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Muscle synergies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333801/efficacy-of-the-regent-suit-based-rehabilitation-on-gait-emg-patterns-in-hemiparetic-subjects-a-pilot-study
#1
Luigi Iuppariello, Giovanni D'Addio, Maria Romano, Paolo Bifulco, Nicola Pappone, Bernardo Lanzillo, Mario Cesarelli
BACKGROUND: The recovery of the functional limb mobility of patients with cerebral damages can take great benefit of the role offered by proprioceptive rehabilitation. Recently have been developed a special Regent Suit (RS) for rehabilitative applications. Actually, there are preliminary studies which describes the effects of RS on gait recovery of stroke patients in acute stage, but none in chronic stage. Moreover, it is known that motor recovery does not always reflect improvements of the muscle activity and coactivity...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330467/evidence-for-sparse-synergies-in-grasping-actions
#2
Roberto Prevete, Francesco Donnarumma, Andrea d'Avella, Giovanni Pezzulo
Converging evidence shows that hand-actions are controlled at the level of synergies and not single muscles. One intriguing aspect of synergy-based action-representation is that it may be intrinsically sparse and the same synergies can be shared across several distinct types of hand-actions. Here, adopting a normative angle, we consider three hypotheses for hand-action optimal-control: sparse-combination hypothesis (SC) - sparsity in the mapping between synergies and actions - i.e., actions implemented using a sparse combination of synergies; sparse-elements hypothesis (SE) - sparsity in synergy representation - i...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315914/coupling-mechanical-and-electrical-properties-in-spin-crossover-polymer-composites
#3
Sylvain Rat, Mario Piedrahita-Bello, Lionel Salmon, Gábor Molnár, Philippe Demont, Azzedine Bousseksou
Spin crossover particles of formula [Fe{(Htrz)2 (trz)}0.9 (NH2 -trz)0.3 ](BF4 )1.1 and average size of 20 nm ± 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoro-ethylene), P(VDF-TrFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrices to form macroscopic (cm-scale), freestanding, and flexible nanocomposite materials. The composites exhibit concomitant thermal expansion and discharge current peaks on cycling around the spin transition temperatures, i.e., new "product properties" resulting from the synergy between the particles and the matrix...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276476/critical-points-and-traveling-wave-in-locomotion-experimental-evidence-and-some-theoretical-considerations
#4
REVIEW
Philippe Saltiel, Andrea d'Avella, Matthew C Tresch, Kuno Wyler, Emilio Bizzi
The central pattern generator (CPG) architecture for rhythm generation remains partly elusive. We compare cat and frog locomotion results, where the component unrelated to pattern formation appears as a temporal grid, and traveling wave respectively. Frog spinal cord microstimulation with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA), a CPG activator, produced a limited set of force directions, sometimes tonic, but more often alternating between directions similar to the tonic forces. The tonic forces were topographically organized, and sites evoking rhythms with different force subsets were located close to the constituent tonic force regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220325/direction-modulation-of-muscle-synergies-in-a-hand-reaching-task
#5
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Chay Machluf, Tal Shnitzer, Eli Carmeli
Functional tasks of the upper extremity can be executed by a variety of muscular patterns, independent of the direction, speed and load of the task. This large number of degrees of freedom imposes a significant control burden on the CNS. Previous studies suggested that the human cortex synchronizes a discrete number of neural functional units within the brainstem and spinal cord, i.e. muscle synergies, by linearly combining them to execute a great repertoire of movements. Further exploring this control mechanism, we aim to study whether a single set of muscle synergies might be generalized to express movements in different directions...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220323/grasp-performance-of-a-soft-synergy-based-prosthetic-hand-a-pilot-study
#6
Alycia S Gailey, Sasha Blue Godfrey, Ryan E Breighner, Karen L Andrews, Kristin D Zhao, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Current prosthetic hands are frequently rejected in part due to limited functionality and versatility. We assessed the feasibility of a novel prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro (SHP), whose design combines soft robotics and hand postural synergies. Able-bodied subjects ( ) tracked cursor motion by opening and closing the SHP and performed a grasp-lift-hold-release (GLHR) task with a sensorized cylindrical object of variable weight. The SHP control was driven by electromyographic (EMG) signals from two antagonistic muscles...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213246/the-influence-of-footwear-on-the-modular-organization-of-running
#7
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208598/myosin-iia-is-critical-for-camp-mediated-endothelial-secretion-of-von-willebrand-factor
#8
Pin Li, Guoqin Wei, Yang Cao, Qiuping Deng, Xiaofan Han, Xiaoshuai Huang, Yingqing Huo, Yulong He, Liangyi Chen, Jincai Luo
Non-muscle myosin II has been implicated in regulation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) release from endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the specific role of myosin IIa isoform is poorly defined. Here, we report that myosin IIa is expressed both in primary human endothelial cells and intact mouse vessels, essential for cAMP-mediated endothelial VWF secretion. Down-regulation of myosin IIa by shRNAs significantly suppressed both forskolin- and epinephrine-induced VWF secretion. Endothelium-specific myosin IIa knockout mice exhibited impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, prolonged bleeding time and thrombosis...
December 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180480/motor-module-activation-sequence-and-topography-in-the-spinal-cord-during-air-stepping-in-human-insights-into-the-traveling-wave-in-spinal-locomotor-circuits
#9
Hikaru Yokoyama, Kohtaroh Hagio, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Coordinated locomotor muscle activity is generated by the spinal central pattern generators (CPGs), which are modulated by peripheral and supraspinal inputs. The CPGs would consist of multiple motor modules generating basic muscle activity, which are distributed rostrocaudally along the spinal cord. To activate the motor modules in proper sequence, rostrocaudally traveling waves of activation in the spinal cord are important mechanisms in the CPGs. The traveling waves of activation have been observed in nonhuman vertebrates...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178633/norfloxacin-salts-of-carboxylic-acids-curtail-planktonic-and-biofilm-mode-of-growth-in-eskape-pathogens
#10
Rene Christena Lowrence, Akshaya Ramakrishnan, Niranjana Sri Sundaramoorthy, Aswin Shyam, Vidhyalakshmi Mohan, Himesh M V Subbarao, Venkatasubramanian Ulaganathan, Thiagarajan Raman, Anand Solomon, Saisubramanian Nagarajan
AIMS: To enhance the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of norfloxacin against the planktonic and biofilm mode of growth in ESKAPE pathogens using chemically modified norfloxacin salts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial testing, synergy testing and time kill curve analysis, were performed to evaluate antibacterial effect of norfloxacin carboxylic acid salts against ESKAPE pathogens. In vivo efficacy to reduce bacterial bioburden was evaluated in zebrafish infection model...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176075/detection-of-surface-emg-activity-from-extensor-digitorum-brevis-muscle-in-healthy-children-walking
#11
Francesco Di Nardo, Annachiara Strazza, Michela Sara Palmieri, Alessandro Mengarelli, Laura Burattini, Ornella Orsini, Antonio Bortone, Sandro Fioretti
The purpose of the study was the assessment of activation patterns of Extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle in healthy children, during walking at self-selected speed and cadence. To this aim, Statistical gait analysis was performed on surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals of EDB, in a large number (hundreds) of strides per subject. sEMG data from Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Gastrocnemius Lateralis (GL) were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results from twenty-three healthy children showed a large variability in number of muscle activations, occurrence frequency, and onset-offset instants across considered strides...
November 26, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163120/the-myosuit-bi-articular-anti-gravity-exosuit-that-reduces-hip-extensor-activity-in-sitting-transfers
#12
Kai Schmidt, Jaime E Duarte, Martin Grimmer, Alejandro Sancho-Puchades, Haiqi Wei, Chris S Easthope, Robert Riener
Muscle weakness-which can result from neurological injuries, genetic disorders, or typical aging-can affect a person's mobility and quality of life. For many people with muscle weakness, assistive devices provide the means to regain mobility and independence. These devices range from well-established technology, such as wheelchairs, to newer technologies, such as exoskeletons and exosuits. For assistive devices to be used in everyday life, they must provide assistance across activities of daily living (ADLs) in an unobtrusive manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163111/association-between-slip-severity-and-muscle-synergies-of-slipping
#13
Mohammad Moein Nazifi, Kurt E Beschorner, Pilwon Hur
Falls impose significant negative impacts to the US population and economy. A significant number of falls may be prevented via appropriate slip-responses since a strong relation exists between slips and falls. More importantly, as severe slips are more prone to result in a fall, identifying severe slippers along with the responsible factors for their adverse motor control and severe slipping should be the highest priority in fall prevention process. Previous studies have suggested that muscle synergies may be building blocks of the central nervous system in controlling motor tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107958/activation-of-plantar-flexor-muscles-is-constrained-by-multiple-muscle-synergies-rather-than-joint-torques
#14
Takahito Suzuki, Ryuta Kinugasa, Senshi Fukashiro
Behavioral evidence has suggested that a small number of muscle synergies may be responsible for activating a variety of muscles. Nevertheless, such dimensionality reduction may also be explained using the perspective of alternative hypotheses, such as predictions based on linear combinations of joint torques multiplied by corresponding coefficients. To compare the explanatory capacity of these hypotheses for describing muscle activation, we enrolled 12 male volunteers who performed isometric plantar flexor contractions at 10-100% of maximum effort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100184/does-a-not-so-recent-ankle-sprain-influence-interjoint-coordination-during-walking
#15
Philippe Dedieu, Rima Chamoun, Guilhaume Lacaud, Thibault Moulinat, Maxime Queron, Pier-Giorgio Zanone
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains are common joint injuries in daily and sports activities, whose underlying mechanisms have been amply studied. If joint structures are directly damaged, neuromuscular activity can be affected, particularly in the time domain. This study aims to establish whether previous ankle injury correlates with changes in the inter-joint synergy of the entire lower limb and in the muscle activity pattern during walking. METHODS: Three-dimensional walking-gait analysis was conducted on twenty-four adults...
December 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082227/muscle-synergies-based-characterization-and-clustering-of-poststroke-patients-in-reaching-movements
#16
Alessandro Scano, Andrea Chiavenna, Matteo Malosio, Lorenzo Molinari Tosatti, Franco Molteni
BACKGROUND: A deep characterization of neurological patients is a crucial step for a detailed knowledge of the pathology and maximal exploitation and customization of the rehabilitation therapy. The muscle synergies analysis was designed to investigate how muscles coactivate and how their eliciting commands change in time during movement production. Few studies investigated the value of muscle synergies for the characterization of neurological patients before rehabilitation therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060415/muscle-synergy-analysis-in-dart-throwing
#17
Bao Nguyen Tran, Shiro Yano, Toshiyuki Kondo
This study aims to analyze muscle synergies in darts throwing movement to clarify how the central nervous system (CNS) controls muscle activation to produce complicated motion. Activities of 10 different muscles on upper limb were recorded through surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes from four participants with less experience of dart throwing. Subsequently, non-negative matrix factorization (NNMF) was applied to the collected EMG signals for muscle synergy analysis. Results showed that three muscle synergies could explain sufficiently the observed EMG data, with determination coefficient r(2) = 0...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060409/importance-of-muscle-selection-for-emg-signal-analysis-during-upper-limb-rehabilitation-of-stroke-patients
#18
A Costa, M Itkonen, H Yamasaki, F S Alnajjar, S Shimoda
Current work highlights the importance of muscle selection to evaluate paralysis and recovery level of stroke patients when comparing synergies of affected and non-affected side of the body. The proposed method allows the selection of important muscles that highly contribute to the specific movements according to the power and frequency distribution of the electromyographic signals.. Users participating performed steering-wheel-based therapy focused on upper limb rehabilitation. Final results show that with the appropriate muscles selection, it is possible to compute a Similarity Index between right and left arms (during symmetric motion) associated to the level of paralysis and potential recovery of a given subject...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060407/influence-of-pre-processing-in-the-extraction-of-muscle-synergies-during-human-locomotion
#19
D Rimini, V Agostini, S Rosati, C Castagneri, G Balestra, M Knaflitz
The extraction of muscle synergies in human locomotion may be biased by the kind of pre-processing applied to electromyographic (EMG) data. The aim of this contribution is to analyze the differences in the muscle synergies extracted using a standard pre-processing procedure and a new procedure. The new procedure is based on the selection of the muscle's principal activations (necessary actuations of the muscle to accomplish its specific biomechanical task during gait), discarding secondary activations (with an auxiliary function in motor control)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060236/on-the-use-of-higher-order-tensors-to-model-muscle-synergies
#20
Ahmed Ebied, Loukianos Spyrou, Eli Kinney-Lang, Javier Escudero
The muscle synergy concept provides the best framework to understand motor control and it has been recently utilised in many applications such as prosthesis control. The current muscle synergy model relies on decomposing multi-channel surface Electromyography (EMG) signals into a synergy matrix (spatial mode) and its weighting function (temporal mode). This is done using several matrix factorisation techniques, with Non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) being the most prominent method. Here, we introduce a 4(th)-order tensor muscle synergy model that extends the current state of the art by taking spectral information and repetitions (movements) into account...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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