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Muscle synergies

Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Daniel A Hernandez, Christina M Bennett, Lyubov Dunina-Barkovskaya, Tatjana Wedig, Yassemi Capetanaki, Harald Herrmann, Gloria M Conover
In the hearts of patients bearing nebulette mutations, a severe general disorganization in cardiomyocytes of the extrasarcomeric desmin intermediate filament system is frequently observed. However, the molecular and functional relationship between the desmin cytoskeleton and nebulette-containing sarcomeres is still unclear. Here we report a high-affinity in vitro interaction between nebulette and desmin filaments. A major interaction site has been mapped to the desmin α-helical rod domain indicating that the filament core is directly involved in the binding of nebulette...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Jack DiGiovanna, Nadia Dominici, Lucia Friedli, Jacopo Rigosa, Simone Duis, Julie Kreider, Janine Beauparlant, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Schieppati, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine
: Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yushin Kim, Thomas C Bulea, Diane L Damiano
Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Vahid Reza Sabzevari, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Reza Boostani
OBJECTIVE: Muscle synergy is the activation of a group of muscles that contribute to a particular movement. The goal of the present study is to examine the hypothesis that human reaching movements at different speeds share similar muscle synergies and to investigate the kinesiology basis and innervation of muscles. METHODS: Electromyographic activity from six muscles of the upper limb and shoulder girdle were recorded during three movements at different speeds, i...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Marco Schieppati, S Sozzi, O Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: Turning around while stepping in place can be produced voluntarily. One way of producing involuntary turning around while stepping-in-place eyes closed is by training subjects onto a rotating platform while stepping-in-place and maintaining a fixed body orientation in space. This task produces a post-effect called "podokinetic after-rotation" (PKAR). Such training has been suggested for Parkinsonian patients. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary stepping-in-place and turning around also produces a post-effect similar to the PKAR...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Robert Newton, Mark A Giembycz
In moderate-to-severe asthma, adding-on an inhaled long-acting β2 -adenoceptor agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) provides superior disease control than simply increasing the dose of ICS. Acting on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, gene NR3C1), ICSs promote anti-inflammatory/anti-asthma gene expression. In vitro, LABAs synergistically enhance the maximal expression of many glucocorticoid-induced genes. Other genes, including DUSP1 in human airways smooth muscle (ASM) and epithelial cells, are up-regulated additively by both drug classes...
September 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Stefania Sozzi, Marco Schieppati
Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Mark L Latash
Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance...
August 19, 2016: Motor Control
Ingmar E J de Vries, Andreas Daffertshofer, Dick F Stegeman, Tjeerd Willem Boonstra
Neural synchrony has been suggested as a mechanism for integrating distributed sensorimotor systems involved in coordinated movement. To test the role of corticomuscular and intermuscular coherence in bimanual coordination, we experimentally manipulated the degree of coordination between hand muscles by varying the sensitivity of the visual feedback to differences in bilateral force. In 16 healthy participants, cortical activity was measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and muscle activity of the flexor pollicis brevis of both hands using high-density electromyography (HDsEMG)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rungusa Pantan, Jiraporn Tocharus, Manussabhorn Phatsara, Apichart Suksamrarn, Chainarong Tocharus
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in synergy with atorvastatin, even when it is used in low concentrations. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were used to verify the synergistic mechanism of atorvastatin and C3G against angiotensin II-induced proliferation and migration. BrdU incorporation assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Wound healing and Boyden chamber assays were used to investigate cell migration. The cell cycle was examined using flow cytometry...
September 13, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Sasha Reschechtko, Vladimir M Zatsiorsky, Mark L Latash
Manipulating objects with the hands requires the accurate production of resultant forces including shear forces; effective control of these shear forces also requires the production of internal forces normal to the surface of the object(s) being manipulated. In the present study, we investigated multi-finger synergies stabilizing shear and normal components of force, as well as drifts in both components of force, during isometric pressing tasks requiring a specific magnitude of shear force production. We hypothesized that shear and normal forces would evolve similarly in time and also show similar stability properties as assessed by the decomposition of inter-trial variance within the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis...
September 6, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Alexandre Kubicki, Lilian Fautrelle, Julien Bourrelier, Olivier Rouaud, France Mourey
OBJECTIVES: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. METHODS: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Céline Schreiber, Angélique Remacle, Frédéric Chantraine, Elizabeth Kolanowski, Florent Moissenet
The direct effects of a rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on the gait of asymptomatic subjects are not clear. Previous studies only showed modifications in the gastrocnemius activity, inconsistent effects on temporal parameters, and no modification of spatial parameters. Furthermore, the influence of RAS on kinematics and kinetics has only been reported in pathological gait. The objective of this study was to perform a full comparison of gait characteristics in asymptomatic subjects at preferred and reduced walking speed between without and with RAS conditions...
July 30, 2016: Gait & Posture
Chris Wilson Antuvan, Federica Bisio, Francesca Marini, Shih-Cheng Yen, Erik Cambria, Lorenzo Masia
BACKGROUND: Myoelectric signals offer significant insights in interpreting the motion intention and extent of effort involved in performing a movement, with application in prostheses, orthosis and exoskeletons. Feature extraction plays a vital role, and follows two approaches: EMG and synergy features. More recently, muscle synergy based features are being increasingly explored, since it simplifies dimensionality of control, and are considered to be more robust to signal variations. Another important aspect in a myoelectrically controlled devices is the learning capability and speed of performance for online decoding...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Kai Gui, Dingguo Zhang
This paper investigates the relationship of biomechanical subtasks, and muscle synergies with various locomotion speeds. Ground reaction force (GRF) of eight healthy subjects is measured synchronously by force plates of treadmill at five different speeds ranging from 0.5m/s to 1.5m/s. Four basic biomechanical subtasks, body support, propulsion, swing, and heel strike preparation, are identified according to GRF. Meanwhile, electromyography (EMG) data, used to extract muscle synergies, are collected from lower limb muscles...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Kislay Roy, Bhasker Sriramoju, Rupinder K Kanwar, Jagat R Kanwar
BACKGROUND: Alkali burn is a frequently occurring ocular injury that resembles ocular inflammation caused by eye allergies, infection, and refractive surgeries. METHODS: We investigated the synergistic regenerative potential of dominant negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) against alkali burn and corneal haze using human keratocytes and rabbit alkali burn model (Female New Zealand white rabbits). RESULTS: Combination of SurR9-C84A and TSA suppressed levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, alpha smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and HDAC1, leading to apoptosis in myofibroblast cells and, showed the potential to clear the corneal haze...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Laura E Diamond, Wolbert Van den Hoorn, Kim L Bennell, Tim V Wrigley, Rana S Hinman, John O'Donnell, Paul W Hodges
Diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is increasing, yet the associated physical impairments remain poorly defined. This morphological hip condition can cause joint pain, stiffness, impaired function, and eventually hip osteoarthritis. This exploratory study compared coordination of deep hip muscles between people with and without symptomatic FAI using analysis of muscle synergies (i.e. patterns of activity of groups of muscles activated in synchrony) during gait. Fifteen individuals (11 males) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging) and 14 age- and sex-comparable controls without morphological FAI underwent testing...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Lower extremity sagittal kinematic and kinetic data are summarized alongside electrical muscle activities during single-leg landing trials completed in contrasting external load and landing height conditions. Nineteen subjects were analyzed during 9 landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions computed as percentages of subject anthropometrics (bodyweight: BW and subject height: H; BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%, and H12.5%, H25%). Twelve lower extremity variables (sagittal hip, knee, ankle angles and moments, vertical ground reaction force (GRFz), gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medials, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles) were assessed using separate principal component analyses (PCA)...
September 2016: Data in Brief
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