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Spinal cord computational model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412561/metastatic-human-breast-cancer-to-the-spine-produces-mechanical-hyperalgesia-and-gait-deficits-in-rodents
#1
Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Alejandro Ruiz-Valls, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Ana M Ampuero, Ismael Jimenez-Estrada, Samantha De Silva, Lydia J Bernhardt, C Rory Goodwin, A Karim Ahmed, Yuxin Li, Neil A Phillips, Ziya L Gokaslan, Alfredo QuiƱones-Hinojosa, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Metastases to the spine are a common source of severe pain in cancer patients. The secondary effects of spinal metastases include pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, and neurological deficits. As the disease progresses, pain severity can increase until it becomes refractory to medical treatments and leads to a decreased quality of life for patients. A key obstacle in the study of pain-induced spinal cancer is the lack of reliable and reproducible spine cancer animal models...
April 13, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368982/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-chronic-pain-mode-of-action
#2
Ricardo Vallejo, Kerry Bradley, Leonardo Kapural
OBJECTIVE: A review of the literature that presents a perspective on mechanisms of actions behind spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy for chronic pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SCS is an effective therapeutic alternative for the treatment of intractable chronic pain. Its application has been mostly based on the Gate Control Theory (GCT) of pain. Computational models have been fundamental on the understanding of clinical observations and the design of therapies that provide optimal neuromodulation...
March 31, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350952/future-advances-in-spine-surgery-the-aospine-north-america-perspective
#3
Michael G Fehlings, Christopher S Ahuja, Thomas Mroz, Wellington Hsu, James Harrop
This focus issue highlights state-of-the-art techniques, equipment, and practices in the modern era of spine surgery while providing a glimpse into the next generation of patient care. A broad range of topics are presented to cover the full spectrum of the field. Degenerative diseases are discussed in a series of 3 articles on (1) pathophysiology, management, and surgical approaches to degenerative cervical myelopathy; (2) novel approaches to degenerative thoracolumbar disease (eg, interspinous process spacers, minimally invasive/endoscopic approaches); and (3) animal models and emerging therapeutics in degenerative disk disease...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324978/influence-of-electrode-configuration-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cervical-spine
#4
Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a recent technique with promising neuromodulatory effects on spinal neuronal circuitry. The main objective of the present study was to perform a finite element analysis of the electric field distribution in tsDCS in the cervical spine region, with varying electrode configurations and geometry. A computational model of a human trunk was generated with nine tissue meshes. Three electrode configurations were tested: A) rectangular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C3 and T3 spinous processes, respectively; B1) circular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C7 spinous process and right deltoid muscle, respectively; B2) same configuration as B1, considering circular shaped electrodes with sponge and rubber layers and a small circular connector on the top surface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324946/characterization-of-motor-cortex-activity-of-the-lower-limb-region
#5
Fadi Mikhail, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Matthew D Best, Kazutaka Takahashi, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
Understanding the functional properties of the motor cortex is a key step to developing effective neuroprosthetic and computer interfaces for amputees and patients with spinal cord injury. Most efforts have been directed towards studying the upper limb region of the motor cortex. Little has been done in the way of addressing lower limb motor cortical physiology. In this study, we implanted multiple microelectrode arrays along the central sulcus in the primary motor cortex of a macaque monkey. Using intracortical microstimulation, we identified neurons that evoked leg movements, either exclusively or mostly, and we studied their firing activity during a center-out arm movement task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269725/computational-models-of-non-invasive-brain-and-spinal-cord-stimulation
#6
Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes
Non-invasive brain and spinal cord stimulation techniques are increasingly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the induced electric field is necessary to interpret experimental results and to optimize field delivery. Since the induced electric field cannot be measured in vivo in humans, computational models play a fundamental role in determining the characteristics of the electric field. We produced computational models of the head and trunk to calculate the electric field induced in the brain and spinal cord by transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268678/novel-fractal-planar-electrode-design-for-efficient-neural-stimulation
#7
Xuefeng Wei, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Miriam Meller, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla
Planar electrodes are used in epidural spinal cord stimulation and cortical stimulation. Stimulation efficiency of an electrode is characterized by its ability to activate a volume of neural tissue with lower voltage and power requirements. As current density tends to increase towards the sharp edges of an electrode, we hypothesize that electrode designs involving a greater amount of sharp edges will have higher variations of current density, and therefore increase stimulation efficiency, compared to electrodes with flat or rounded edges...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266523/abnormalities-in-a-to-i-rna-editing-patterns-in-cns-injuries-correlate-with-dynamic-changes-in-cell-type-composition
#8
Nurit Gal-Mark, Lea Shallev, Sahar Sweetat, Michal Barak, Jin Billy Li, Erez Y Levanon, Eli Eisenberg, Oded Behar
Adenosine to Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a co- or post-transcriptional mechanism that modifies genomically encoded nucleotides at the RNA level. A-to-I RNA editing is abundant in the brain, and altered editing levels have been reported in various neurological pathologies and following spinal cord injury (SCI). The prevailing concept is that the RNA editing process itself is dysregulated by brain pathologies. Here we analyzed recent RNA-seq data, and found that, except for few mammalian conserved editing sites, editing is significantly higher in neurons than in other cell populations of the brain...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227989/computational-models-of-non-invasive-brain-and-spinal-cord-stimulation
#9
Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador
Non-invasive brain and spinal cord stimulation techniques are increasingly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the induced electric field is necessary to interpret experimental results and to optimize field delivery. Since the induced electric field cannot be measured in vivo in humans, computational models play a fundamental role in determining the characteristics of the electric field. We produced computational models of the head and trunk to calculate the electric field induced in the brain and spinal cord by transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227179/influence-of-electrode-configuration-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-cervical-spine
#10
Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Mamede A de Carvalho
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a recent technique with promising neuromodulatory effects on spinal neuronal circuitry. The main objective of the present study was to perform a finite element analysis of the electric field distribution in tsDCS in the cervical spine region, with varying electrode configurations and geometry. A computational model of a human trunk was generated with nine tissue meshes. Three electrode configurations were tested: A) rectangular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C3 and T3 spinous processes, respectively; B1) circular saline-soaked sponge target and return electrodes placed over C7 spinous process and right deltoid muscle, respectively; B2) same configuration as B1, considering circular shaped electrodes with sponge and rubber layers and a small circular connector on the top surface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226862/novel-fractal-planar-electrode-design-for-efficient-neural-stimulation
#11
Xuefeng Wei, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Miriam Meller, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Xuefeng Wei, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Miriam Meller, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Mehdi Benmassaoud, Sindhuja Kuchibhatla, Miriam Meller, Xuefeng Wei
Planar electrodes are used in epidural spinal cord stimulation and cortical stimulation. Stimulation efficiency of an electrode is characterized by its ability to activate a volume of neural tissue with lower voltage and power requirements. As current density tends to increase towards the sharp edges of an electrode, we hypothesize that electrode designs involving a greater amount of sharp edges will have higher variations of current density, and therefore increase stimulation efficiency, compared to electrodes with flat or rounded edges...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218643/diffusion-assessment-of-cortical-changes-induced-by-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Peng Sun, Rory K J Murphy, Paul Gamble, Ajit George, Sheng-Kwei Song, Wilson Z Ray
Promising treatments are being developed to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Magnetic resonance imaging, specifically Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) has been shown to non-invasively measure both axonal and myelin integrity following traumatic brain and SCI. A novel data-driven model-selection algorithm known as Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging (DBSI) has been proposed to more accurately delineate white matter injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether DTI/DBSI changes that extend to level of the cerebral peduncle and internal capsule following a SCI could be correlated with clinical function...
February 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192461/canine-neuroanatomy-development-of-a-3d-reconstruction-and-interactive-application-for-undergraduate-veterinary-education
#13
Hazel Raffan, Julien Guevar, Matthieu Poyade, Paul M Rea
Current methods used to communicate and present the complex arrangement of vasculature related to the brain and spinal cord is limited in undergraduate veterinary neuroanatomy training. Traditionally it is taught with 2-dimensional (2D) diagrams, photographs and medical imaging scans which show a fixed viewpoint. 2D representations of 3-dimensional (3D) objects however lead to loss of spatial information, which can present problems when translating this to the patient. Computer-assisted learning packages with interactive 3D anatomical models have become established in medical training, yet equivalent resources are scarce in veterinary education...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185477/measuring-pain-phenomena-after-spinal-cord-injury-development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-sci-qol-pain-interference-and-pain-behavior-assessment-tools
#14
Matthew L Cohen, Pamela A Kisala, Trevor A Dyson-Hudson, David S Tulsky
OBJECTIVE: To develop modern patient-reported outcome measures that assess pain interference and pain behavior after spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Grounded-theory based qualitative item development; large-scale item calibration field-testing; confirmatory factor analyses; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric. SETTING: Five SCI Model Systems centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162645/-399-patient-specific-computer-models-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-chronic-pain-management
#15
S Lempka, J Ozinga, A Wyant, F Dong, S Jones, S Nagel, A Machado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155678/compression-distraction-reduction-surgical-verification-and-optimization-to-treat-the-basilar-invagination-and-atlantoaxial-dislocation-a-finite-element-analysis
#16
Xuefeng Bo, Weida Wang, Zan Chen, Zhicheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Basilar invagination (BI) combined with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) leads to foramen magnum stenosis and medullary spinal cord compression, causing nerve dysfunction. The purpose of the surgery is to remove the bony compression at brainstem ventral side and fix the unstable spinal segment and make it fused stably. Occipital cervical internal fixation system that simultaneously reduces atlantoaxial horizontal and vertical dislocation are established. We propose here a new compression-distraction reduction (CDR) technique...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152039/individualized-3d-printing-navigation-template-for-pedicle-screw-fixation-in-upper-cervical-spine
#17
Fei Guo, Jianhao Dai, Junxiang Zhang, Yichuan Ma, Guanghui Zhu, Junjie Shen, Guoqi Niu
PURPOSE: Pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine is a difficult and high-risk procedure. The screw is difficult to place rapidly and accurately, and can lead to serious injury of spinal cord or vertebral artery. The aim of this study was to design an individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine. METHODS: Using CT thin slices data, we employed computer software to design the navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118155/the-effects-of-human-height-and-mass-on-the-calculated-induced-electric-fields-at-50-hz-for-comparison-with-the-emf-directive-2013-35-eu
#18
R P Findlay
A worker's height and mass can significantly affect the way in which incident low frequency electric and magnetic fields are absorbed in the body. To investigate this, several anatomically realistic human models were produced for heights between 1.56 and 1.96 m and masses between 33 and 113 kg. The human models were derived from the MAXWEL surface-based phantom, the model previously used in the EMF Directive 2013/35/EU Practical Guide to demonstrate how induced electric fields in the body are calculated. Computer simulations were carried out to calculate the low frequency EMF directive exposure limit value (ELV) quantities, i...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115070/longitudinal-investigation-of-rehospitalization-patterns-in-spinal-cord-injury-and-traumatic-brain-injury-among-medicare-beneficiaries
#19
Christopher R Pretz, James E Graham, Addie Middleton, Amol M Karmarkar, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
OBJECTIVES: To model 12-month rehospitalization risk among Medicare beneficiaries receiving inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to create 2 (SCI- and TBI-specific) interactive tools enabling users to generate monthly projected probabilities of rehospitalization on the basis of an individual patient's clinical profile at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation facilities...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047696/su-d-brc-05-effects-of-motion-and-variable-rbe-in-a-lung-patient-treated-with-passively-scattered-protons
#20
D Mirkovic, U Titt, P Yepes, R Mohan
PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of motion and variable relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in a lung cancer patient treated with passively scattered proton therapy using dose volume histograms associated with patient dose computed using three different methods. METHODS: A proton treatment plan of a lung cancer patient optimized using clinical treatment planning system (TPS) was used to construct a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) model of the beam delivery system and the patient specific aperture and compensator...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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