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Multinucleated giant cells

Antonio Merolli, Stephanie Fung, N Sanjeeva Murthy, E Thomas Pashuck, Yong Mao, Xiaohuan Wu, Joseph A M Steele, Daniel Martin, Prabhas V Moghe, Timothy Bromage, Joachim Kohn
Osteoclasts are large multinucleated giant cells that actively resorb bone during the physiological bone turnover (BTO), which is the continuous cycle of bone resorption (by osteoclasts) followed by new bone formation (by osteoblasts). Osteoclasts secrete chemotactic signals to recruit cells for regeneration of vasculature and bone. We hypothesize that a biomaterial that attracts osteoclasts and re-establishes BTO will induce a better healing response than currently used bone graft materials. While the majority of bone regeneration efforts have focused on maximizing bone deposition, the novelty in this approach is the focus on stimulating osteoclastic resorption as the starter for BTO and its concurrent new vascularized bone formation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Sugumari Elavarasu, Arthiie Thangavelu, Devisree Naveen, Saranya Selvaraj
Cherubism is a congenital childhood disease of autosomal dominant inheritance. It is a benign, familial giant cell lesion characterized by gradually progressive painless swelling of the jaws. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition and may be associated with some uncommon syndromes. This case report describes an 11-year-old patient with unusual clinical form of gingival enlargement, cherubic facial appearance. Clinical examination revealed the presence of the hyperplastic gingiva, which completely covered all teeth...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Jonas Lorenz, Mike Barbeck, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Robert Sader, Henriette Lerner, Shahram Ghanaati
PURPOSE: In this prospective study, the regenerative potential and pathways of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) material composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan were investigated for its application in alveolar bone regeneration within extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone substitute material was implanted in 44 extraction sockets after removal of teeth not worth preserving in the maxillary and mandibular arches of 21 patients...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
H J Huang, X Y Chen, Z Y Zheng
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, differential diagnosis, and genetic alteration of Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS). Methods: Four cases of LCS were collected from Fujian Provincial Hospital and Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command of PLA from July 2013 to January 2017. Clinicopathological features and immunophenotype were retrospectively reviewed in four LCS cases combined with genetic mutation analysis of BRAF and ALK. Results: Four cases included 2 women and 2 men with ages from 42 to 79 years (median=59...
March 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Julie Malloizel-Delaunay, Emilie Tournier, Abdelaziz Abid, Alessandra Bura-Rivière
In this observation, we report an unusual presentation of a pilomatricoma in an 8-year-old girl who was initially referred to the department of vascular medicine for diagnosis and care of a suspected mixed lymphatic venous malformation. The lesion on her left shoulder presented as a giant bluish-purple red solitary mass, painful and rapidly growing, measuring 7 cm in anteroposterior diameter. This mass did not present the typical characteristics of a lymphatic venous malformation but exhibited warning signs of malignancy on clinical examination and imaging...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Hussein Nassereddine, Nicolas Poté, Pasquale Tammaro, Anne Couvelard
Pulse (hyaline ring) granuloma, a rare entity first described in lung and oral cavity, has been reported under various names before the identification of hyaline rings as fragments of pulses (the edible seeds of legumes). Similar lesions were thereafter described in extra-oral localizations, mainly the gastrointestinal tract, or localizations having potential communication with the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, 2 reports described "spiral bodies" surrounded by foreign body-type multinucleated giant cell reaction in pulse granulomas, corresponding to remnant plant vascular structures (helical xylem elements)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Yasushi Motoyama, Ichiro Nakagawa, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Xanthomatous pituitary diseases rarely occur in childhood. We report a rare pediatric case of a xanthogranuloma that developed in the sellar region resulting in visual disturbance that was successfully treated by endoscopic endonasal surgery. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: A 13-year-old boy came to us with a headache and visual disturbance that had occurred 1 month prior. Clinical examination findings showed that he was alert with signs of bitemporal hemianopsia, an endocrinological examination showed partial hypopituitarism, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic mass in the sellar turcica compressing the optic apparatus...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jonas Lorenz, Alica Kubesch, Sarah Al-Maawi, Frank Schwarz, Robert A Sader, Markus Schlee, Shahram Ghanaati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was the histological investigation of an allogeneic spongious bone block for horizontal and vertical ridge augmentation in humans. The amount of new bone, soft tissue, and residual bone substitute were histomorphometrically assessed after a mean healing period of 6 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients received augmentation with an allogeneic spongious bone block (Tutobone® , Tutogen Medical, Neunkirchen, Germany)...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Álvaro Díaz, Camila Sagasti, Cecilia Casaravilla
Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species, and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues...
March 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Lara E Cândido-Soares, Elizabeth F Martinez, Vera C de Araújo, Ney S Araújo, Nadir S Freitas, Marcelo H Napimoga
Secreted osteoclastogenic factor of activated T cells (SOFAT) is a novel activated human T-cell-secreted cytokine that induce osteoclastogenesis in a RANKL-independent manner. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of SOFAT in intraosseous and extraosseous lesions. Thirty-two oral biopsies were divided into 2 groups: (1) intraosseous lesions-4 cases of cherubism, 5 central giant cell lesions, 3 osteoblastomas, 3 cementoblastomas, 2 periapical lesions and (2) extraosseous lesions-5 peripheral giant cell lesions, 5 cases of oral paracoccidioidomycosis, and 5 foreign body reactions...
February 27, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Ilit Turgeman, Ezequiel Flechter, Eugene Vlodavsky, Daniela Militianu, Zohar Keidar, Elias Haddad, Gil Bar-Sela
Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) is a rare entity characterized by an admixture of giant cells and malignant epithelial cells within an inflammatory and vascular stroma. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the pathway for osteoclast formation and activation, indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases, as well as for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. We report a patient who presented with aggressive bone recurrence of breast cancer 12 years after her original diagnosis, showing a transformed histology that included multinucleated OGCs, and that was refractory to traditional therapy...
February 23, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Reema Bansal, Sahil Jain, Vishali Gupta, Aman Sharma, Amanjit Bal, Sanjay Jain
A 30-year-old male with bilateral acute visual loss presented with retinal edema in the posterior pole and peripapillary region with extensive retinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed arterial filling in the right eye and absent arterial filling in the left eye, suggesting bilateral central retinal artery occlusion. Systemic evaluation revealed a history of chronic low-grade fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. HIV (ELISA) was positive, and other systemic comorbidities were ruled out...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Inês Raposo, Fernando Mota, Inês Lobo, José Ricardo Brandão, Manuela Selores
Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease of undetermined cause, characterized by annular plaques with raised erythematous borders in sun-exposed skin. The typical histologic features are dermal infiltration by multinucleated giant cells, elastin degeneration, and elastophagocytosis. The authors describe a clinical case of AEGCG, which exhibited an excellent response to hydroxycloroquine.
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Qiping Chen, Joyce Siong-See Lee, Weiting Michelle Liang, Mei Fung Chan, Ramón M Pujol, Requena Luis, Suat Hoon Tan
Indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH) is an extremely rare cutaneous neoplastic disorder. It has the immunophenotypic features of both Langerhans and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report here a case of a healthy young Chinese woman who presented with disfiguring thick, infiltrated cutaneous nodules on the face, trunk and extremities which appeared progressively over a period of 4 years. No systemic involvement has been detected so far. Results of a skin biopsy showed diffuse dermal infiltration of histiocytoid cells with indented nuclei and positive staining for S100 and CD1a and negativity for CD207 (langerin)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Francisca Guijarro, María Rozman, Estella Matutes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Suresh K Nayar, Eric J Dein, Andrea M Spiker, Johnathan A Bernard, Bashir A Zikria, Kristy L Weber
CASE: Giant-cell tumors are locally aggressive osteolytic benign tumors that are characterized by multinucleated giant cells. Recurrence rates are ≤30% after curettage and <5% after resection, but reconstruction can be difficult. We describe an osteoarticular allograft reconstruction of the proximal aspect of the radius in a 23-year-old man after resection of a giant-cell tumor. CONCLUSION: Five months after surgery, the patient had satisfactory joint articulation, range of motion, and strength, with no signs of hardware or graft failure...
February 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
Shyam Prajapati, Juan C Hernandez-Prera
Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a self-limiting inflammatory condition of the thyroid gland in which multinucleated giant cells constitute a key histological finding. SAT is generally a clinical diagnosis and consequently its histological features are rarely encountered by pathologist. Herein, we present a case that exemplifies the characteristic clinical and pathological features of this entity. In addition, we compare SAT to other thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells...
February 9, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Celeste Sánchez-Romero, Roman Carlos, Ciro Dantas Soares, Oslei Paes de Almeida
Multinucleated giant cell (MGC) reaction in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) usually represents a stromal foreign body reaction to keratin from neoplastic epithelial cells. We describe and illustrate by double immunohistochemistry a case of a tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a 70-year-old female patient, with a copious MGC reaction not associated to keratin, showing a histopathological pattern not described before. The MGCs were directly associated with neoplastic cells, which are phagocytosed by the MGCs...
February 9, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Rafał Sapierzyński
A 15-year-old spayed female domestic short-haired cat with cutaneous/subcutaneous well-circumscribed, alopecic mass approximately 25 × 30 mm in diameter, localized to the left shoulder region was brought to the veterinary surgery department. Despite the suggestive location and macroscopic appearance, feline injection-site sarcoma was not suspected based on the cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates. The tumor was surgically resected, and tissue sections were evaluated microscopically. The tumor was found to be nonencapsulated with a distinct border between the neoplastic parenchyma and surrounding connective tissue...
February 8, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Zile Singh Kundu, Rajeev Sen, Ankur Dhiman, Pankaj Sharma, Ramchander Siwach, Parveen Rana
Background: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is known for its locally aggressive behavior and tendency to recur. It is an admixture of rounded or spindle-shaped mononuclear neoplastic stromal cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells with their proportionate dispersion among the former. Zoledronic acid (a bisphosphonate) is being used in various cancers such as myelomas and metastasis, for osteoporosis with an aim to reduce the resorption of bone, and as an adjuvant treatment for the management of GCT of bone for reduction of local recurrence...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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