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Muscle synergies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889272/can-muscle-coordination-explain-the-advantage-of-using-the-standing-position-during-intense-cycling
#1
Nicolas A Turpin, Antony Costes, Pierre Moretto, Bruno Watier
OBJECTIVES: When compared to seated, the standing position allows the production of higher power outputs during intense cycling. We hypothesized that muscle coordination could explain this advantage. To test this hypothesis, we assessed muscle activity over a wide range of power outputs for both seated and standing cycling positions. DESIGN: Nine lower limb muscle activities from seventeen untrained volunteers were recorded during cycling sequences performed in the seated and the standing positions at power outputs ranging from ∼100 to 700W at 90±5 revolutions-per-minute (RPM)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886145/role-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-tocopherols-in-the-lipid-stability-of-marine-oil-systems-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez, Carmen María López-Saiz, Hugo Enrique Ramírez-Guerra, Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer, Saul Ruiz-Cruz, Wilfrido Torres-Arreola
In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873551/on-the-methodological-implications-of-extracting-muscle-synergies-from-human-locomotion
#3
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
We investigated the influence of three different high-pass (HP) and low-pass (LP) filtering conditions and a Gaussian (GNMF) and inverse-Gaussian (IGNMF) non-negative matrix factorization algorithm on the extraction of muscle synergies from myoelectric signals during human walking and running. To evaluate the effects of signal recording and processing on the outcomes, we analyzed the intraday and interday computation reliability. Results show that the IGNMF achieved a significantly higher reconstruction quality and on average needs one less synergy to sufficiently reconstruct the original signals compared to the GNMF...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852733/on-identifying-kinematic-and-muscle-synergies-a-comparison-of-matrix-factorization-methods-using-experimental-data-from-the-healthy-population
#4
Navid Lambert-Shirzad, H F Machiel Van der Loos
Human motor behaviour is highly goal-directed, requiring the central nervous system to coordinate different aspects of motion generation in order to achieve the motion goals. The concept of motor synergies provides an approach to quantify the covariation of joint motions and of muscle activations, i.e., elemental variables, during a task. To analyse goal-directed movements, factorization methods can be used reduce the high dimensionality of these variables while accounting for much of the variance in large datasets...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832608/neuromuscular-responses-differ-between-slip-induced-falls-and-recoveries-in-older-adults
#5
Andrew Sawers, Yi-Chung Clive Pai, Tanvi Bhatt, Lena H Ting
How does the robust control of walking and balance break down during a fall? As a first step in identifying the neuromuscular determinants of falls, we tested the hypothesis that falls and recoveries are characterized by differences in neuromuscular responses. Using muscle synergy analysis, conventional onset latencies, and peak activity, we identified differences in muscle coordination between older adults who fell and those who recovered from a laboratory-induced slip. We found that subjects who fell recruited fewer muscle synergies than those who recovered, suggesting a smaller motor repertoire...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825146/regenerative-and-rehabilitative-medicine-a-necessary-synergy-for-functional-recovery-from-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#6
Sarah M Greising, Christopher L Dearth, Benjamin T Corona
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a complex and heterogeneous problem due to significant traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle tissue. The consequences of VML are substantial functional deficits in joint range of motion and skeletal muscle strength, resulting in life-long dysfunction and disability. Traditional physical medicine and rehabilitation paradigms do not address the magnitude of force loss due to VML and related musculoskeletal comorbidities. Recent advancements in regenerative medicine have set forth encouraging and emerging therapeutic options for VML injuries...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815651/skeletal-muscle-bioenergetics-in-aging-and-heart-failure
#7
Sophia Z Liu, David J Marcinek
Changes in mitochondrial capacity and quality play a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. In vivo measurements of mitochondrial capacity provide a clear link between physical activity and mitochondrial function in aging and heart failure, although the cause and effect relationship remains unclear. Age-related decline in mitochondrial quality leads to mitochondrial defects that affect redox, calcium, and energy-sensitive signaling by altering the cellular environment that can result in skeletal muscle dysfunction independent of reduced mitochondrial capacity...
November 5, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799908/assessment-of-myoelectric-controller-performance-and-kinematic-behavior-of-a-novel-soft-synergy-inspired-robotic-hand-for-prosthetic-applications
#8
Simone Fani, Matteo Bianchi, Sonal Jain, José Simões Pimenta Neto, Scott Boege, Giorgio Grioli, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Myoelectric artificial limbs can significantly advance the state of the art in prosthetics, since they can be used to control mechatronic devices through muscular activity in a way that mimics how the subjects used to activate their muscles before limb loss. However, surveys indicate that dissatisfaction with the functionality of terminal devices underlies the widespread abandonment of prostheses. We believe that one key factor to improve acceptability of prosthetic devices is to attain human likeness of prosthesis movements, a goal which is being pursued by research on social and human-robot interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794362/robotic-quantification-of-upper-extremity-loss-of-independent-joint-control-or-flexion-synergy-in-individuals-with-hemiparetic-stroke-a-review-of-paradigms-addressing-the-effects-of-shoulder-abduction-loading
#9
REVIEW
Michael D Ellis, Yiyun Lan, Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
Unsupported or "against-gravity" reaching and hand opening movements are greatly impaired in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. The reduction in reaching excursion and hand opening is thought to be primarily limited by abnormal muscle co-activation of shoulder abductors with distal limb flexors, known as flexion synergy, that results in a loss of independent joint control or joint individuation. Our laboratory employs several methods for quantifying this movement impairment, however the most documented techniques are sophisticated and laboratory-based...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790612/muscle-synergies-facilitate-computational-prediction-of-subject-specific-walking-motions
#10
Andrew J Meyer, Ilan Eskinazi, Jennifer N Jackson, Anil V Rao, Carolynn Patten, Benjamin J Fregly
Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783415/the-anti-convulsants-lacosamide-lamotrigine-and-rufinamide-reduce-myotonia-in-isolated-human-and-rat-skeletal-muscle
#11
Martin Skov, Frank V de Paoli, Ole B Nielsen, Thomas H Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: In myotonia congenita, loss of ClC-1 Cl(-) -channel function results in skeletal muscle hyperexcitability and myotonia. Anti-myotonic treatment has typically targeted the voltage gated sodium channel in skeletal muscle (Nav1.4). This study explored whether 3 sodium channel modulating anti-epileptics can reduce myotonia in isolated rat and human muscle. METHODS: Dissected muscles were rendered myotonic by ClC-1 channel inhibition. The ability of the drugs to suppress myotonia was then assessed from sub-clinical to maximal clinical concentrations...
October 26, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765008/sglt2-inhibitors-in-diabetes-mellitus-treatment
#12
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733623/nebulette-is-a-powerful-cytolinker-organizing-desmin-and-actin-in-mouse-hearts
#13
Daniel A Hernandez, Christina M Bennett, Lyubov Dunina-Barkovskaya, Tatjana Wedig, Yassemi Capetanaki, Harald Herrmann, Gloria M Conover
In the hearts of patients bearing nebulette mutations, a severe general disorganization in cardiomyocytes of the extrasarcomeric desmin intermediate filament system is frequently observed. However, the molecular and functional relationship between the desmin cytoskeleton and nebulette-containing sarcomeres is still unclear. Here we report a high-affinity in vitro interaction between nebulette and desmin filaments. A major interaction site has been mapped to the desmin α-helical rod domain, indicating that the filament core is directly involved in the binding of nebulette...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707977/engagement-of-the-rat-hindlimb-motor-cortex-across-natural-locomotor-behaviors
#14
Jack DiGiovanna, Nadia Dominici, Lucia Friedli, Jacopo Rigosa, Simone Duis, Julie Kreider, Janine Beauparlant, Rubia van den Brand, Marco Schieppati, Silvestro Micera, Grégoire Courtine
: Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695403/novel-methods-to-enhance-precision-and-reliability-in-muscle-synergy-identification-during-walking
#15
Yushin Kim, Thomas C Bulea, Diane L Damiano
Muscle synergies are hypothesized to reflect modular control of muscle groups via descending commands sent through multiple neural pathways. Recently, the number of synergies has been reported as a functionally relevant indicator of motor control complexity in individuals with neurological movement disorders. Yet the number of synergies extracted during a given activity, e.g., gait, varies within and across studies, even for unimpaired individuals. With no standardized methods for precise determination, this variability remains unexplained making comparisons across studies and cohorts difficult...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695397/a-personalized-multi-channel-fes-controller-based-on-muscle-synergies-to-support-gait-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#16
Simona Ferrante, Noelia Chia Bejarano, Emilia Ambrosini, Antonio Nardone, Anna M Turcato, Marco Monticone, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Alessandra Pedrocchi
It has been largely suggested in neuroscience literature that to generate a vast variety of movements, the Central Nervous System (CNS) recruits a reduced set of coordinated patterns of muscle activities, defined as muscle synergies. Recent neurophysiological studies have recommended the analysis of muscle synergies to finely assess the patient's impairment, to design personalized interventions based on the specific nature of the impairment, and to evaluate the treatment outcomes. In this scope, the aim of this study was to design a personalized multi-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller for gait training, integrating three novel aspects: (1) the FES strategy was based on healthy muscle synergies in order to mimic the neural solutions adopted by the CNS to generate locomotion; (2) the FES strategy was personalized according to an initial locomotion assessment of the patient and was designed to specifically activate the impaired biomechanical functions; (3) the FES strategy was mapped accurately on the altered gait kinematics providing a maximal synchronization between patient's volitional gait and stimulation patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689556/muscle-synergy-extraction-during-arm-reaching-movements-at-different-speeds
#17
Vahid Reza Sabzevari, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Reza Boostani
OBJECTIVE: Muscle synergy is the activation of a group of muscles that contribute to a particular movement. The goal of the present study is to examine the hypothesis that human reaching movements at different speeds share similar muscle synergies and to investigate the kinesiology basis and innervation of muscles. METHODS: Electromyographic activity from six muscles of the upper limb and shoulder girdle were recorded during three movements at different speeds, i...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676755/both-stepping-on-a-rotating-platform-and-stepping-while-voluntarily-turning-around-produce-a-post-effect-consisting-in-inadvertent-turning-around-while-stepping-in-place-eyes-closed
#18
Marco Schieppati, S Sozzi, O Crisafulli
OBJECTIVE: Turning around while stepping in place can be produced voluntarily. One way of producing involuntary turning around while stepping-in-place eyes closed is by training subjects onto a rotating platform while stepping-in-place and maintaining a fixed body orientation in space. This task produces a post-effect called "podokinetic after-rotation" (PKAR). Such training has been suggested for Parkinsonian patients. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary stepping-in-place and turning around also produces a post-effect similar to the PKAR...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646470/understanding-how-long-acting-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonists-enhance-the-clinical-efficacy-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-asthma-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Robert Newton, Mark A Giembycz
In moderate-to-severe asthma, adding an inhaled long-acting β2 -adenoceptor agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) provides better disease control than simply increasing the dose of ICS. Acting on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, gene NR3C1), ICSs promote anti-inflammatory/anti-asthma gene expression. In vitro, LABAs synergistically enhance the maximal expression of many glucocorticoid-induced genes. Other genes, including dual-specificity phosphatase 1(DUSP1) in human airways smooth muscle (ASM) and epithelial cells, are up-regulated additively by both drug classes...
December 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635264/stepping-in-place-while-voluntarily-turning-around-produces-a-long-lasting-posteffect-consisting-in-inadvertent-turning-while-stepping-eyes-closed
#20
Stefania Sozzi, Marco Schieppati
Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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