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Muscle synergies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915097/synergies-and-motor-equivalence-in-voluntary-sway-tasks-the-effects-of-visual-and-mechanical-constraints
#1
Mariusz P Furmanek, Stanisław Solnik, Daniele Piscitelli, Omid Rasouli, Ali Falaki, Mark L Latash
The authors used two analyses developed within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to quantify multimuscle synergies during voluntary body sway: analysis of intertrial variance and analysis of motor equivalence with respect to the center of pressure (COP) trajectory. Participants performed voluntary sway tasks in the anteroposterior direction at 0.33 and 0.66 Hz. Muscle groups were identified in the space of muscle activations and used as elemental variables in the synergy analyses. Changing mechanical and vision feedback-based constraints led to significant changes in indices of sway performance such as COP deviations in the uninstructed, mediolateral direction and indices of spontaneous postural sway...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913883/interactions-between-erythromycin-flunixin-meglumine-levamisole-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-towards-bovine-gastrointestinal-motility-in-vitro-study
#2
M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912707/methodological-choices-in-muscle-synergy-analysis-impact-differentiation-of-physiological-characteristics-following-stroke
#3
Caitlin L Banks, Mihir M Pai, Theresa E McGuirk, Benjamin J Fregly, Carolynn Patten
Muscle synergy analysis (MSA) is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG) data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES) or non-responders (nRES) on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912700/action-direction-of-muscle-synergies-in-voluntary-multi-directional-postural-control
#4
Akari Kubo, Shota Hagio, Benio Kibushi, Toshio Moritani, Motoki Kouzaki
A muscle synergy is a coordinative structure of muscles that has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the number of variables that the central nervous system (CNS) has to address in motor tasks. In this article, the mechanical contribution of muscle synergies and coordinative structures of muscles in voluntary multi-directional postural control were investigated. The task for healthy, young subjects was to shift and align their center of pressure (COP) to targets dispersed in 12 different directions in the horizontal plane by leaning their bodies for 10 s...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900188/decoding-finger-movement-in-humans-using-synergy-of-eeg-cortical-current-signals
#5
Natsue Yoshimura, Hayato Tsuda, Toshihiro Kawase, Hiroyuki Kambara, Yasuharu Koike
The synchronized activity of neuronal populations across multiple distant brain areas may reflect coordinated interactions of large-scale brain networks. Currently, there is no established method to investigate the temporal transitions between these large-scale networks that would allow, for example, to decode finger movements. Here we applied a matrix factorization method employing principal component and temporal independent component analyses to identify brain activity synchronizations. In accordance with previous studies investigating "muscle synergies", we refer to this activity as "brain activity synergy"...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886079/associations-between-lower-limb-muscle-activation-and-knee-flexion-in-post-stroke-individuals-a-study-on-the-stance-to-swing-phases-of-gait
#6
Wei Wang, Ke Li, Shouwei Yue, Cuiping Yin, Na Wei
Reduced knee flexion is a leading feature of post-stroke gait, but the causes have not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the knee flexion and the lower-limb muscle activation within the stance-to-swing phases of gait cycle in the post-stroke hemiplegic patients. Ten stroke patients and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the experiment. The lower-limb kinematic signals and the surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and lateral gastrocnemius (GS) were recorded during walking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882330/combining-muscle-synergies-and-biomechanical-analysis-to-assess-gait-in-stroke-patients
#7
Filipe O Barroso, Diego Torricelli, Francisco Molina-Rueda, Isabel M Alguacil-Diego, Roberto Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Cristina Santos, Juan C Moreno, Juan C Miangolarra-Page, José L Pons
The understanding of biomechanical deficits and impaired neural control of gait after stroke is crucial to prescribe effective customized treatments aimed at improving walking function. Instrumented gait analysis has been increasingly integrated into the clinical practice to enhance precision and inter-rater reliability for the assessment of pathological gait. On the other hand, the analysis of muscle synergies has gained relevance as a novel tool to describe the neural control of walking. Since muscle synergies and gait analysis capture different but equally important aspects of walking, we hypothesized that their combination can improve the current clinical tools for the assessment of walking performance...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866300/action-observation-effects-reflect-the-modular-organization-of-the-human-motor-system
#8
Pauline M Hilt, Eleonora Bartoli, Elisabetta Ferrari, Marco Jacono, Luciano Fadiga, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Action observation, similarly to action execution, facilitates the observer's motor system and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been instrumental in exploring the nature of these motor activities. However, contradictory findings question some of the fundamental assumptions regarding the neural computations run by the Action Observation Network (AON). To better understand this issue, we delivered TMS over the observers' motor cortex at two timings of two reaching-grasping actions (precision vs power grip) and we recorded Motor-Evoked Potentials (4 hand/arm muscles; MEPs)...
August 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857115/muscle-function-and-coordination-of-stair-ascent
#9
Nicole Harper, Jason Wilken, Richard Neptune
Stair ascent is an activity of daily living and necessary for maintaining independence in community environments. One challenge to improving an individual's ability to ascend stairs is a limited understanding of how lower-limb muscles work in synergy to perform stair ascent. Through dynamic coupling muscles may perform multiple functions and require contributions from other muscles to perform a task successfully. The purpose of this study was to identify the functional roles of individual muscles during stair ascent and the mechanisms by which muscles work together to perform specific subtasks...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846897/muscle-synergies-underlying-sit-to-stand-tasks-in-elderly-people-and-their-relationship-with-kinetic-characteristics
#10
Hiroki Hanawa, Keisuke Kubota, Takanori Kokubun, Tatsuya Marumo, Fumihiko Hoshi, Akira Kobayashi, Naohiko Kanemura
BACKGROUND: Physiological evidence suggests that the nervous system controls motion by using a low-dimensional synergy organization for muscle activation. Because the muscle activation produces joint torques, kinetic changes accompanying aging can be related to changes in muscle synergies. OBJECTIVES: We explored the effects of aging on muscle synergies underlying sit-to-stand tasks, and examined their relationships with kinetic characteristics. METHODS: Four younger and three older adults performed the sit-to-stand task at two speeds...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814032/studying-the-implementation-of-iterative-impedance-control-for-assistive-hand-rehabilitation-using-an-exoskeleton
#11
T Martineau, R Vaidyanathan
A positive training synergy can be obtained when two individuals attempt to learn the same motor task while mechanically coupled to one another. In this paper, we have studied how mimicking this interaction through impedance control can be exploited to improve assistance delivered by hand exoskeleton devices during rehabilitation. In this context, the machine and user take complementary roles akin to two coupled individuals. We present the derivation of a dynamic model of the human hand for the purpose of controller development for new hand exoskeleton platforms...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814024/feedback-control-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-for-arbitrary-upper-extremity-movements
#12
Reza Sharif Razavian, Borna Ghannadi, John McPhee
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a type of neuroprosthesis in which muscles are stimulated by electrical pulses in order to compensate for the loss of voluntary movement control. Modulating the stimulation intensities to reliably generate movements is a challenging control problem. For the first time, this paper presents a feedback controller for FES to control arm movements in a 2D (table-top) task space. This feedback controller is based on a recent human motor control model, which uses muscle synergies to simplify the calculations and improve control performance...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813914/data-sample-size-needed-for-analysis-of-kinematic-and-muscle-synergies-in-healthy-and-stroke-populations
#13
Navid Lambert-Shirzad, H F Machiel Van der Loos
Multiple studies have suggested the central nervous system (CNS) generates motions by using modular control of muscles and joints (synergies). However, the synergies reported by these studies are task dependent and might not reflect the true control strategies adopted by the CNS. Studying exploratory motions (EMs) can reveal biomechanical constraints and motor control strategies in healthy and clinical populations. The first logical step to consider EMs in study of motor synergies is to determine how much data is required to reliably and fully profile the motion patterns of an individual...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813874/effect-of-human-robot-interaction-on-muscular-synergies-on-healthy-people-and-post-stroke-chronic-patients
#14
A Scano, A Chiavenna, M Caimmi, M Malosio, L M Tosatti, F Molteni
Robot-assisted training is a widely used technique to promote motor re-learning on post-stroke patients that suffer from motor impairment. While it is commonly accepted that robot-based therapies are potentially helpful, strong insights about their efficacy are still lacking. The motor re-learning process may act on muscular synergies, which are groups of co-activating muscles that, being controlled as a synergic group, allow simplifying the problem of motor control. In fact, by coordinating a reduced amount of neural signals, complex motor patterns can be elicited...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813807/identification-of-shoulder-muscle-synergies-in-healthy-subjects-during-an-isometric-task
#15
Aamani Budhota, Paolo Tommasino, Asif Hussain, Domenico Campolo
Muscle Synergy method has been proposed in the literature to provide a lower dimensional representation of motor commands from the central nervous system (CNS). Studies on post-stroke patients highlighted how features such as the minimum number of motor synergies accounting for most of the data variance correlate with impairments and motor function. In this study, we target healthy subjects to establish normative data in isometric tasks involving shoulder muscles. Five subjects performed an isometric, two-dimensional force-matching task in twelve planar directions with two force levels across shoulder joint...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813787/clarification-of-muscle-synergy-structure-during-standing-up-motion-of-healthy-young-elderly-and-post-stroke-patients
#16
N Yang, Q An, H Yamakawa, Y Tamura, A Yamashita, K Takahashi, M Kinomoto, H Yamasaki, M Itkonen, F S Alnajjar, S Shimoda, H Asama, N Hattori, I Miyai
Standing-up motion is an important daily activity. It has been known that elderly and post-stroke patients have difficulty in performing standing-up motion. The standing-up motion is retrained by therapists to maximize independence of the elderly and post-stroke patients, but it is not clear how the elderly and post-stroke patients control their redundant muscles to achieve standing-up motion. This study employed the concept of muscle synergy to analyze how healthy young adults, healthy elderly people and post-stroke patients control their muscles...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799255/synergy-between-5-ht4-receptor-stimulation-and-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-in-facilitating-acetylcholine-release-in-human-large-intestinal-circular-muscle
#17
V Pauwelyn, W Ceelen, R A Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Gastroprokinetic properties of 5-HT4 receptor agonists, such as prucalopride, are attributed to activation of 5-HT4 receptors on cholinergic nerves innervating smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer, increasing acetylcholine release and muscle contraction. In porcine stomach and colon, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 has been shown to control the signaling pathway of these 5-HT4 receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the PDE-mediated control of these 5-HT4 receptors in human large intestine...
August 10, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753620/treatment-combining-aliskiren-with-paricalcitol-is-effective-against-progressive-renal-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis-via-dual-blockade-of-intrarenal-renin
#18
Sungjin Chung, Soojeong Kim, Minyoung Kim, Eun Sil Koh, Seok Joon Shin, Cheol Whee Park, Yoon Sik Chang, Ho-Shik Kim
The aim of this study was to assess any potential additive effects of a treatment combining aliskiren with paricalcitol on reducing renal fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice were treated individually with aliskiren and/or paricalcitol until 7 days after initiation of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).In obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, monotherapy with aliskiren or paricalcitol significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis, collagen IV accumulation, and α-smooth muscle actin- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin nick end-labeling-positive cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753160/-fat-grafting-in-the-hollow-upper-eyelids-and-volumetric-upper-blepharoplasty
#19
Mariano E Ramil
BACKGROUND: Periorbital volume loss creates a shadow frame, where traditional excisional blepharoplasties may aggravate the situation. Divergence in filling treatments establishes a demand for simple and reproducible techniques to achieve consistent results. Here, the author's hollow upper eyelid evaluation and treatment approach are presented. METHODS: A retrospective photographic analysis was conducted for 32 women who underwent fat grafting on the hollow upper eyelids between 2012 and 2016...
July 27, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751550/novel-targeted-therapies-for-cancer-cachexia
#20
REVIEW
Josep M Argilés, Francisco Javier López-Soriano, Britta Stemmler, Sílvia Busquets
Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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