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Spinal cord computational model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330575/a-new-technique-for-minimal-invasive-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-minipigs
#1
Elena E Foditsch, Gratian Miclaus, Irina Patras, Ioan Hutu, Karin Roider, Sophina Bauer, Günter Janetschek, Ludwig Aigner, Reinhold Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop a minimal invasive complete spinal cord injury (SCI) minipig model for future research applications. The minipig is considered a translationally relevant model for SCI research. However, a standardized minimal invasive complete SCI model for pigs has not yet been established. METHODS: Adult Göttingen minipigs were anesthetized and placed in extended prone position. After initial computed tomography (CT) scan, the skin was incised, a needle placed in the epidural fatty tissue...
January 12, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323043/neural-computational-modeling-reveals-a-major-role-of-corticospinal-gating-of-central-oscillations-in-the-generation-of-essential-tremor
#2
Hong-En Qu, Chuanxin M Niu, Si Li, Man-Zhao Hao, Zi-Xiang Hu, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
Essential tremor, also referred to as familial tremor, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease and the most common movement disorder. It typically involves a postural and motor tremor of the hands, head or other part of the body. Essential tremor is driven by a central oscillation signal in the brain. However, the corticospinal mechanisms involved in the generation of essential tremor are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we used a neural computational model that includes both monosynaptic and multisynaptic corticospinal pathways interacting with a propriospinal neuronal network...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296037/estimating-second-malignancy-risk-in-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-using-a-mechanistic-radiobiological-model-in-radiotherapy-for-carcinoma-of-left-breast
#3
Vasanthan Sakthivel, Ganesh Kadirampatti Mani, Sunil Mani, Raghavendiran Boopathy, Jothybasu Selvaraj
Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate second cancer risk (SCR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a mechanistic radiobiological model. The model also takes into account patient age at exposure and the gender-specific correction factors of SCR. Materials and Methods: Fifty IMRT and VMAT plans were selected for the study. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation engine was used for dose calculation. Appropriate model parameters were taken from the literature for the mechanistic model to calculate excess absolute risk (EAR), lifetime attributable risk, integral dose and relative risk (RR) for lungs, contralateral breast, heart, and spinal cord...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288084/comparison-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-viscoelastic-behavior-of-the-spinal-cord
#4
Nicole L Ramo, Snehal S Shetye, Femke Streijger, Jae H T Lee, Kevin L Troyer, Brian K Kwon, Peter Cripton, Christian M Puttlitz
Despite efforts to simulate the in-vivo environment, post-mortem degradation and lack of blood perfusion complicate the use of ex-vivo derived material models in computational studies of spinal cord injury. In order to quantify the mechanical changes that manifest ex-vivo, the viscoelastic behavior of in-vivo and ex-vivo porcine spinal cord samples were compared. Stress-relaxation data from each condition were fit to a non-linear viscoelastic model using a novel characterization technique called the direct fit method...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287811/biomechanical-simulation-of-stresses-and-strains-exerted-on-the-spinal-cord-and-nerves-during-scoliosis-correction-maneuvers
#5
Juan Henao, Hubert Labelle, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Carl-Éric Aubin
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical analysis of the spinal cord and nerves during scoliosis correction maneuvers through numerical simulations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the biomechanical effects of scoliosis correction maneuvers and stresses generated on the spinal nervous structures. BACKGROUND DATA: Important forces are applied during scoliosis correction surgery, which could potentially lead to neurologic complications due to stresses exerted on the nervous structures...
January 2018: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225569/elimination-of-left-right-reciprocal-coupling-in-the-adult-lamprey-spinal-cord-abolishes-the-generation-of-locomotor-activity
#6
J A Messina, Alison St Paul, Sarah Hargis, Wengora E Thompson, Andrew D McClellan
The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML) spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL), before and after spinal transections (T) at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#7
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119834/numerical-study-of-intrathecal-drug-delivery-to-a-permeable-spinal-cord-effect-of-catheter-position-and-angle
#8
G Pizzichelli, B Kehlet, Ø Evju, B A Martin, M E Rognes, K A Mardal, E Sinibaldi
Intrathecal delivery is a procedure involving the release of therapeutic agents into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hrough a catheter. It holds promise for treating high-impact central nervous system pathologies, for which systemic administration routes are ineffective. In this study we introduce a numerical model able to simultaneously account for solute transport in the fluid and in the spinal cord. Using a Discontinuous Galerkin method and a three-dimensional patient-specific geometry, we studied the effect of catheter position and angle on local spinal cord drug concentration...
November 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100938/generative-diffeomorphic-modelling-of-large-mri-data-sets-for-probabilistic-template-construction
#9
Claudia Blaiotta, Patrick Freund, M Jorge Cardoso, John Ashburner
In this paper we present a hierarchical generative model of medical image data, which can capture simultaneously the variability of both signal intensity and anatomical shapes across large populations. Such a model has a direct application for learning average-shaped probabilistic tissue templates in a fully automated manner. While in principle the generality of the proposed Bayesian approach makes it suitable to address a wide range of medical image computing problems, our work focuses primarily on neuroimaging applications...
October 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096983/chiari-malformation-may-increase-perivascular-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-into-the-spinal-cord-a-subject-specific-computational-modelling-study
#10
Robert A Lloyd, David F Fletcher, Elizabeth C Clarke, Lynne E Bilston
Syringomyelia is associated with Chiari I malformation, although the mechanistic link is unclear. Studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid enters the spinal cord via the perivascular spaces, and that changes in the timing of the subarachnoid pressures may increase flow into the spinal cord. This study aims to determine how Chiari malformation and syringomyelia alter the subarachnoid space pressures and hence perivascular flow. Subject-specific models of healthy controls (N = 9), Chiari patients with (N = 7) and without (N = 8) syringomyelia, were developed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to simulate the subarachnoid pressures...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089514/design-and-computational-modeling-of-a-modular-compliant-robotic-assembly-for-human-lumbar-unit-and-spinal-cord-assistance
#11
Gunjan Agarwal, Matthew A Robertson, Harshal Sonar, Jamie Paik
Wearable soft robotic systems are enabling safer human-robot interaction and are proving to be instrumental for biomedical rehabilitation. In this manuscript, we propose a novel, modular, wearable robotic device for human (lumbar) spine assistance that is developed using vacuum driven, soft pneumatic actuators (V-SPA). The actuators can handle large, repetitive loads efficiently under compression. Computational models to capture the complex non-linear mechanical behavior of individual actuator modules and the integrated assistive device are developed using the finite element method (FEM)...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076212/high-resolution-multi-scale-computational-model-for-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#12
Antonios P Mourdoukoutas, Dennis Q Truong, Devin K Adair, Bruce J Simon, Marom Bikson
OBJECTIVES: To develop the first high-resolution, multi-scale model of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) and to predict vagus fiber type activation, given clinically relevant rheobase thresholds. METHODS: An MRI-derived Finite Element Method (FEM) model was developed to accurately simulate key macroscopic (e.g., skin, soft tissue, muscle) and mesoscopic (cervical enlargement, vertebral arch and foramen, cerebral spinal fluid [CSF], nerve sheath) tissue components to predict extracellular potential, electric field (E-Field), and activating function along the vagus nerve...
October 27, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070633/central-pattern-generators-in-the-turtle-spinal-cord-selection-among-the-forms-of-motor-behaviors
#13
Paul S G Stein
Neuronal networks in the turtle spinal cord have considerable computational complexity even in the absence of connections with supraspinal structures. These networks contain Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) for each of several behaviors, including three forms of scratch, two forms of swim, and flexion reflex. Each behavior is activated by a specific set of cutaneous or electrical stimuli. The process of selection among behaviors within the spinal cord has multisecond memories of specific motor patterns. Some spinal cord interneurons are partially shared among several CPGs while other interneurons are active during only one type of behavior...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051550/studying-the-role-of-axon-fasciculation-during-development-in-a-computational-model-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-spinal-cord
#14
Oliver Davis, Robert Merrison-Hort, Stephen R Soffe, Roman Borisyuk
During nervous system development growing axons can interact with each other, for example by adhering together in order to produce bundles (fasciculation). How does such axon-axon interaction affect the resulting axonal trajectories, and what are the possible benefits of this process in terms of network function? In this paper we study these questions by adapting an existing computational model of the development of neurons in the Xenopus tadpole spinal cord to include interactions between axons. We demonstrate that even relatively weak attraction causes bundles to appear, while if axons weakly repulse each other their trajectories diverge such that they fill the available space...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031516/growth-of-adult-spinal-cord-in-knifefish-development-and-parametrization-of-a-distributed-model
#15
Iulian Ilieş, Rifat Sipahi, Günther K H Zupanc
The study of indeterminate-growing organisms such as teleost fish presents a unique opportunity for improving our understanding of central nervous tissue growth during adulthood. Integrating the existing experimental data associated with this process into a theoretical framework through mathematical or computational modeling provides further research avenues through sensitivity analysis and optimization. While this type of approach has been used extensively in investigations of tumor growth, wound healing, and bone regeneration, the development of nervous tissue has been rarely studied within a modeling framework...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961100/an-mri-compatible-hydrodynamic-simulator-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-motion-in-the-cervical-spine
#16
Suraj Thyagaraj, Soroush H Pahlavian, Lucas R Sass, Francis Loth, Morteza Vatani, Jao-Won Choi, R Shane Tubbs, Daniel Giese, Jan-Robert Kroger, Alexander C Bunck, Bryn A Martin
GOAL: Develop and test an MRI-compatible hydrodynamic simulator of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion in the cervical spinal subarachnoid space. Four anatomically realistic subject-specific models were created based on a 22-year-old healthy volunteer and a five-year-old patient diagnosed with Chiari I malformation. METHODS: The in vitro models were based on manual segmentation of high-resolution T2-weighted MRI of the cervical spine. Anatomically realistic dorsal and ventral spinal cord nerve rootlets (NR) were added...
September 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934801/increasing-rates-of-imaging-in-failed-back-surgery-syndrome-patients-implications-for-spinal-cord-stimulation
#17
S Harrison Farber, Jing L Han, Frank W Petraglia Iii, Robert Gramer, Siyun Yang, Promila Pagadala, Beth Parente, Jichun Xie, Jeffrey R Petrella, Shivanand P Lad
BACKGROUND: Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) has a high incidence following spinal surgery, is notoriously refractory to treatment, and results in high health care utilization. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-accepted modality for pain relief in this population; however, until recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was prohibited due to risk of heat conduction through the device. OBJECTIVES: We examined trends in imaging use over the past decade in patients with FBSS to determine its impact on health care utilization and implications for patients receiving SCS...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923686/high-speed-video-analysis-improves-the-accuracy-of-spinal-cord-compression-measurement-in-a-mouse-contusion-model
#18
Marion Fournely, Yvan Petit, Éric Wagnac, Jérôme Laurin, Virginie Callot, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
BACKGROUND: Animal models of spinal cord injuries aim to utilize controlled and reproducible conditions. However, a literature review reveals that mouse contusion studies using equivalent protocols may show large disparities in the observed impact force vs. cord compression relationship. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate possible sources of bias in these measurements. The specific objective was to improve spinal cord compression measurements using a video-based setup to detect the impactor-spinal cord time-to-contact...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864351/adaptation-of-a-mr-imaging-protocol-into-a-real-time-clinical-biometric-ultrasound-protocol-for-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-at-risk-for-deep-tissue-injury-a-reliability-study
#19
Jillian M Swaine, Andrew Moe, William Breidahl, Daniel L Bader, Cees W J Oomens, Leanne Lester, Edmond O'Loughlin, Nick Santamaria, Michael C Stacey
BACKGROUND: High strain in soft tissues that overly bony prominences are considered a risk factor for pressure ulcers (PUs) following spinal cord impairment (SCI) and have been computed using Finite Element methods (FEM). The aim of this study was to translate a MRI protocol into ultrasound (US) and determine between-operator reliability of expert sonographers measuring diameter of the inferior curvature of the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the thickness of the overlying soft tissue layers on able-bodied (AB) and SCI using real-time ultrasound...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854256/peripheral-denervation-participates-in-heterotopic-ossification-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#20
Charlotte Debaud, Marjorie Salga, Laurent Begot, Xavier Holy, Malha Chedik, Nicolas de l'Escalopier, Fréderic Torossian, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Marie-Caroline Le Bousse-Kerdilès, François Genêt
We previously reported the development of a new acquired neurogenic HO (NHO) mouse model, combining spinal cord transection (SCI) and chemical muscle injury. Pathological mechanisms responsible for ectopic osteogenesis after central neurological damage are still to be elucidated. In this study, we first hypothesized that peripheral nervous system (PNS) might convey pathological signals from injured spinal cord to muscles in NHO mouse model. Secondly, we sought to determine whether SCI could lead to intramuscular modifications of BMP2 signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
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