shaozhou Zhu, Rong Huang, Hongxia Li, Hao Wang, Guojun Zheng
To produce promising biocatalysts, natural enzymes often need to be engineered to increase their catalytic performance. In this study, the enantioselectivity and thermostability of a (+)-γ-lactamase from Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans as the catalyst in the kinetic resolution of Vince lactam were improved. Enantiomerically pure (-)-Vince lactam is the key synthon in the synthesis of antiviral drugs such as carbovir and abacavir, which are used to fight against human HIV and hepatitis B viruses. The work was initialized by using the combinatorial active-site saturation test strategy to engineer the enantioselectivity of the enzyme...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052407/-individualized-clinical-treatment-from-the-prospective-of-hepatotoxicity-of-non-toxic-traditional-chinese-medicine
#20
Nan Yang, Juan Chen, Xue-Feng Hou, Jie Song, Liang Feng, Xiao-Bin Jia
Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in clinical application, and been proved to be safe and effective. In recent years, the toxicity and side-effects caused by the western medicine have been attracted much attention. As a result, increasing people have shifted their attention to traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, due to the natural origin of traditional Chinese medicine and the lack of basic knowledge about them, many people mistakenly consider the absolute safety of traditional Chinese medicine, except for well-known toxic ones, such as arsenic...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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