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Microglia activation

Yu Zhang, Weida Gao, Kongbin Yang, Haiquan Tao, Haicheng Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alcohol consumption has been shown to cause neuroinflammation and increase a variety of immune-related signaling processes. Microglia are a crucial part of alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and undergo apoptosis. Even though the importance of these inflammatory processes in the effects of alcohol-related neurodegeneration have been established, the mechanism of alcohol-induced microglia apoptosis is unknown. In prior research, we discovered that alcohol increases expression of salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) in rodent brain tissue...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jing Ma, Haijing Yan, Ranran Wang, Shuhong Bo, Xiaotong Lu, Jian Zhang, Ajing Xu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to small-artery disease is a common subtype of vascular dementia, which is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carnosine on white matter damage in corpus striatum. Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO), and treated with carnosine or saline. Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blots and neurochemical analysis were performed after rUCCAO...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
J Kwiatek-Majkusiak, M Geremek, D Koziorowski, R Tomasiuk, S Szlufik, A Friedman
Hepcidin is an essential hormone responsible for the systemic metabolism of iron and simultaneously belongs to the family of the protein mediators of the acute inflammatory response, primarily induced in response to interleukin 6. It can therefore be regarded as a link between the oxidative stress processes, where iron plays an important role, and the processes of neuroinflammation - both considered to be responsible for the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. We assessed the serum level of pro-hepcidin in patients with Parkinson's disease treated only pharmacologically and those treated additionally with deep brain stimulation (DBS) as compared to the control group...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Rebecca Dalgarno, YuShan Tu, Orla Moriarty, Simon Beggs, Charlie H T Kwok, Katherine Halievski, Sofia Assi, Jeffrey S Mogil, Tuan Trang, Michael W Salter
Microglia-neuron signalling in the spinal cord is a key mediator of mechanical allodynia caused by peripheral nerve injury. We recently reported sex differences in microglia in pain signalling in mice: spinal mechanisms underlying nerve injury-induced allodynia are microglial dependent in male but not female mice. Whether this sex difference in pain hypersensitivity mechanisms is conserved in other species is unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the spinal mechanisms of nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity in males differ from those in females, with microglial P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) being a key point of divergence...
April 30, 2018: Pain
Sol Beccari, Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous process occurring in the brain under both physiological and pathological conditions. The central nervous system (CNS) requires an active and efficient clean-up system to prevent the spillover of intracellular contents into the surrounding parenchyma and suppress the initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. Microglia, the resident professional phagocytes of the brain, are the cells in charge of the removal of these dead cells by the process named phagocytosis. Therefore, microglial phagocytosis is a vital mechanism to maintain tissue homeostasis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Ming-Li Sun, Jun-Ping Ao, Yi-Rui Wang, Qian Huang, Teng-Fei Li, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang
Lappaconitine is a representative C18-diterpenoid alkaloid extracted from Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai and has been prescribed as a pain relief medicine in China for more than 30 years. This study evaluated its antihypersensitivity activity in the rat models of neuropathic and cancer pains and explored its underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of cumulative doses of lappaconitine produced dose-dependent mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic rats...
June 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jie Wang, Yan-Ling Zhang, Nan Zhuang
Salidroside is the major bioactive component of Rhodiola sachalinensis. Studies have shown that salidroside has anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined whether salidroside inhibited inflammatory reaction in BV-2 microglial cells and thereby inhibited PC12 apoptosis. BV-2 cells were induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 100 μg/L) and/or salidroside (10 mg/L), and then the conditioned medium was collected. Real time-PCR was used to detect IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression. The contents of IL-6 and TNF-α in medium were detected by ELSIA...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Xiaoming Hu, Rehana K Leak, Angus W Thomson, Fang Yu, Yuguo Xia, Lawrence R Wechsler, Jun Chen
The healthy immune system has natural checkpoints that temper pernicious inflammation. Cells mediating these checkpoints include regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, regulatory dendritic cells, microglia, macrophages and monocytes. Here, we highlight discoveries on the beneficial functions of regulatory immune cells and their mechanisms of action and evaluate their potential use as novel cell-based therapies for brain disorders. Regulatory immune cell therapies have the potential not only to mitigate the exacerbation of brain injury by inflammation but also to promote an active post-injury brain repair programme...
June 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Yana Zorina, Jason Stricker, Anthony O Caggiano, Donald C Button
In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinated CNS lesions fail to sufficiently remyelinate, despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) capable of differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes. MS lesions contain damaged myelin debris that can inhibit OPC maturation and hinder repair. rHIgM22 is an experimental human recombinant IgM antibody that promotes remyelination in animal models and is being examined in patients with MS. rHIgM22 binds to CNS myelin and partially rescues OPC process outgrowth on myelin...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dale B Bosco, Jiaying Zheng, Zhiyan Xu, Jiyun Peng, Ukpong B Eyo, Ke Tang, Cheng Yan, Jun Huang, Lijie Feng, Gongxiong Wu, Jason R Richardson, Hui Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia have been shown to be of critical importance to the progression of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the broad transcriptional changes that these cells undergo following seizure induction is not well understood. As such, we utilized RNAseq analysis upon microglia isolated from the hippocampus to determine expression pattern alterations following kainic acid induced seizure. We determined that microglia undergo dramatic changes to their expression patterns, particularly with regard to mitochondrial activity and metabolism...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Brain
Alessandro Villa, Paolo Gelosa, Laura Castiglioni, Mauro Cimino, Nicoletta Rizzi, Giovanna Pepe, Federica Lolli, Elena Marcello, Luigi Sironi, Elisabetta Vegeto, Adriana Maggi
Sex has a role in the incidence and outcome of neurological illnesses, also influencing the response to treatments. Neuroinflammation is involved in the onset and progression of several neurological diseases, and the fact that estrogens have anti-inflammatory activity suggests that these hormones may be a determinant in the sex-dependent manifestation of brain pathologies. We describe significant differences in the transcriptome of adult male and female microglia, possibly originating from perinatal exposure to sex steroids...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Mark R Griffiths, Marina Botto, B Paul Morgan, J W Neal, P Gasque
Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice...
June 20, 2018: Immunology
Leanne K Winner, Neil R Marshall, Robert D Jolly, Paul J Trim, Stephen K Duplock, Marten F Snel, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease of childhood that results in early death. Post-mortem studies have been carried out on human MPS IIIA brain, but little is known about early disease development. Here, we utilised the Huntaway dog model of MPS IIIA to evaluate disease lesion development from 2 to 24 weeks of age. A significant elevation in primarily stored heparan sulphate was observed in all brain regions assessed in MPS IIIA pups ≤9.5 weeks of age. There was a significant elevation in secondarily stored ganglioside (GM3 36:1) in ≤9...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Jacob R Greenmyer, Robert A Gaultney, Catherine A Brissette, John A Watt
The Lyme disease causing bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi has an affinity for the central nervous system (CNS) and has been isolated from human cerebral spinal fluid by 18 days following Ixodes scapularis tick bite. Signaling from resident immune cells of the CNS could enhance CNS penetration by B. burgdorferi and activated immune cells through the blood brain barrier resulting in multiple neurological complications, collectively termed neuroborreliosis. The ensuing symptoms of neurological impairment likely arise from a glial-driven, host inflammatory response to B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wenjuan Yang, Keyan Zhou, Yue Zhou, Yuqian An, Tingting Hu, Jing Lu, Shichao Huang, Gang Pei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation and impaired neurogenesis. Mounting evidences suggest that single-target drugs have limited effects on clinical treatment and alternative or multiple targets are required. In recent decades, natural compounds and their derivatives have gained increasing attention in AD drug discovery due to their inherently enormous chemical and structural diversity. In this study, we demonstrated that naringin dihydrochalcone (NDC), a widely used dietary sweetener with strong antioxidant activity, improved the cognitive function of transgenic AD mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Aijuan Yan, Yu Zhang, Jingya Lin, Lu Song, Xijin Wang, Zhenguo Liu
Background: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral immune system can induce neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS). Whether the peripheral immune system is involved in PD is unclear. The present study investigated the contribution of the peripheral immune system to the neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) model of PD. Methods: MPTP was intraperitoneally injected into mice to generate a PD model...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ruiqing Ni, Linjing Mu, Simon Ametamey
Cannabinoid receptor CB2 (CB2 R) is upregulated on activated microglia and astrocytes in the brain under inflammatory conditions and plays important roles in many neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. The advent of positron emission tomography (PET) using CB2 R radiotracers has enabled the visualization of CB2 R distribution in vivo in animal models of central nervous system inflammation, however translation to humans has been less successful...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Al Caraffa, C Conti, C D Ovidio, C E Gallenga, L Tettamanti, F Mastrangelo, G Ronconi, S K Kritas, P Conti
The activation of brain nociceptors and neurons may lead to neurogenic inflammation, an event that involves immune cells including mast cells (MCs). Microglia are similar to macrophages and secrete pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members and TNF. TNF is rapidly released (first 10 minutes from MC granules) and is subsequently secreted along with other pro-inflammatory cytokines with a new synthesis after several hours. MC-derived TNF is a very powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates sensitization of the meningeal nociceptors...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Cécile Baldy, Stéphanie Fournier, Samuel Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Richard Kinkead
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Does neonatal stress, in the form of neonatal maternal separation, influence the maturation of microglial density, morphology, and neuronal signalling in medullary regions regulating cardio-respiratory function in rat pups? What is the main finding and its importance? Using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, we show that neonatal maternal separation augments microglial density and the proportion of cells with an amoeboid morphology in the medulla...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Yu Shi, Xiangyu Guo, Jie Zhang, Hanchi Zhou, Bei Sun, Jing Feng
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may cause neuronal apoptosis and cognitive deficits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship between the activation of microglia and the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, specifically in terms of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), after high glucose (HG) and intermittent hypoxia (IH) exposure. Diabetic KK-Ay mice and non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice (C57 mice) underwent IH or normoxia (control) exposure for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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