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Cell to cell fusion

Behzad Yeganeh, Claudia Bilodeau, Martin Post
Lung development is a complex process that requires the input of various signaling pathways to coordinate the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types. Ex vivo culture of the lung is a very useful technique that represents an attractive model for investigating many different processes critical to lung development, function, and disease pathology. Ex vivo cultured lungs remain comparable to the in vivo lung both in structure and function, which makes them more suitable than cell cultures for physiological studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sophia Lazar, Lawrence E Goldfinger
Platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) have long been known to increase in circulation in the presence of cancer, and have been considered to be cancer promoting by multiple mechanisms including shrouding of circulating tumor cells allowing immune evasion, inducing a procoagulant state associated with increased risk for venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients, and supporting metastatic dissemination by establishment of niches for anchorage of circulating tumor cells. These modes of PMP-enhanced progression of late stage cancer are generally based on the adhesive and procoagulant surfaces of PMPs...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xiulan Li, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang, Rongzhi Wang
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a signal proinflammatory cytokine secreted by immune cell, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. It has been regarded as an important marker for determination of disease-specific immune responses. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accurate method to detect IFN-γ in clinic real blood samples. Until now, the immunoassay based on singe chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody for human IFN-γ is still not reported. In the present study, an scFv antibody named scFv-A8 with high specificity was obtained by phage display and biopanning, with the affinity 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Oliver Edenharter, Stephan Schneuwly, Juan A Navarro
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most important recessive ataxia in the Caucasian population. It is caused by a deficit of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Despite its pivotal effect on biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and mitochondrial energy production, little is known about the influence of frataxin depletion on homeostasis of the cellular mitochondrial network. We have carried out a forward genetic screen to analyze genetic interactions between genes controlling mitochondrial homeostasis and Drosophila frataxin...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yohei Watanabe, Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Madiha S Ibrahim, Emad M Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Junichi Kajikawa, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Takao Ono, Tatsuya Takagi, Kazuo Takahashi, Tatsuo Shioda, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yasuo Suzuki, Takaaki Nakaya
Transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses to mammals involves phylogenetic bottlenecks that select small numbers of variants for transmission to new host species. However, little is known about the AI virus quasispecies diversity that produces variants for virus adaptation to humans. Here, we analyzed the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic diversity produced during AI H5N1 single-virus infection of primary human airway cells and characterized the phenotypes of these variants. During single-virus infection, HA variants emerged with increased fitness to infect human cells...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tabea Riedlinger, Jana Haas, Julia Busch, Bart van de Sluis, Michael Kracht, M Lienhard Schmitz
NF-κB signaling pathways play an important role in the regulation of cellular immune and stress responses. Aberrant NF-κB activity has been implicated in almost all the steps of cancer development and many of the direct and indirect contributions of this transcription factor system for oncogenesis were revealed in the recent years. The indirect contributions affect almost all hallmarks and enabling characteristics of cancer, but NF-κB can either promote or antagonize these tumor-supportive functions, thus prohibiting global NF-κB inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biomedicines
Margarita-Maria Panou, Emma L Prescott, Daniel L Hurdiss, Gemma Swinscoe, Michael Hollinshead, Laura G Caller, Ethan L Morgan, Louisa Carlisle, Marietta Müller, Michelle Antoni, David Kealy, Neil A Ranson, Colin M Crump, Andrew Macdonald
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV; hereafter referred to as BK) causes a lifelong chronic infection and is associated with debilitating disease in kidney transplant recipients. Despite its importance, aspects of the virus life cycle remain poorly understood. In addition to the structural proteins, the late region of the BK genome encodes for an auxiliary protein called agnoprotein. Studies on other polyomavirus agnoproteins have suggested that the protein may contribute to virion infectivity. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for agnoprotein in BK virus release...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elzbieta Pawlowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Magdalena Szatkowska, Janusz Blasiak
Autophagy, cellular senescence, programmed cell death and necrosis are key responses of a cell facing a stress. These effects are partly interconnected, but regulation of their mutual interactions is not completely clear. That regulation seems to be especially important in cancer cells, which have their own program of development and demand more nutrition and energy than normal cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) belongs to the most aggressive and most difficult to cure cancers, so studies on its pathogenesis and new therapeutic strategies are justified...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y Jiang, H Y Chao, X W Zhang, M Zhou, X Z Lu, R Zhang, C He, Q Wang
Objective: To explore the effects and possible mechanisms of the novel pan-FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 on KG-1 cells in vitro. Methods: Effects of BGJ398 on cells proliferation were detected by CCK-8, the apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC. Reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) analysis was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related genes B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and caspase-3. Western blotting analysis was performed to explore the proteins expression levels of Bcl-2, caspase-3 and the expression of p-AKT, p-S6K, p-ERK and FGFR1...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Abigail K Corona, Holly M Saulsbery, Angel F Corona Velazquez, William T Jackson
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a medically important respiratory plus-strand RNA virus of children that has been linked to acute flaccid myelitis. We have determined that EV-D68 induces autophagic signaling and membrane formation. Autophagy, a homeostatic degradative process that breaks down protein aggregates and damaged organelles, promotes replication of multiple plus-strand viruses. Induction of autophagic signals promotes EV-D68 replication, but the virus inhibits the downstream degradative steps of autophagy in multiple ways...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles.Onthe one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation.Onthe other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Shufang He, Weiwei Fan, Na Wu, Jingjing Zhu, Yunqiu Miao, Xiaran Miao, Feifei Li, Xinxin Zhang, Yong Gan
RNA interference (RNAi) technology has shown great promise for the treatment of cancer and other genetic disorders. Despite the efforts to increase the target tissue distribution, the safe and effective delivery of siRNA to the diseased cells with sufficient cytosolic transport is another critical factor for successful RNAi clinical application. Here, the constructed lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles, called nano-Transformers, can transform the structure in the intracellular acidic environment, and perform high-efficient siRNA delivery for cancer treatment...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Ioannis Panagopoulos, Ludmila Gorunova, Hege Kilen Andersen, Astrid Bergrem, Anders Dahm, Kristin Andersen, Francesca Micci, Sverre Heim
Background: Acquired primary chromosomal changes in cancer are sometimes found as sole karyotypic abnormalities. They are specifically associated with particular types of neoplasia, essential in establishing the neoplasm, and they often lead to the generation of chimeric genes of pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic importance. Thus, the report of new primary cancer-specific chromosomal aberrations is not only of scientific but also potentially of clinical interest, as is the detection of their gene-level consequences...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
Anish Sharda, Robert Flaumenhaft
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways...
2018: F1000Research
Simone Sello, Roberto Moscatiello, Norbert Mehlmer, Manuela Leonardelli, Luca Carraretto, Enrico Cortese, Filippo G Zanella, Barbara Baldan, Ildikò Szabò, Ute C Vothknecht, Lorella Navazio
Chloroplasts require a fine-tuned control of their internal Ca2+ concentration, which is crucial for many aspects of photosynthesis and for other chloroplast-localized processes. Increasing evidence suggests that calcium regulation within chloroplasts may also influence Ca2+ signalling pathways in the cytosol. To investigate the involvement of thylakoids in Ca2+ homeostasis and in the modulation of chloroplast Ca2+ signals in vivo, we targeted the bioluminescent Ca2+ reporter aequorin as a YFP fusion to the lumen and the stromal surface of thylakoids in Arabidopsis...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
George A Sutherland, Katie J Grayson, Nathan B P Adams, Daphne M J Mermans, Alexander S Jones, Angus J Robertson, Dirk B Auman, Amanda A Brindley, Fabio Sterpone, Pierre Tuffery, Philippe Derreumaux, P Leslie Dutton, Colin Robinson, Andrew Hitchcock, C Neil Hunter
Protein transport across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells is mediated by either the general secretion (Sec) system or the twin arginine translocase (Tat). The Tat machinery exports folded and cofactor containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the periplasm by using the transmembrane proton motive force as a source of energy. The Tat apparatus apparently senses the folded state of its protein substrates, a quality control mechanism that prevents premature export of nascent unfolded or misfolded polypeptides, but its mechanistic basis has not yet been determined...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Benjamin Kalbe, Markus Osterloh, Viola M Schulz, Janine Altmüller, Christian Becker, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) regulate various cellular processes in the human body. The receptors' participation in physiological and pathophysiological processes could be demonstrated in several studies. In addition to the regulation of sperm motility, respiratory physiology, and heart contraction, ORs play a crucial role in cancer cells. In murine myoblasts, mOR23 regulates the myogenesis and branching of skeletal muscle cells. To date, the expression and physiological role of ORs in human skeletal muscle cells have not been thoroughly elucidated...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hina Kosakamoto, Yuya Fujisawa, Fumiaki Obata, Masayuki Miura
Tissue closure involves the coordinated unidirectional movement of a group of cells without loss of cell-cell contact. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the tissue closure are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Lamin C, the sole A-type lamin in Drosophila, contributes to the process of thorax closure in pupa. High expression of Lamin C was observed at the leading front of the migrating wing imaginal discs. Live imaging analysis revealed that knockdown of Lamin C in the thorax region affected the coordinated movement of the leading front, resulting in incomplete tissue fusion required for formation of the adult thorax...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew L Folpe, Rondell P Graham, Anthony Martinez, David Schembri-Wismayer, Jennifer Boland, Karen J Fritchie
The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphological evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/ sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma...
March 17, 2018: Human Pathology
Indranil Sarkar, Ravendra Garg, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute respiratory tract infections in infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. No licensed vaccine is available against RSV. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of rodents and lambs with a RSV vaccine candidate (ΔF/TriAdj) induces protective immunity with a good safety profile. ΔF/TriAdj promoted innate immune responses in respiratory mucosal tissues in vivo, by local chemokine and cytokine production, as well as infiltration and activation of immune cells including macrophages...
March 17, 2018: Vaccine
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