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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#1
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325141/lncmap-pan-cancer-atlas-of-long-noncoding-rna-mediated-transcriptional-network-perturbations
#2
Yongsheng Li, Lili Li, Zishan Wang, Tao Pan, Nidhi Sahni, Xiyun Jin, Guangjuan Wang, Junyi Li, Xiangyi Zheng, Yunpeng Zhang, Juan Xu, Song Yi, Xia Li
Gene regulatory network perturbations contribute to the development and progression of cancer, however, molecular determinants that mediate transcriptional perturbations remain a fundamental challenge for cancer biology. We show that transcriptional perturbations are widely mediated by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) via integration of genome-wide transcriptional regulation with paired lncRNA and gene expression profiles. Systematic construction of an LncRNA Modulator Atlas in Pan-cancer (LncMAP) reveals distinct types of lncRNA regulatory molecules, which are expressed in multiple tissues, exhibit higher conservation...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325084/metformin-use-reverses-the-increased-mortality-associated-with-diabetes-mellitus-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#3
Nicholas R Degner, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jonathan E Golub, Petros C Karakousis
Background: The global type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic threatens progress made in reducing tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality worldwide. Previous clinical studies have not fully evaluated potential confounding variables in addressing the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. The antidiabetic agent metformin regulates autophagy and may play a role as a host-directed therapeutic adjuvant to antitubercular treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comprising patients aged ≥13 years undergoing treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316523/gender-and-race-as-correlates-of-high-risk-sex-behaviors-among-injection-drug-users-at-risk-for-hiv-enrolled-in-the-hptn-037-study
#4
Mandy J Hill, Michael Holt, Brett Hanscom, Zhe Wang, Marylou Cardenas-Turanzas, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Sexual contact has been shown to be a major mode of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study examined gender and racial differences among PWID' sexual risk behaviors from the perspective of sexual scripts. METHODS: 696 PWID enrolled from Philadelphia on HPTN 037 were classified as engaging in high-risk sex behaviors if they reported having sex in the past 30 days and condomless sex with a non-primary partner, giving/receiving sex for money, or multiple partners...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311552/poppers-use-and-sexual-partner-concurrency-increase-the-hiv-incidence-of-msm-a-24-month-prospective-cohort-survey-in-shenyang-china
#5
Zhen-Xing Chu, Jun-Jie Xu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qing-Hai Hu, Ke Yun, Hong-Yi Wang, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang
The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305968/alternatives-to-current-flow-cytometry-data-analysis-for-clinical-and-research-studies
#6
REVIEW
Carmen Gondhalekar, Bartek Rajwa, Valery Patsekin, Kathy Ragheb, Jennifer Sturgis, J Paul Robinson
Flow cytometry has well-established methods for data analysis based on traditional data collection techniques. These techniques typically involved manual insertion of tube samples into an instrument that, historically, could only measure 1-3 colors. The field has since evolved to incorporate new technologies for faster and highly automated sample preparation and data collection. For example, the use of microwell plates on benchtop instruments is now a standard on virtually every new instrument, and so users can easily accumulate multiple data sets quickly...
January 3, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302838/gpkpdsim-a-simbiology%C3%A2-based-gui-application-for-pkpd-modeling-in-drug-development
#7
Iraj Hosseini, Anita Gajjala, Daniela Bumbaca Yadav, Siddharth Sukumaran, Saroja Ramanujan, Ricardo Paxson, Kapil Gadkar
Modeling and simulation (M&S) is increasingly used in drug development to characterize pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationships and support various efforts such as target feasibility assessment, molecule selection, human PK projection, and preclinical and clinical dose and schedule determination. While model development typically require mathematical modeling expertise, model exploration and simulations could in many cases be performed by scientists in various disciplines to support the design, analysis and interpretation of experimental studies...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284807/a-clinical-study-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-a-tertiary-care-center-of-eastern-india
#8
Satyakam Mohapatra, Mihir Ranjan Nayak, Manaswini Dash
Background: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based intervention for opiate-dependent persons that replaces illicit drug use with medically prescribed, orally administered opiates such as buprenorphine and methadone. OST reduces HIV risk behaviors and harms associated with injecting opioid. Most of the evidence for OST effectiveness has been generated in middle- and high-income countries where programs are mostly located in dedicated health-care settings; evidence regarding the outcomes of OST programs in low-income countries where OST is often provided in grassroots settings such as drop-in centers is limited...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281039/assessing-individual-level-needle-and-syringe-coverage-parameters-and-the-measurement-of-coverage-in-melbourne-australia-methods-and-impacts
#9
D O'Keefe, N Scott, C Aitken, P Dietze
Background: To assess the structure of individual-level needle and syringe coverage measurement formula, and to estimate the impact of coverage-related behaviours/parameters (instances of syringe acquisition, total syringes acquired, peer-to-peer syringe distribution, injecting frequency) on overall coverage. Methods: Data are drawn from the Melbourne (Australia) injecting drug user cohort study, 2010-16. Data from 518 participants were analysed. We used correlations to explore the relationships between coverage parameters; pooled multiple-linear regression to estimate the effect of each parameter on coverage over time; and exploratory factor analysis to assess the relevance of each parameter within the coverage formula...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280915/bladder-cancer-risk-in-users-of-selected-drugs-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
#10
Valentina Guercio, Federica Turati, Cristina Bosetti, Jerry Polesel, Diego Serraino, Maurizio Montella, Massimo Libra, Antonio Galfano, Carlo La Vecchia, Alessandra Tavani
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between bladder cancer risk and the use of selected drugs for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, such as aspirin, statins, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). We analyzed data from a multicentric case-control study carried out in Italy between 2003 and 2014, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of bladder cancer and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275138/does-a-history-of-psychoactive-substances-abuse-play-a-role-in-the-level-of-pain-of-the-patient-with-severe-trauma
#11
C López-López, A Arranz-Esteban, M V Martinez-Ureta, M C Sánchez-Rascón, C Morales-Sánchez, M Chico-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the influence of psychotropic substance use on the level of pain in patients with severe trauma. DESIGN: Longitudinal analytical study. SCOPE: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Trauma and Emergencies. PATIENTS: severe trauma, non-communicative and mechanical ventilation >48hours. Two groups of patients were created: users and non-users of psychotropic substances according to medical records. INTERVENTIONS: Measurement of pain level at baseline and during mobilization, using the Pain Indicator Behaviour Scale...
December 20, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239048/drug-and-alcohol-treatment-providers-views-about-the-disease-model-of-addiction-and-its-impact-on-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Anthony I Barnett, Wayne Hall, Craig L Fry, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Adrian Carter
ISSUES: Addiction treatment providers' views about the disease model of addiction (DMA), and their contemporary views about the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), remain an understudied area. We systematically reviewed treatment providers' attitudes about the DMA/BDMA, examined factors associated with positive or negative attitudes and assessed their views on the potential clinical impact of both models. APPROACH: Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Sociological Abstracts were systematically searched...
December 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198061/development-and-pilot-testing-of-pharao-a-decision-support-system-for-pharmacological-risk-assessment-in-the-elderly
#13
Ylva Böttiger, Kari Laine, Tuomas Korhonen, Janne Lähdesmäki, Tero Shemeikka, Margaretha Julander, Maria Edlert, Marine L Andersson
PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to describe the development of PHARAO (Pharmacological Risk Assessment Online), a decision support system providing a risk profile for adverse events, associated with combined effects of multiple medicines, and to present data from a pilot study, testing the use, functionality, and acceptance of the PHARAO system in a clinical setting. METHODS: About 1400 substances were scored in relation to their risk to cause any of nine common and/or serious adverse effects...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186475/prophtools-general-prioritization-tools-for-heterogeneous-biological-networks
#14
Carmen Navarro, Victor Martínez, Armando Blanco, Carlos Cano
Background: Networks have been proven effective representations for the analysis of biological data. As such, there exist multiple methods to extract knowledge from biological networks. However, these approaches usually limit their scope to a single biological entity type of interest, or they lack flexibility to analyse user-defined data. Results: We developed ProphTools, a flexible open-source command-line tool that performs prioritization on a heterogeneous network...
November 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185923/revims-software-tool-for-estimating-the-volumes-of-3-d-multicellular-spheroids-imaged-using-a-light-sheet-fluorescence-microscope
#15
Filippo Piccinini, Anna Tesei, Michele Zanoni, Alessandro Bevilacqua
Cancer 3-D spheroids are widely used to test drugs and radiotherapy treatments. These 3-D cell clusters range from tens to hundreds of micrometers in size, with shapes that typically differ from a perfect sphere. Change in spheroid volume is one of the most important parameters for evaluating treatment efficacy, and using light sheet fluorescence microscopes (LSFM), optical sections of samples in that size range can be obtained. However, there remains a lack of validated methods for quantifying the volumes of 3-D multicellular aggregates...
November 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174019/collar-occupancy-a-new-quantitative-imaging-tool-for-morphometric-analysis-of-oligodendrocytes
#16
Filipa Bouçanova, André Filipe Maia, Andrea Cruz, Val Millar, Inês Mendes Pinto, João Bettencourt Relvas, Helena Sofia Domingues
BACKGROUND: Oligodendrocytes (OL) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. OL differentiation from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) is accompanied by characteristic stereotypical morphological changes. Quantitative imaging of those morphological alterations during OPC differentiation is commonly used for characterization of new molecules in cell differentiation and myelination and screening of new pro-myelinating drugs. Current available imaging analysis methods imply a non-automated morphology assessment, which is time-consuming and prone to user subjective evaluation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164400/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-an-archipelago-of-the-amazon
#17
Fabricio Q Silva, Francisco J A Santos, Andreia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Benedikt Fischer, João Renato R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically exposes them to risks of viral infection. In the Brazilian Amazon region, a number of studies have identified high rates of drug use among adolescents, and a high prevalence of HBV infection in DUs, disseminated by sexual and parenteral activities. However, the epidemiological scenario of HCV infection in the region is still poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159598/etox-allies-an-automated-pipeline-for-linear-interaction-energy-based-simulations
#18
Luigi Capoferri, Marc van Dijk, Ariën S Rustenburg, Tsjerk A Wassenaar, Derk P Kooi, Eko A Rifai, Nico P E Vermeulen, Daan P Geerke
BACKGROUND: Computational methods to predict binding affinities of small ligands toward relevant biological (off-)targets are helpful in prioritizing the screening and synthesis of new drug candidates, thereby speeding up the drug discovery process. However, use of ligand-based approaches can lead to erroneous predictions when structural and dynamic features of the target substantially affect ligand binding. Free energy methods for affinity computation can include steric and electrostatic protein-ligand interactions, solvent effects, and thermal fluctuations, but often they are computationally demanding and require a high level of supervision...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156402/effect-of-initiating-drug-treatment-on-the-risk-of-drug-related-poisoning-death-and-acquisitive-crime-among-offending-heroin-users
#19
Matthias Pierce, Sheila M Bird, Matthew Hickman, John Marsden, Graham Dunn, Toby Seddon, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143332/accurate-prediction-and-elucidation-of-drug-resistance-based-on-the-robust-and-reproducible-chemoresponse-communities
#20
Enyu Dai, Jing Wang, Feng Yang, Xu Zhou, Qian Song, Shuyuan Wang, Xuexin Yu, Dianming Liu, Qian Yang, Hong Dai, Wei Jiang, Hong Ling
Selecting the available treatment for each cancer patient from genomic context is a core goal of precision medicine, but innovative approaches with mechanism interpretation and improved performance are still highly needed. Through utilizing in vitro chemotherapy response data coupled with gene and miRNA expression profiles, we applied a network-based approach that identified markers not as individual molecules but as functional groups extracted from the integrated transcription factor and miRNA regulatory network...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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