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Rational Use of medicines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545375/natural-product-gossypol-and-its-derivatives-in-precision-cancer-medicine
#1
Yun Zeng, Jingwen Ma, Liang Xu, Daocheng Wu
Gossypol, a natural product extracted from the seed, roots, and stem of cotton, was initially used as a male contraceptive but was subsequently investigated as a novel antitumor agent. This review depicts the current status of gossypol and its derivatives as novel antitumor agents as well as presents their preparation and characteristics, especially of some gossypol Schiff bases, through quantitative and structural analyses. The main attractive target sites of gossypol and its derivatives are Bcl-2 family proteins containing the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544541/identification-and-analysis-of-chemical-constituents-and-rat-serum-metabolites-in-suan-zao-ren-granule-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-multiple-data-processing-approaches
#2
Yiyang Du, Bosai He, Qing Li, Jiao He, Di Wang, Kaishun Bi
Suan-Zao-Ren granule is widely used to treat insomnia in China. However, because of the complexity and diversity of the chemical compositions in traditional Chinese medicine formula, the comprehensive analysis of constituents in vitro and in vivo are rather difficult. In our study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the PeakView® software, which uses multiple data processing approaches including product ion filter, neutral loss filter and mass defect filter, method was developed to characterize the ingredients and rat serum metabolites in Suan-Zao-Ren granule...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539738/the-mealiness-and-quality-of-herbal-medicine-licorice-for-example
#3
Xueying Liu, Weilong Hou, Deqiang Dou
BACKGROUND: The morphological identification is an effective and simple quality evaluation method in Chinese drugs, and the traits of mealiness and color were widely used in the commercial market of Chinese drugs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality; licorice was selected as an example. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mealiness of licorice was graded by its weight; meanwhile, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection method; the content of polysaccharides, soluble sugars, pectin, total starch, amylose, and amylopectin was measured by colorimetric method; and the number and diameter of starch granule were observed by microscope...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537738/a-peptoid-square-helix-via-synergistic-control-of-backbone-dihedral-angles
#4
Benjamin Craig Gorske, Emily M Mumford, Charles G Gerrity, Imelda Ko
The continued expansion of the fields of macromolecular chemistry and nanoscience has motivated the development of new secondary structures that can serve as architectural elements of innovative materials, molecular machines, biological probes, and even commercial medicines. Synthetic foldamers are particularly attractive systems for developing such elements because they are specifically designed to facilitate synthetic manipulation and functional diversity. However, relatively few predictive design principles exist that permit both rational and modular control of foldamer secondary structure, while maintaining the capacity for facile diversification of displayed functionality...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527509/impact-of-qi-invigorating-traditional-chinese-medicines-on-intestinal-flora-a-basis-for-rational-choice-of-prebiotics
#5
REVIEW
Xiao-Meng Wang, Xiao-Bo Li, Ying Peng
According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qi (vital energy) is regarded as a driving force of biological activities in human body, including both nutrient substances and organ functions. Qi-invigorating TCMs are widely used to treat various symptoms and disorders, such as fatigue, obesity, immunosuppression, intestinal flora imbalance, and gastrointestinal diseases, in which Qi is considered to be reduced or depleted. Interestingly, abundant clinical evidences suggest that these disorders are associated with the alternation of intestinal flora, which directly affects disease status...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523827/statistical-model-based-hplc-analytical-method-adjustment-strategy-to-adapt-to-different-sets-of-analytes-in-complicated-samples
#6
Binjun Yan, Xue Bai, Yunjie Sheng, Fanzhu Li
INTRODUCTION: On account of the complicated compositions of the products like traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and functional foods, it is a common practice to determine different sets of analytes in the same product for different purposes. OBJECTIVE: To efficiently develop the corresponding HPLC methods, a statistical model based analytical method adjustment (SMB-AMA) strategy was proposed. METHODS: In this strategy, the HPLC data acquired with design of experiments methodology were efficiently utilised to build the retention models for all the analytes and interferences shown in the chromatograms with multivariate statistical modelling methods...
May 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510452/rational-optimization-of-mechanism-based-inhibitors-through-determination-of-the-microscopic-rate-constants-of-inactivation
#7
Carter G Eiden, Kimberly M Maize, Barry C Finzel, John D Lipscomb, Courtney C Aldrich
Mechanism-based inhibitors (MBIs) are widely employed in chemistry, biology, and medicine because of their exquisite specificity and sustained duration of inhibition. Optimization of MBIs is complicated because of time-dependent inhibition resulting from multistep inactivation mechanisms. The global kinetic parameters kinact and KI have been used to characterize MBIs, but they provide far less information than is commonly assumed, as shown by derivation and simulation of these parameters. We illustrate an alternative and more rigorous approach for MBI characterization through determination of the individual microscopic rate constants...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500428/a-novel-classification-method-for-aid-decision-of-traditional-chinese-patent-medicines-for-stroke-treatment
#8
Yufeng Zhao, Bo Liu, Liyun He, Wenjing Bai, Xueyun Yu, Xinyu Cao, Lin Luo, Peijing Rong, Yuxue Zhao, Guozheng Li, Baoyan Liu
Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines...
May 13, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495384/medicinal-chemistry-of-antischistosomal-drugs-praziquantel-and-oxamniquine
#9
REVIEW
Vinícius Barros Ribeiro da Silva, Bruna Rafaella Koresch Leiva Campos, Jamerson Ferreira de Oliveira, Jean-Luc Decout, Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of diseases that, besides prevailing in poverty conditions, contribute to the maintenance of social inequality, being a strong barrier to a country development. Schistosomiasis, a NTD, is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni (Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname), japonicum (China, Indonesia, the Philippines), mekongi (several districts of Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic), intercalatum and guianensis (areas of tropical rainforests in Central Africa) and hematobium (Middle East Africa, Corsica, France) whose adult forms inhabit the mesenteric vessels of the host, while the intermediate forms are found in the aquatic gastropod snails of the genus Biomphalaria...
April 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494256/designing-multi-targeted-agents-an-emerging-anticancer-drug-discovery-paradigm
#10
REVIEW
Rong-Geng Fu, Yuan Sun, Wen-Bing Sheng, Duan-Fang Liao
The dominant paradigm in drug discovery is to design ligands with maximum selectivity to act on individual drug targets. With the target-based approach, many new chemical entities have been discovered, developed, and further approved as drugs. However, there are a large number of complex diseases such as cancer that cannot be effectively treated or cured only with one medicine to modulate the biological function of a single target. As simultaneous intervention of two (or multiple) cancer progression relevant targets has shown improved therapeutic efficacy, the innovation of multi-targeted drugs has become a promising and prevailing research topic and numerous multi-targeted anticancer agents are currently at various developmental stages...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491115/therapeutic-risk-and-benefits-of-concomitantly-using-herbal-medicines-and-conventional-medicines-from-the-perspectives-of-evidence-based-on-randomized-controlled-trials-and-clinical-risk-management
#11
REVIEW
Xiu-Lai Zhang, Meng Chen, Ling-Ling Zhu, Quan Zhou
Despite increased awareness of the potential of herb-drug interactions (HDIs), the lack of rigorous clinical evidence regarding the significance provides a challenge for clinicians and consumers to make rational decisions about the safe combination of herbal and conventional medicines. This review addressed HDIs based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by performing a PubMed search till January 2017. Risk description and clinical risk management were described. Among 74 finally included RCTs, 17 RCTs (22...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482451/-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-dental-implantology
#12
Y Feng, M N Lin, F M He
The use of antibiotics in dental implantology is very common and the abuse of antibiotics is increasingly obvious. The rational use of antibiotics in the process of oral implantology needs the support of evidence based medicine. The prophylactic use of antibiotics in dental implantology is reviewed in this article, including the summary of different infection risks, such as peri-implantitis and maxillary sinusitis after maxillary sinus floor lifting.
May 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480283/using-nuclear-medicine-imaging-wisely-in-diagnosing-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Censullo, Tara Vijayan
In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on efficient and accurate diagnostic testing, exemplified by the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Choosing Wisely" campaign. Nuclear imaging studies can provide early and accurate diagnoses of many infectious disease syndromes, particularly in complex cases where the differential remains broad. This review paper offers clinicians a rational, evidence-based guide to approaching nuclear medicine tests, using an example case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in a patient with multiple potential sources...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465825/investigation-of-antimicrobial-use-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-punjab-pakistan-using-who-methodology
#14
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Anum Saqib, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Globally, between 20 to 50% of antimicrobial consumption is inappropriate, causing significant impact on the quality of care, cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns and utilization of antimicrobials in ten selected wards at Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed using the World Health Organization (WHO) indicators for antimicrobial use...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465306/high-adherence-to-the-wise-list-treatment-recommendations-in-stockholm-a-15-year-retrospective-review-of-a-multifaceted-approach-promoting-rational-use-of-medicines
#15
Jaran Eriksen, Lars L Gustafsson, Kristina Ateva, Pia Bastholm-Rahmner, Marie-Louise Ovesjö, Malena Jirlow, Maria Juhasz-Haverinen, Gerd Lärfars, Rickard E Malmström, Björn Wettermark, Eva Andersén-Karlsson
OBJECTIVES: To present the 'Wise List' (a formulary of essential medicines for primary and specialised care in Stockholm Healthcare Region) and assess adherence to the recommendations over a 15-year period. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all prescription data in the Stockholm Healthcare Region between 2000 and 2015 in relation to the Wise List recommendations during the same time period. SETTING: All outpatient care in the Stockholm Healthcare Region...
May 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462430/rational-use-of-medicine-in-dentistry-do-dentists-prescribe-antibiotics-in-appropriate-indications
#16
Cenker Z Koyuncuoglu, Mehtap Aydin, N Ipek Kirmizi, Volkan Aydin, Mesil Aksoy, Fatma Isli, Ahmet Akici
PURPOSE: There are concerns regarding appropriate use of antibiotics in dentistry practice. Data on dental antibiotic prescribing patterns by dentists is relatively limited. This nationwide study aimed to examine dentists' antibiotic prescriptions in a diagnosis-based manner in Turkey. METHODS: This retrospective study on utilization of systemic antibiotics for dental problems was based on the national health data of the dentists obtained from Prescription Information System between January 2013 and August 2015...
May 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458432/rational-drug-therapy-education-in-clinical-phase-carried-out-by-task-based-learning
#17
S Sırrı Bilge, Bahar Akyüz, Arzu Erdal Ağrı, Mıdık Özlem
OBJECTIVES: Irrational drug use results in drug interactions, treatment noncompliance, and drug resistance. Rational pharmacotherapy education is being implemented in many faculties of medicine. Our aim is to introduce rational pharmacotherapy education by clinicians and to evaluate task-based rational drug therapy education in the clinical context. METHODS: The Kirkpatrick's evaluation model was used for the evaluation of the program. The participants evaluated the program in terms of constituents of the program, utilization, and contribution to learning...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458427/antiurolithiatic-and-antioxidant-efficacy-of-musa-paradisiaca-pseudostem-on-ethylene-glycol-induced-nephrolithiasis-in-rat
#18
Padma Nibash Panigrahi, Sahadeb Dey, Monalisa Sahoo, Ananya Dan
OBJECTIVE: Musa paradisiaca has been used in the treatment of urolithiasis by the rural people in South India. Therefore, we plan to evaluate its efficacy and possible mechanism of antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urolithiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for the first 14 days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of M...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455650/-use-of-cognitive-aids-in-pediatric-emergency-care-interdisciplinary-consensus-statement
#19
REVIEW
S Wirtz, C Eich, K Becke, S Brenner, A Callies, U Harding, C Höhne, F Hoffmann, J Kaufmann, B Landsleitner, H Marung, T Nicolai, F Reifferscheid, U Trappe, P Jung
Preclinical pediatric emergencies are rare events and are therefore often associated with stress and uncertainty for emergency medical service personnel. To ensure adequate treatment of pediatric patients a variety of different cognitive aids exist (e.g. books, apps, rulers, weight-adapted bag systems). Especially the size specifications of the medical equipment and the dosage of emergency medication are individually very different in children and are dependent on parameters, such as body height and weight...
April 28, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453716/inflated-medicine-prices-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-study
#20
Tuan Anh Nguyen, Rosemary Knight, Andrea Mant, Husna Razee, Geoffrey Brooks, Thu Ha Dang, Elizabeth Ellen Roughead
One third of the world's population lacks regular access to essential medicines partly because of the high cost of medicines. In Vietnam, the cost to patients of medicines was 47 times the international reference price for originator brands and 11 times the price for generic equivalents in the public sector. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study conducted to identify the principal reasons for inflated medicine prices in Vietnam.Between April 2008 and December 2009, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from pharmaceutical companies, private pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
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