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Multinucleated giant cells

Akihisa Kangawa, Masayoshi Otake, Satoko Enya, Toshinori Yoshida, Masatoshi Shibata
Microminipigs are becoming increasingly attractive alternatives for various experimental applications, such as general toxicology studies, owing to their manageable size. However, there are limited studies on the male reproductive organs of microminipigs, particularly on the histological aspects of sexual maturity. To clarify the development of male reproductive organs, 35 male microminipigs, aged 0 to 12 months, were used in this study. Histological and histomorphological evaluation was performed based on spermatogenic development, measurement of tubular structure in testes and epididymides, and histological progress of accessory glands...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
J-S Pyo, J H Sohn, G Kang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the cytological characteristics and the diagnostic usefulness of intraoperative cytology (IOC) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In addition, using decision tree analysis, effective features for accurate cytological diagnosis were sought. METHODS: We investigated cellularity, cytological features and diagnosis based on the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in IOC of 240 conventional PTCs. The cytological features were evaluated in terms of nuclear score with nuclear features, and additional figures such as presence of swirling sheets, psammoma bodies, and multinucleated giant cells...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Zied Moatemri, Ghassen Soussi, Salsabil Dabboussi, Samira Mhamdi, Chiraz Aichaouia, Mohsen Khadraoui, Rezaik Cheikh
We report a case of thoracic sarcoidosis in a 72-year-old female, snuff taker, who presented with multinodular pulmonary lesions on chest x-ray. Clinical and biological findings were poor. Thoracic imaging showed soft tissue density nodules with irregular borders. The diagnosis of 'cannon ball' metastases was suspected. A thorough investigation strategy could not prove malignancy. A complete radiologic clearing was obtained spontaneously within three months. A rereading of pathology slides performed afterwards showed multinucleated giant cells on hemorrhagic background with a lymphocytic alveolitis...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Maral Mokhtari, Perikala Vijayananda Kumar, Kamran Hayati
BACKGROUND: Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (CPTC) is a variant of papillary carcinoma that has many mimickers in cytological grounds. AIM: To study the cytomorphologic features of CPTC and compare them to those of other cystic thyroid lesions using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We also aimed to identify the cytomorphologic features that distinguish CPTC from other cystic thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three cases of CPTC were included in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Owen M Slater, Jeanine Peters-Kennedy, Manigandan Lejeune, David Gummer, Bryan Macbeth, Amy Warren, Tomy Joseph, Hong Li, Cristina W Cunha, Pádraig J Duignan
Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Shiran Shetty, Krishnaveni Janarthanan, Venkatakrishnan Leelakrishnan, Vadakkepat Nirmala
Giant-cell hepatitis (GCH) is characterized by parenchymal inflammation with formation of large multinucleated hepatocytes in response to a variety of insults to the liver. Although it is commonly described in neonates, it rarely occurs in adults. Here we report a case of GCH because of herbal medicine intake.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Nobuhide Kido, Iori Itagaki, Daisuke Kiryu, Tomoko Omiya, Kaori Ono
Two radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) exhibited anorexia and hypokinesia. In both cases, hematological and serum biochemical examinations revealed high alkaline phosphatase levels, moderately high aspartate aminotransferase levels and white blood cell counts approximately within the normal range. Despite being treated, the tortoises died 9 and 43 days after the first clinical examination. Gross pathological examinations revealed that the livers of both animals were extremely swollen and contained pale yellow necrotic tissue...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sayaka Yuzawa, Satoshi Tanikawa, Isamu Kunibe, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kazuo Nagashima, Shinya Tanaka
We present a rare case of giant cell-rich solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising at the left external auditory canal in a 31-year-old woman. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of spindle-shaped cells with abundant collagenous bands. Scattered multinucleate giant cells were observed, some of which lined pseudovascular spaces. Although a focal mild-hypercellular area was observed, mitoses were rare and necrosis was absent. Interstitial mast cells were scattered, especially in the hypercellular area. Immunohistochemically, CD34, vimentin, and Bcl-2 presented diffuse positivity...
October 6, 2016: Pathology International
Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A Carlson, Matthew J Teusink, Matthew R MacEwan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie
Herein, a robust method to fabricate expanded nanofiber scaffolds with controlled size and thickness using a customized mold during the modified gas-foaming process is reported. The expansion of nanofiber membranes is also simulated using a computational fluid model. Expanded nanofiber scaffolds implanted subcutaneously in rats show cellular infiltration, whereas non-expanded scaffolds only have surface cellular attachment. Compared to unexpanded nanofiber scaffolds, more CD68(+) and CD163(+) cells are observed within expanded scaffolds at all tested time points post-implantation...
October 6, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yu Okubo, Hiroaki Uchida, Aika Wakata, Takuma Suzuki, Tomoko Shibata, Hitomi Ikeda, Miki Yamaguchi, Justus B Cohen, Joseph C Glorioso, Mitsuo Tagaya, Hirofumi Hamada, Hideaki Tahara
: Membrane fusion, which is the key process for both initial cell entry and subsequent lateral spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV), requires the four envelope glycoproteins gB, gD, gH, and gL. Syncytial mutations, predominantly mapped to the gB and gK genes, confer hyperfusogenicity on HSV and cause multinucleated giant cells, termed syncytia. Here, we asked whether interaction of gD with a cognate entry receptor remains indispensable for initiating membrane fusion of syncytial strains...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
O B Pattanashetty, Dayanand B B, Arravind Pillai, Preetish Endigeri
INTRODUCTION: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare and malignant form of primary bone tumor refractive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It accounts for 1-2% of all primary bone tumors. Surgical resection, limb-salvage surgeries and amputation remain the mainstay of treatment. The prognosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is poor. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 51-year-old male having a swelling and an ulcer distal to the left knee later diagnosed with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of proximal tibial and fibular metaphysis...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
Regardless of host, pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex such as Mycobacterium bovis, induce a characteristic lesion known as a granuloma, tubercle or tuberculoid granuloma. Granulomas represent a distinct host response to chronic antigenic stimuli, such as foreign bodies, certain bacterial components, or persistent pathogens such as M. bovis. Granulomas are composed of specific cell types including epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes and a morphologically distinctive cell type, the multinucleated giant cell...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Richard J Miron, Hamoon Zohdi, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Dieter D Bosshardt
Recently accumulating evidence has put into question the role of large multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) around bone biomaterials. While cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials, it was originally thought that specifically in bone tissues, all giant cells were bone-resorbing osteoclasts whereas foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) were found associated with a connective tissue foreign body reaction resulting in fibrous encapsulation and/or material rejection...
September 22, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Laura M Fluke, Ryan D Restrepo, Shyam Patel, Benjamin D Hoagland, Lori M Krevetski, Jacob T Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Full-thickness soft tissue defects from congenital absence or traumatic loss are difficult to surgically manage. Healing requires cell migration, organization of an extracellular matrix, inflammation, and wound coverage. PLCL (70:30 lactide:caprolactone, Purac), poly(propylene glycol) nanofibrous scaffolds enhance cell infiltration in vitro. This study compares strength and tissue ingrowth of aligned and unaligned nanofibrous scaffolds to absorbable and permanent meshes. We hypothesize that PLCL nanofibrous grafts will provide strength necessary for physiological function while serving as a scaffold to guide native tissue regeneration in vivo...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Daniela M Sousa, Francisco Conceição, Diana I Silva, Luís Leitão, Estrela Neto, Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Herbert Herzog, Paulo Aguiar, Meriem Lamghari
Y1 receptor (Y1R)-signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone metabolism. The lack of Y1R-signalling stimulates bone mass accretion that has been mainly attributed to Y1R disruption from bone-forming cells. Still, the involvement of Y1R-signalling in the control of bone-resorbing cells remained to be explored. Therefore, in this study we assessed the role of Y1R deficiency in osteoclast formation and resorption activity. Here we demonstrate that Y1R germline deletion (Y1R(-/-)) led to increased formation of highly multinucleated (n > 8) osteoclasts and enhanced surface area, possibly due to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overexpression regulated by RANKL-signalling...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alexandra M Nicaise, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Stephen J Crocker
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), also known as Krabbe's disease, is a fatal demyelinating disease accompanied by the formation of giant, multinucleated cells called globoid cells. Previously believed to be a byproduct of inflammation, these cells can be found early in disease before evidence of any damage. The precise mechanism by which these globoid cells cause oligodendrocyte dysfunction is not completely understood, nor is their cell type defined. This Review outlines the idea that microglial cells are transformed into an unknown and undefined novel M3 phenotype in GLD, which is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes, leading to disease progression...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Isano Hase, Hiroaki Arakawa, Hideo Sakuma, Fumio Kaneko, Yuzuru Watanabe, Koichi Fujiu, Hideaki Miyamoto, Yoshiki Ishii
We herein report a case of atypical drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) involving serological reactivation of cytomegalovirus induced by carbamazepine with pulmonary and skin manifestations. These lesions were not present on admission, but developed on virus reactivation as indicated by the presence of inclusion bodies and multinucleated giant cells in alveolar cells with CD8(+) T lymphocyte infiltration on a transbronchial lung biopsy. Although the precise mechanism of DIHS remains unknown, this case suggests the crucial role of viral reactivation in pulmonary lesions in DIHS...
2016: Internal Medicine
Shakti K Bal, Balamugesh Thangakunam, Aparna Irodi, Mayank Gupta, Devasahayam J Christopher
Pulmonary venoocclusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) form a sinister subgroup of pulmonary arterial hypertension where the predominant pathology lies in the pulmonary veins and capillaries, thus making the use of pulmonary vasodilators potentially dangerous in these patients. Radiologically, the presence of centrilobular nodules, interlobular septal thickening, and significant mediastinal adenopathy are useful in identifying this subgroup from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Iris Wieser, Christoph Wohlmuth, Madeleine Duvic
Granulomatous mycosis fungoides (GMF) is a rare form of mycosis fungoides (MF) characterized by an infiltrate of atypical lymphocytes, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells. Clinically, GMF has a slowly progressing course with a worse prognosis than other forms of MF. With its peak incidence being in the fifth to sixth decade, GMF is rare in children and adolescents. Herein we describe a 14-year-old boy with GMF.
September 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Badr AbdullGaffar, Rania M Seliem, Mahammad Al Thahyabat, Bassam Odeh, Asma Al Olama
Epithelioid granulomas, epithelioid histiocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells are recognizable pathologic findings in lymphomas, particularly in Hodgkin lymphomas. The giant cells could be neoplastic and nonneoplastic. The nonneoplastic giant cells are of different histogenesis. They include, in the majority of cases, histiocytes. Usually, they are minor easily recognizable components of the nodal lymphomas. To our knowledge, low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas with numerous multinucleated histiocytic giant cells without epithelioid granulomas or crystals formation have not been previously reported...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
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