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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929971/medisyn-uncertainty-aware-visualization-of-multiple-biomedical-datasets-to-support-drug-treatment-selection
#1
Chen He, Luana Micallef, Zia-Ur-Rehman Tanoli, Samuel Kaski, Tero Aittokallio, Giulio Jacucci
BACKGROUND: Dispersed biomedical databases limit user exploration to generate structured knowledge. Linked Data unifies data structures and makes the dispersed data easy to search across resources, but it lacks supporting human cognition to achieve insights. In addition, potential errors in the data are difficult to detect in their free formats. Devising a visualization that synthesizes multiple sources in such a way that links between data sources are transparent, and uncertainties, such as data conflicts, are salient is challenging...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893851/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-among-high-school-seniors
#2
Joseph J Palamar, Monica J Barratt, Leigh Coney, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the prevalence and correlates of current synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use among high school seniors in the United States. METHODS: Monitoring the Future, an annual nationally representative survey of high school seniors, began querying current (30-day) SC use in 2014. Data were examined from the 2 most recent cohorts (2014-2015; N = 7805). Prevalence of self-reported use was examined and differences in demographics and recency and frequency of other drug use was compared between current marijuana-only users and current SC (plus marijuana) users using χ(2) and generalized linear model using Poisson...
September 11, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888099/polydrug-use-and-its-association-with-drug-treatment-outcomes-among-primary-heroin-methamphetamine-and-cocaine-users
#3
Linwei Wang, Jeong Eun Min, Emanuel Krebs, Elizabeth Evans, David Huang, Lei Liu, Yih-Ing Hser, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Polydrug use may challenge effective treatment for substance use disorders. We evaluate whether secondary substance use modifies the association between treatment and primary drug use among primary heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine (MA) users. METHODS: Data were obtained from prospective cohort studies on people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in California, USA. Using repeated monthly data on self-reported secondary substance use (heroin, cocaine, MA, alcohol or marijuana; ≥1day in a month), primary drug use (≥1day in a month), and treatment participation, collected via timeline follow-back, we fitted generalized linear mixed multiple regression models controlling for potential confounders to examine the interactions between treatment and secondary substance use on the odds of primary heroin, cocaine and MA use, respectively...
September 6, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887180/gray-matter-volume-showed-dynamic-alterations-in-methamphetamine-users-at-6-and-12months-abstinence-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Ruan Xiaolu, Zhong Na, Yang Zhi, Fan Xiaoduo, Zhuang Wenxu, Du Jiang, Jiang Haifeng, Zhao Min
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated brain gray matter reduction in methamphetamine (MA) users; however, little is known about longitudinal brain structural alternations during abstinence. METHOD: Brain volumes were compared among 30 MA-dependent patients (average 6.3years of drug use) at 6months' abstinence and 27 drug-naïve controls by voxel-based morphometry. A longitudinal analysis of MA subjects was performed from 6 to 12months' abstinence, and multiple regression analyses were performed between drug use patterns and gray matter volumes (GMV) at 6months' abstinence...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877664/adherence-satisfaction-and-functional-health-status-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-using-the-betaconnect%C3%A2-autoinjector-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#5
Ingo Kleiter, Michael Lang, Judith Jeske, Christiane Norenberg, Barbara Stollfuß, Markus Schürks
BACKGROUND: Maintaining patient adherence to disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis is a challenge, which can be improved by autoinjectors. The BETACONNECT® is a fully electronic autoinjector for the injection of interferon beta-1b (IFN beta-1b) automatically recording injections. METHODS: The BETAEVAL study was a prospective, observational, cohort study over 24 weeks among patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome treated with IFN beta-1b in Germany using the BETACONNECT®...
September 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857309/impact-of-the-black-triangle-label-on-prescribing-of-new-drugs-in-the-united-kingdom-lessons-for-the-united-states-at-a-time-of-deregulation
#6
Daniel B Horton, Tobias Gerhard, Amy Davidow, Brian L Strom
PURPOSE: Newly approved novel drugs in Europe receive a black triangle label to promote pharmacovigilance. With growing momentum for earlier drug approvals and reliance on real-world evidence, we studied if the black triangle label promotes more judicious prescribing. METHODS: We examined whether general practitioners prescribed escitalopram, tadalafil, and vardenafil with a black triangle more cautiously than the same or similar drugs without a black triangle in The Health Improvement Network (UK)...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854593/gynaecologists-and-industry-ain-t-no-sunshine
#7
Cynthia M Farquhar, Paolo Vercellini, Jane Marjoribanks
The field of reproductive medicine is known for its innovations, and where there is innovation there is marketing and engagement with the doctors who are potential prescribers and users of those innovations. Financial connections between drug and device manufacturers with doctors have been extensively debated over the past decade. On one hand, relationships between doctors and industry could be considered synergistic by allowing the development of improved treatments. On the other hand, payment (and other benefits) from industry to doctors may subtly shift the main objective of the collaboration from patients' health to mutual benefits for both doctors and industry...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852677/the-effect-of-smallpox-and-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-on-the-risk-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-in-guinea-bissau-and-denmark
#8
Andreas Rieckmann, Marie Villumsen, Mette Lundsby Jensen, Henrik Ravn, Zacarias J da Silva, Signe Sørup, Jennifer Lyn Baker, Amabélia Rodrigues, Christine Stabell Benn, Adam E Roth, Peter Aaby
BACKGROUND: The live smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinations have been associated with better adult survival in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 became an important cause of death after smallpox vaccination was phased out globally in 1980. We hypothesised that smallpox and BCG vaccinations were associated with a lower prevalence of HIV-1 infection, and we tested this hypothesis in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. METHODS: We conducted 2 studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of HIV infection and vaccination scars in Guinea-Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46239 individuals in Denmark...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838579/national-trends-in-substance-use-and-use-disorders-among-youth
#9
Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco, Robert L DuPont
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in the 12-month prevalence of patterns of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) among US youth during 2002 through 2014. METHOD: Data were from 288,300 persons 12 to 17 years old who participated in the 2002 to 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied. RESULTS: During 2002 through 2014, among US youth, the 12-month prevalence of any substance use decreased by 27...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818512/ploc-meuk-predict-subcellular-localization-of-multi-label-eukaryotic-proteins-by-extracting-the-key-go-information-into-general-pseaac
#10
Xiang Cheng, Xuan Xiao, Kuo-Chen Chou
Many efforts have been made in predicting the subcellular localization of eukaryotic proteins, but most of the existing methods have the following two limitations: (1) their coverage scope is less than ten locations and hence many organelles in an eukaryotic cell cannot be covered, and (2) they can only be used to deal with single-label systems in which each of the constituent proteins has one and only one location. Actually, proteins with multiple locations are particularly interesting since they may have some exceptional functions very important for in-depth understanding the biological process in a cell and for selecting drug target as well...
August 14, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812281/preclinical-development-of-an-automated-injection-device-for-intradermal-delivery-of-a-cell-based-therapy
#11
Giulia Leoni, Alex Lyness, Patrick Ginty, Rindi Schutte, Gopalan Pillai, Gayatri Sharma, Paul Kemp, Natalie Mount, Michaela Sharpe
Current methods for intradermal delivery of therapeutic products in clinical use include manual injection via the Mantoux technique and the use of injection devices, primarily developed for the delivery of vaccines and small molecules. A novel automated injection device is presented specifically designed for accurate delivery of multiple doses of product through a number of adjustable injection parameters, including injection depth, dose volume and needle insertion speed. The device was originally conceived for the delivery of a cell-based therapy to patients with skin wounds caused by epidermolysis bullosa...
August 15, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801836/optimization-of-sample-preparation-and-instrumental-parameters-for-the-rapid-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-hair-samples-by-maldi-ms-ms-imaging
#12
Bryn Flinders, Emma Beasley, Ricky M Verlaan, Eva Cuypers, Simona Francese, Tom Bassindale, Malcolm R Clench, Ron M A Heeren
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been employed to rapidly screen longitudinally sectioned drug user hair samples for cocaine and its metabolites using continuous raster imaging. Optimization of the spatial resolution and raster speed were performed on intact cocaine contaminated hair samples. The optimized settings (100 × 150 μm at 0.24 mm/s) were subsequently used to examine longitudinally sectioned drug user hair samples. The MALDI-MS/MS images showed the distribution of the most abundant cocaine product ion at m/z 182...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756358/jejunal-diverticula-with-perforation-in-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-user-a-case-report
#13
Shobhit Gupta, Naveen Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum constitutes an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is often asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain and discomfort. CASE PRESENTAION: We are thereby reporting a 50yr patient on chronic NSAID ingestion presenting to us with acute abdomen. On exploration, there were multiple (14) jejunal diverticuli on both mesenteric and antimesentric border from 10cm to 90cm distal to duedenojejunal junction with a perforation in one of the diverticulum, 80cm distal to the ligament of Treitz...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755603/anticholinergic-use-trends-in-14-013-patients-with-schizophrenia-from-three-national-surveys-on-the-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-china-2002-2012
#14
Yun-Ai Su, Feng Yan, Qian Li, Yu-Tao Xiang, Liang Shu, Xin Yu, Yu-Ping Ning, Ke-Rang Zhang, Tao Li, Qi-Yi Mei, Ke-Qing Li, Tian-Mei Si
Our previous study demonstrated that there have been changes in the patterns of prescription antipsychotic use in China over the period from 2002 to 2012. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether time trends were present for the prescription of anticholinergic medications (ACMs) during the observation period. A total of 14,013 patients with schizophrenia treated in 45 psychiatric hospitals/centers nationwide were surveyed in 2002, 2006 and 2012. Basic socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescription of psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure...
July 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753882/statin-use-and-survival-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-treated-with-abiraterone-acetate
#15
Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Guru Sonpavde, Gregory Pond, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Sabrina Rossetti, Gaetano Facchini, Sarah Scagliarini, Giacomo Cartenì, Piera Federico, Bruno Daniele, Franco Morelli, Teresa Bellelli, Matteo Ferro, Sabino De Placido, Carlo Buonerba
BACKGROUND: Although statin use has been associated with favorable effects in various solid malignancies, no conclusive evidence is available at present. Statins are safe and inexpensive, and may synergize with novel antiandrogen agents abiraterone via pharmacokinetic interactions and decrease substrate availability for de novo androgen biosynthesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether statin use affects survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone...
April 8, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#16
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718324/physical-health-and-drug-safety-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#17
Tamara Pringsheim, Martina Kelly, Doug Urness, Michael Teehan, Zahinoor Ismail, David Gardner
BACKGROUND: While antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of therapy for individuals with schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, their use is associated with adverse effects on physical health that require the attention and care of prescribers. METHODS: We used the ADAPTE process to adapt existing guideline recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines on the dosing of antipsychotics and antipsychotic polypharmacy, screening for adverse effects of antipsychotics, and management of metabolic and extrapyramidal side effects to the Canadian context...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717153/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-the-risk-for-fracture-at-specific-sites-data-mining-of-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system
#18
Liwei Wang, Mei Li, Yuying Cao, Zhengqi Han, Xueju Wang, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Hongfang Liu, Shreyasee Amin
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastric acid-related disorders. Concerns have been raised about potential fracture risk, especially at the hip, spine and wrist. However, fracture risk at other bone sites has not been as well studied. We investigated the association between PPIs and specific fracture sites using an aggregated knowledge-enhanced database, the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System Data Mining Set (AERS-DM). Proportional reporting ratio (PRR) was used to detect statistically significant associations (signals) between PPIs and fractures...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713277/does-the-strategy-of-risk-group-testing-for-hepatitis-c-hit-the-target
#19
Mirjana R Jovanovic, Aleksandar Miljatovic, Laslo Puskas, Slobodan Kapor, Dijana L Puskas
In the European Union, it is estimated that there are 5.5 million individuals with chronic infection of hepatitis C. Intravenous drug abuse is undoubtedly the key source of the hepatitis C epidemic in Europe and the most efficient mode of transmission of HCV infections (primarily due to short incubation time, but also because the virus is introduced directly into the blood stream with the infected needle). Potentially high-risk and vulnerable populations in Europe (and the world) include immigrants, prisoners, sex workers, men having sex with men, individuals infected with HIV, psychoactive substance users etc...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712286/calibration-free-electrochemical-biosensors-supporting-accurate-molecular-measurements-directly-in-undiluted-whole-blood
#20
Hui Li, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme, Gabriel Ortega, Kevin W Plaxco
The need to calibrate to correct for sensor-to-sensor fabrication variation and sensor drift has proven a significant hurdle in the widespread use of biosensors. To maintain clinically relevant (±20% for this application) accuracy, for example, commercial continuous glucose monitors require recalibration several times a day, decreasing convenience and increasing the chance of user errors. Here, however, we demonstrate a "dual-frequency" approach for achieving the calibration-free operation of electrochemical biosensors that generate an output by using square-wave voltammetry to monitor binding-induced changes in electron transfer kinetics...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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