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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213047/the-effect-of-combined-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-treatment-on-cancer-incidence
#1
Avi Leader, Ravit Zelikson-Saporta, David Pereg, Galia Spectre, Uri Rozovski, Pia Raanani, Doron Hermoni, Michael Lishner
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have shown an association between aspirin treatment and a reduction in newly diagnosed cancer. Conversely, there are conflicting clinical and laboratory data regarding the effect of combined clopidogrel and aspirin therapy on cancer incidence, including analyses suggesting an increased cancer risk. No large scale cohort study has been performed to address this issue in a heterogeneous real-world scenario. We investigated the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on cancer incidence compared to aspirin alone and no antiplatelet therapy...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212298/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-human-pegivirus-1-infection-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-in-yunnan-china
#2
Zhijiang Miao, Li Gao, Yindi Song, Ming Yang, Mi Zhang, Jincheng Lou, Yue Zhao, Xicheng Wang, Yue Feng, Xingqi Dong, Xueshan Xia
Human Pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) may have a beneficial impact on disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, analysis of the genotypic diversity of HPgV-1 and its relevance to the progression of HIV-1 disease remains limited. A total of 1062 HIV-1-infected individuals were recruited in all sixteen prefectures of Yunnan province, China. The reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR), phylogenetic analyses, and clinical data analyses were used to detect HPgV-1 infection, determine genotype, and analyze HPgV-1 genotype impact on HIV-1 disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193352/a-straightforward-validated-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-nine-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-metabolites-in-hair-and-nails
#3
Delphine Cappelle, Mireille De Doncker, Celine Gys, Kamelia Krysiak, Steven De Keukeleire, Walid Maho, Cleo L Crunelle, Geert Dom, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Hugo Neels
Hair and nails allow for a stable accumulation of compounds over time and retrospective investigation of past exposure and/or consumption. Owing to their long window of detection (weeks to months), analysis of these matrices can provide information complementary to blood and urine analysis or can be used in standalone when e.g. elimination from the body has already occurred. Drugs of abuse are often used together and, therefore, multi-analyte methods capable of detecting several substances and their metabolites in a single run are of importance...
April 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186159/identification-of-crude-drugs-in-the-japanese-pharmacopoeia-using-a-dna-barcoding-system
#4
Xiaochen Chen, Li Xiang, Linchun Shi, Gang Li, Hui Yao, Jianping Han, Yulin Lin, Jingyuan Song, Shilin Chen
Kampo is the general designation for traditional Japanese herbal medicines, which are recognized as official medicines and listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia (JP). In most cases, it is difficult to identify the crude drug materials to species level using only traditional identification methods. We report the first online DNA barcode identification system, which includes standard barcode sequences from approximately 95% of the species recorded in the JP (16(th) edition). This tool provides users with basic information on each crude drug recorded in the JP, DNA barcoding identification of herbal material, and the standard operating procedure (SOP) from sampling to data analysis...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177556/pattern-and-related-factors-of-cognitive-impairment-among-chronic-methamphetamine-users
#5
Tong-Yu Wang, Teng-Teng Fan, Yan-Ping Bao, Xiao-Dong Li, Chun-Mei Liang, Ru-Jia Wang, Jun Ma, Ying Han, Shi-Qiu Meng, Ping Wu, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methamphetamine (MA) use is increasingly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia and commonly associated with cognitive impairment. The present study estimated the characteristics of cognitive impairment and explored the associated potential factors among chronic MA users. METHODS: The data were from the baseline visit of a longitudinal study among synthetic drug users. The baseline survey was conducted in detoxification and rehabilitation centers in Guangdong province, China, from September to December in 2013...
February 8, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159688/altered-regional-connectivity-reflecting-effects-of-different-anaesthesia-protocols-in-the-mouse-brain
#6
Tong Wu, Joanes Grandjean, Simone C Bosshard, Markus Rudin, David Reutens, Tianzi Jiang
Studies in mice using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have provided opportunities to investigate the effects of pharmacological manipulations on brain function and map the phenotypes of mouse models of human brain disorders. Mouse rs-fMRI is typically performed under anaesthesia, which induces both regional suppression of brain activity and disruption of large-scale neural networks. Previous comparative studies using rodents investigating various drug effects on long-distance functional connectivity (FC) have reported agent-specific FC patterns, however, effects of regional suppression are sparsely explored...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157414/comparing-characteristics-of-early-onset-injection-drug-users-to-those-with-late-onset-injection-in-kermanshah-iran
#7
Zahra Jojaran Shushtari, Alireza Noroozi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Elahe Ahounbar, Ahmad Hajbi, Mohammad Najafi, Ali Bazrafshan, Mohammad Hossin Farhadi, Ali Farhoudian, Peter Higgs, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulagh, Katherine Waye, Mehdi Noroozi
BACKGROUND: Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151928/multiple-fentanyl-overdoses-new-haven-connecticut-june-23-2016
#8
Anthony J Tomassoni, Kathryn F Hawk, Karen Jubanyik, Daniel P Nogee, Thomas Durant, Kara L Lynch, Rushaben Patel, David Dinh, Andrew Ulrich, Gail D'Onofrio
On the evening of June 23, 2016, a white powder advertised as cocaine was purchased off the streets from multiple sources and used by an unknown number of persons in New Haven, Connecticut. During a period of less than 8 hours, 12 patients were brought to the emergency department (ED) at Yale New Haven Hospital, experiencing signs and symptoms consistent with opioid overdose. The route of intoxication was not known, but presumed to be insufflation ("snorting") in most cases. Some patients required doses of the opioid antidote naloxone exceeding 4 mg (usual initial dose = 0...
February 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148394/young-or-adult-users-of-multiple-tobacco-nicotine-products-urgently-need-to-be-informed-of-meaningful-differences-in-product-risks
#9
Lynn T Kozlowski, David T Sweanor
Previously, it has been argued that health information efforts need to inform the public about meaningful differential risks from tobacco/nicotine products. The fact of multiple product use by the same individual further supports this need. When the majority of youth, for example, who use smokeless tobacco are also current tobacco smokers, it makes little sense to mount a smokeless prevention campaign that fails to include clear messages about the much greater risks from smoking. In April 2016, The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) announced a $36 million campaign for youth that "smokeless doesn't mean harmless...
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135334/relative-incidence-of-acute-adverse-events-with-ferumoxytol-compared-to-other-intravenous-iron-compounds-a-matched-cohort-study
#10
James B Wetmore, Eric D Weinhandl, Jincheng Zhou, David T Gilbertson
Concerns persist about adverse reactions to intravenous (IV) iron. We aimed to determine the relative safety of ferumoxytol compared to other IV iron compounds. This retrospective cohort study with propensity-score matching for patients and drug doses used the Medicare 20% random sample to identify patients (1) without chronic kidney disease (non-CKD) and (2) with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) who received a first dose of IV iron in 2010-2012. Exposures were ferumoxytol, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, or iron dextran...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122056/vigi4med-scraper-a-framework-for-web-forum-structured-data-extraction-and-semantic-representation
#11
Bissan Audeh, Michel Beigbeder, Antoine Zimmermann, Philippe Jaillon, Cédric Bousquet
The extraction of information from social media is an essential yet complicated step for data analysis in multiple domains. In this paper, we present Vigi4Med Scraper, a generic open source framework for extracting structured data from web forums. Our framework is highly configurable; using a configuration file, the user can freely choose the data to extract from any web forum. The extracted data are anonymized and represented in a semantic structure using Resource Description Framework (RDF) graphs. This representation enables efficient manipulation by data analysis algorithms and allows the collected data to be directly linked to any existing semantic resource...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121512/tobacco-product-use-by-adults-and-youths-in-the-united-states-in-2013-and-2014
#12
Karin A Kasza, Bridget K Ambrose, Kevin P Conway, Nicolette Borek, Kristie Taylor, Maciej L Goniewicz, K Michael Cummings, Eva Sharma, Jennifer L Pearson, Victoria R Green, Annette R Kaufman, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Mark J Travers, Jonathan Kwan, Cindy Tworek, Yu-Ching Cheng, Ling Yang, Nikolas Pharris-Ciurej, Dana M van Bemmel, Cathy L Backinger, Wilson M Compton, Andrew J Hyland
Background Noncigarette tobacco products are evolving rapidly, with increasing popularity in the United States. Methods We present prevalence estimates for 12 types of tobacco products, using data from 45,971 adult and youth participants (≥12 years of age) from Wave 1 (September 2013 through December 2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a large, nationally representative, longitudinal study of tobacco use and health in the United States. Participants were asked about their use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, snus pouches, other smokeless tobacco, dissolvable tobacco, bidis, and kreteks...
26, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120646/prevalence-and-the-associated-risk-factors-of-hiv-stis-and-hbv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-kunming-china
#13
Xiujie Zhang, Manhong Jia, Min Chen, Hongbing Luo, Huichao Chen, Wei Luo, Wanyue Zhang, Yanling Ma, Chaojun Yang, Yanling Yang, Xiaobin Zhang, Jie Dai, Lijuan Dong, William Cw Wong, Pengfei Zhao, Lin Lu
To investigate the prevalence and the associated risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kunming, 300 MSM were recruited through community-based organizations between September 2014 and January 2015. The prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were 17.0%, 7.7%, 11.3%, 18.2% and 13.2%, respectively. In the three different anatomic sites (urethra, rectum and pharynx), the prevalence of rectal CT was the highest (15...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108781/potentially-inappropriate-medications-predictor-for-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-community-dwelling-older-adults
#14
Mariana Martins Gonzaga do Nascimento, Juliana Vaz de Melo Mambrini, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Josélia Oliveira Araújo Firmo, Sérgio William Viana Peixoto, Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is a predictor for mortality in a community-based population of older adults. METHODS: A cohort study was performed between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, based on data from a representative sample of the population aged 60 years or older living in Bambuí, Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the association between the variable of interest (use of PIM or pharmacological groups of PIM) and mortality were based on the extended Cox model for proportional hazards...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107391/recreational-drug-use-among-chinese-msm-and-transgender-individuals-results-from-a-national-online-cross-sectional-study
#15
Peizhen Zhao, Songyuan Tang, Cheng Wang, Ye Zhang, John Best, Thitikarn May Tangthanasup, Shujie Huang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Recreational drug use has increased considerably among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The phenomenon has the potentially to increase HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use among Chinese MSM, and 2) to explore the correlation between gay smartphone based sex-seeking applications (gay apps), HIV/STIs testing, group sex, commercial sex, sexual roles and poppers use among Chinese MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100828/an-integrated-modelling-framework-for-neural-circuits-with-multiple-neuromodulators
#16
Alok Joshi, Vahab Youssofzadeh, Vinith Vemana, T M McGinnity, Girijesh Prasad, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Neuromodulators are endogenous neurochemicals that regulate biophysical and biochemical processes, which control brain function and behaviour, and are often the targets of neuropharmacological drugs. Neuromodulator effects are generally complex partly owing to the involvement of broad innervation, co-release of neuromodulators, complex intra- and extrasynaptic mechanism, existence of multiple receptor subtypes and high interconnectivity within the brain. In this work, we propose an efficient yet sufficiently realistic computational neural modelling framework to study some of these complex behaviours...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076644/main-mental-disorders-in-crack-cocaine-users-treated-at-psychosocial-care-centers-for-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-city-of-recife-brazil
#17
Antonio Gomes de Castro, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Magda da Silva Figueiroa
Introduction: Brazil's Northeast region has the highest crack-cocaine consumption in the country. Crack-cocaine has more intense effects than cocaine powder and can cause greater chemical dependence. Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) are public health services that provide treatment for drug dependence. It is common for drug users, and particularly crack-cocaine users, to develop mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the most common mental disorders in crack-cocaine dependents in treatment at CAPSad in the city of Recife, Brazil...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076533/similarities-and-differences-in-crack-cocaine-use-patterns-in-santa-catarina-brazil-capital-vs-midwest
#18
Maria Terezinha Zeferino, Vivian Costa Fermo, Marcelo Brandt Fialho, Francisco Inácio Bastos
Crack cocaine has been a major public health problem in Brazil due to the individual and social harms and risks deriving from its use. This article aims to assess the characteristics of drug scenes in the capital and Midwest of Santa Catarina state. The project used the Time-Location Sampling. Between January and June 2011, 41 crack cocaine scenes were mapped in capital of Santa Catarina, whereas 33 were mapped in the Midwest of that state. Such scenes were randomly selected to be observed, as well as their days and shifts (time periods/day) for in-depth observation...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073289/generation-and-characterization-of-hiv-1-transmitted-and-founder-virus-consensus-sequence-from-intravenous-drug-users-in-xinjiang-china
#19
Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been characterized by high genetic multiplicity, suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing(SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence(IDU.CON). All the T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC, and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
January 10, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069041/understanding-how-primary-care-practitioners-perceive-an-online-intervention-for-the-management-of-hypertension
#20
Katherine Bradbury, Katherine Morton, Rebecca Band, Carl May, Richard McManus, Paul Little, Lucy Yardley
BACKGROUND: In order to achieve successful implementation an intervention needs to be acceptable and feasible to its users and must overcome barriers to behaviour change. The Person-Based Approach can help intervention developers to improve their interventions to ensure more successful implementation. This study provides an example of using the Person-Based Approach to refine a digital intervention for hypertension (HOME BP). METHODS: Our Person-Based Approach involved conducting qualitative focus groups with practice staff to explore their perceptions of HOME BP and to identify any potential barriers to implementation of the HOME BP procedures...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
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