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Rational Use of medicines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773873/therapeutic-nanoparticles-penetrate-leaves-and-deliver-nutrients-to-agricultural-crops
#1
Avishai Karny, Assaf Zinger, Ashima Kajal, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Avi Schroeder
As the world population grows, there is a need for efficient agricultural technologies to provide global food requirements and reduce environmental toll. In medicine, nanoscale drug delivery systems grant improved therapeutic precision by overcoming biological barriers and enhancing drug targeting to diseased tissues. Here, we loaded nanoscale drug-delivery systems with agricultural nutrients, and applied them to the leaves of tomato plants. We show that the nanoparticles - liposomes composed of plant-derived lipids, penetrate the leaf and translocate in a bidirectional manner, distributing to other leaves and to the roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771500/rational-design-of-cancer-targeted-selenadiazole-derivative-as-efficient-radiosensitizer-for-precise-cancer-therapy
#2
Delong Zeng, Shulin Deng, Chengcheng Sang, Jianfu Zhao Zhao, Tianfeng Chen
Chemical drug design based on the biochemical characteristics of cancer cells has become an important strategy for discovery of targeted therapies for personalized cancer medicine. Herein, cancer targeting RGD peptide has been covalently conjugated to selenadiazole derivative (RGD-SeD) to improve its cancer selectivity. The RGD decoration significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of RGD-SeD in αVβ3 integrin-overexpressing HepG2 liver cancer cells, but not in normal liver cells. Cellular uptake assay and fluorescent imaging confirmed the selectivity of RGD-SeD to integrin overexpressing cancer cells...
May 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753067/drug-interaction-study-of-flavonoids-toward-cyp3a4-and-their-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-qsar-analysis-for-predicting-potential-effects
#3
Yannan Li, Jing Ning, Yan Wang, Chao Wang, Chengpeng Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Zhenlong Yu, Lei Feng, Baojing Zhang, Xiangge Tian, Xiaochi Ma
The high risk of herb-drug interactions (HDIs) mediated by the herbal medicines and dietary supplements which containing abundant flavonoids had become more and more frequent in our daily life. In our study, the inhibition activities of 44 different structures of flavonoids toward human CYPs were systemically evaluated for the first time. According to our results, a remarkable structure-dependent inhibition behavior toward CYP3A4 was observed in vitro. Some flavonoids such as licoflavone (12) and irilone (30) exhibited the selective inhibition toward CYP3 A4 rather than other major human CYPs...
May 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751720/-association-rules-analysis-of-fufang-kushen-injection-in-combination-with-modern-medications-in-treating-lung-cancer-real-world-study-based-on-hospital-information
#4
Hui-Sheng Yang, Yan-Ming Xie, Cen Chen, Yan Zhuang, Yin Zhang
The present study was aimed to analyze the association rules of Fufang Kushen injection in combination with other modern medications in treating lung cancer based on the electrical medical records in real world clinical situations extracted from hospital information system in Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and provide reference for improving rationality of clinical drug use and exploring the prescription rules as well as subsequent in-depth analysis. The electrical medical records of the hospitalized patients using Fufang Kushen injection for lung cancer were extracted to analyze the frequency distribution characteristics in combined application with western medicine, and Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the specific association rules in combined drug use...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751700/-research-progress-of-tibetan-medicine-zha-xun
#5
Ming-Ming Zhao, Rui Gu, Jiu-Yu Fan, Yong Zeng, Yun Cao, Wen-Qian Wang, Shi-Hong Zhong, Peng Mi
Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This article would summarize the use status and research progress of Zha-xun by various ethnic groups all over the world, and the results show that it has various synonyms but most of them imply its most characteristic feature-outflow from the rock; Zha-xun resources are distributed in various places of the world, and its bearing spots are closely related to the geological structure; there are sharp arguments on the origins of Zha-xun, mainly including the minerals origin, biological fossils origin, biological origin, etc...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731375/healthcare-professionals-perceptions-related-to-the-provision-of-clinical-pharmacy-services-in-the-public-health-sector-of-mexico-a-case-study
#6
Christian Díaz de León-Castañeda, Jéssica Gutiérrez-Godínez, Juventino Iii Colado-Velázquez, Cairo Toledano-Jaimes
BACKGROUND: In Mexico, the Modelo Nacional de Farmacia Hospitalaria (MNFH, or National Hospital Pharmacy Model), published in 2009, mainly aims to promote the provision of clinical pharmacy services in private and public hospitals. However, there is little scientific documentation about the quality of these services. OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions related to the quality of clinical pharmacy services provision. METHODS: A case-study based on a qualitative approach was performed at the pharmaceutical services unit at a public hospital located in Mexico City, which operates under the administrative control of the Ministry of Health...
April 22, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728032/-key-techniques-for-precision-cultivation-of-nitrogenous-fertilizer-of-pollution-free-ginseng
#7
REVIEW
Li-Li Guo, Shuai Guo, Lin-Lin Dong, Liang Shen, Xi-Wen Li, Jiang Xu, Shi-Lin Chen
Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727733/lipophilic-extracts-of-leucas-zeylanica-a-multi-purpose-medicinal-plant-in-the-tropics-inhibit-key-enzymes-involved-in-inflammation-and-gout
#8
Mayuri Napagoda, Jana Gerstmeier, Hannah Butschek, Sybille Lorenz, Dinusha Kanatiwela, Sudhara De Soyza, Mallique Qader, Ajith Nagahawatte, Gaya Bandara Wijayaratne, Aleš Svatoš, Lalith Jayasinghe, Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leucas zeylanica (L.) W.T. Aiton is a popular, multi-purpose medicinal plant in Sri Lanka but the pharmacological potential and the chemical profile have not been systematically investigated to understand and rationalize the reported ethnobotanical significance. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to scientifically validate the traditional usage of this plant for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, gout and microbial infections...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724214/multiple-challenges-of-antibiotic-use-in-a-large-hospital-in-ethiopia-a-ward-specific-study-showing-high-rates-of-hospital-acquired-infections-and-ineffective-prophylaxis
#9
Girma Gutema, Helle Håkonsen, Ephrem Engidawork, Else-Lydia Toverud
BACKGROUND: This project aims to study the use of antibiotics in three clinical wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia for a period of 1 year. The specific aims were to assess the prevalence of patients on antibiotics, quantify the antibiotic consumption and identify the main indications of use. METHOD: The material was all the medical charts (n = 2231) retrieved from three clinical wards (internal medicine, gynecology/obstetrics and surgery) in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa between September 2013 and September 2014...
May 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720713/treatment-resistance-in-urothelial-carcinoma-an-evolutionary-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Bishoy M Faltas
The emergence of treatment-resistant clones is a critical barrier to cure in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Setting the stage for the evolution of resistance, urothelial carcinoma is characterized by extensive mutational heterogeneity, which is detectable even in patients with early stage disease. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy both act as selective pressures that shape the evolutionary trajectory of urothelial carcinoma throughout the course of the disease. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary drivers is required for the rational development of curative therapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713474/the-belgian-commitment-to-pharmaceutical-quality-a-model-policy-to-improve-quality-assurance-of-medicines-available-through-humanitarian-and-development-programs
#11
EDITORIAL
Raffaella Ravinetto, Tim Roosen, Catherine Dujardin
Today, a combination of globalization of pharmaceutical production, lack of regulatory harmonization, and weakness of Medicines Regulatory Authorities, creates the "perfect conditions" for poor-quality medicine to circulate in the global market and to penetrate the less-regulated countries. Medicines regulation is the responsibility of the national regulatory authorities in the recipient country, but in the poorer countries, in practice, the responsibility of supply of quality-assured medicines is often taken by Non-Governmental Organizations and other implementers...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709071/the-effect-of-the-implementation-of-low-price-medicine-policy-on-medicine-price-in-china-a-retrospective-study
#12
Xiaodong Guan, Mingchun Yang, Chunxia Man, Ye Tian, Luwen Shi
In an effort to relieve the pressure of drug shortages, the Chinese government implemented Low-price Medicines (LPM) policy to raise the price cap in July 2014. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the implementation of this policy on drug price in China. Price data of 491 LPM, including 218 low-price chemical medicines (LPCM) and 273 low-price traditional Chinese medicines (LPTCM), were collected from 699 hospitals. We used interrupted time series design to identify the variation of monthly Laspeyres Indexes (LI) and Paasche Indexes (PI) for LPM, LPCM, and LPTCM...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703331/an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-multiple-constituents-in-guizhi-fuling-capsule-with-ultrafast-positive-negative-ionization-switching
#13
Rong-Hua Zhang, Chao-Ran Li, Hua Yang, Meng-Ning Li, Karl W K Tsim, Ping Li, Wen Gao
Guizhi Fuling capsule (GFC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with effects of promoting blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis, has been widely used in the clinic. Because of the complex matrix and various chemical structure types, quality control of GFC remains great challenge. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography hybrid triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QQQ MS) method with ultrafast positive/negative ionization switching was developed for simultaneous determination of 18 bioactive components in GFC, including methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoic acid, albiflorin, paeonolide, paeoniflorin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-pentagalloylglucose, mudanpioside C, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, pachymic acid, amygdalin, cinnamaldehyde, paeonol, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and gallic acid...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702277/development-of-an-escherichia-coli-based-biocatalytic-system-for-the-efficient-synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-neuraminic-acid
#14
Xianzhong Chen, Junbo Zhou, Lihua Zhang, Zhongji Pu, Liming Liu, Wei Shen, You Fan
N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a valuable resource that has seen increasing demand in both medicine and biotechnology. Although enzymatic systems and whole-cell biocatalysts have been developed for the synthesis of Neu5Ac, low yield and productivity still hamper the use of these methods on larger scales. We report the creation of an Escherichia coli biocatalyst for the efficient synthesis of Neu5Ac using a metabolic and protein engineering strategy. Expression of the two enzymes, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (AGE) and Neu5Ac lyase (NAL), was balanced using promoter engineering...
April 24, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701197/-role-of-drug-transporters-in-rational-use-of-drugs-at-high-altitude-area
#15
Wenbin Li, Baohua Yan, Rong Wang, Zhengping Jia
Pharmacokinetics plays a key role in rational use of medicines. Many factors can affect the drug's pharmacokinetics. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of hypoxia on hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme, but uncommon on drug transporters. Actually, drug transporter is a key factor for activation of the drugs transport across the cell membrane into the inside of cells, such as multidrug resistance protein (MDR), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), organic cation transporter (OCT), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), organic anion transporter (OAT), qligopeptide transporter (PEPT), etc...
March 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700074/emerging-role-of-precision-medicine-in-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jane A Leopold, Joseph Loscalzo
Precision medicine is an integrative approach to cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment that considers an individual's genetics, lifestyle, and exposures as determinants of their cardiovascular health and disease phenotypes. This focus overcomes the limitations of reductionism in medicine, which presumes that all patients with the same signs of disease share a common pathophenotype and, therefore, should be treated similarly. Precision medicine incorporates standard clinical and health record data with advanced panomics (ie, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics) for deep phenotyping...
April 27, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697417/chinese-herbal-medicines-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#17
Chang Lv, Chengjin Shi, Lifen Li, Xuesen Wen, Cory J Xian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) critically impact on cancer patients' quality of life, causing various complications, and increasing the risk of chemotherapeutic failure. Current treatments addressing CINV are reasonably costly and have many side effects. Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have been widely used in treating CINV in China. Clinical trials and modern experimental studies on CINV using CHMs are reviewed for clues that may help us to better prevent and treat CINV with CHMs, and develop safe and effective treatments...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694775/potent-macromolecule-sized-poration-of-lipid-bilayers-by-the-macrolittins-a-synthetically-evolved-family-of-pore-forming-peptides
#18
Sijia Li, Sarah Y Kim, Anna E Pittman, Gavin M King, William C Wimley, Kalina Hristova
Potent macromolecule-sized poration of lipid bilayers by the macrolittins, a synthetically evolved family of pore-forming peptides. Sijia Li1, Sarah Y. Kim1, Anna E. Pittman3, Gavin M. King3,4, William C. Wimley2* and Kalina Hristova1* 1Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 2Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 3Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65201 4Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65201 *Address correspondence to wwimley@tulane...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681327/placebos-without-deception-outcomes-mechanisms-and-ethics
#19
Luana Colloca, Jeremy Howick
Scientific research indicates that open-label and dose-extending placebos (that patients know are placebos) can elicit behavioral, biological, and clinical outcome changes. In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art evidence and ethical considerations about open-label and dose-extending placebos, discussing the perspective of giving placebos with a rational, as dose extension of active drugs, or expectancy boosters. Previous comprehensive reviews of placebo use have considered how to harness placebo effects in medicine and the need to focus on elements of the clinical encounter as well as patient-clinician relations...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676107/-expert-consensus-on-prescription-comment-of-chinese-traditional-patent-medicine-for-promoting-the-rational-use-of-drugs-in-beijing
#20
Rui Jin, Kui-Jun Zhao, Gui-Ming Guo, Bing Zhang, Yu-Guang Wang, Chun-Miao Xue, Yi-Heng Yang, Li-Xia Wang, Guo-Hui Li, Jin-Fa Tang, Li-Xing Nie, Xiang-Lin Zhang, Ting-Ting Zhao, Yi Zhang, Can Yan, Suo-Zhong Yuan, Lu-Lu Sun, Xing-Zhong Feng, Dan Yan
With the growth of number of Chinese patent medicines and clinical use, the rational use of Chinese medicine is becoming more and more serious. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicine theory and the uncertainty of clinical application, the prescription review of Chinese patent medicine always relied on experience in their respective, leading to the uncontrolled of clinical rational use. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and characteristics of the unique clinical therapeutics, based on the practice experience and expertise comments, our paper formed the expert consensus on the prescription review of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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