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André E R Soares, Ben J Novak, James Haile, Tim H Heupink, Jon Fjeldså, M Thomas P Gilbert, Hendrik Poinar, George M Church, Beth Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Pigeons and doves (Columbiformes) are one of the oldest and most diverse extant lineages of birds. However, the nature and timing of the group's evolutionary radiation remains poorly resolved, despite recent advances in DNA sequencing and assembly and the growing database of pigeon mitochondrial genomes. One challenge has been to generate comparative data from the large number of extinct pigeon lineages, some of which are morphologically unique and therefore difficult to place in a phylogenetic context...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Silvie Cooper, Leah Gilbert
This paper focuses on the role of 'social support' in the experience of fibromyalgia (a musculoskeletal pain disorder) in South Africa. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to collect narratives from 15 participants. Sources of social support constitute important mechanisms for coping with the illness experience of fibromyalgia. In providing a space for consultation and validation of the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, and the person living with the condition, people giving support fulfil a critical role in shaping the experience...
October 26, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Scott Edmonds, Alessia Volpe, Hilary Shmeeda, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Riya Radia, Julia Baguña-Torres, Istvan Szanda, Gregory W Severin, Lefteris Livieratos, Philip J Blower, John Maher, Gilbert O Fruhwirth, Alberto Gabizon, Rafael T M de Rosales
The clinical value of current and future nanomedicines can be improved by introducing patient selection strategies based on noninvasive sensitive whole-body imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET). Thus, a broad method to radiolabel and track preformed nanomedicines such as liposomal drugs with PET radionuclides will have a wide impact in nanomedicine. Here, we introduce a simple and efficient PET radiolabeling method that exploits the metal-chelating properties of certain drugs (e.g., bisphosphonates such as alendronate and anthracyclines such as doxorubicin) and widely used ionophores to achieve excellent radiolabeling yields, purities, and stabilities with (89)Zr, (52)Mn, and (64)Cu, and without the requirement of modification of the nanomedicine components...
October 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Laura M Pidgeon, Madeleine Grealy, Alex H B Duffy, Laura Hay, Chris McTeague, Tijana Vuletic, Damien Coyle, Sam J Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: The generation of creative visual imagery contributes to technological and scientific innovation and production of visual art. The underlying cognitive and neural processes are, however, poorly understood. METHODS: This review synthesizes functional neuroimaging studies of visual creativity. Seven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 19 electroencephalography (EEG) studies were included, comprising 27 experiments and around 800 participants...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Garold Murdachaew, Gilbert M Nathanson, R Benny Gerber, Lauri Halonen
Deprotonation of organic acids at aqueous surfaces has important implications in atmospheric chemistry and other disciplines, yet it is not well-characterized or understood. This article explores the interactions of formic acid (FA), including ionization, in collisions at the air-water interface. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with dispersion-corrected density functional theory were used. The 8-50 picosecond duration trajectories all resulted in the adsorption of FA within the interfacial region, with no scattering, absorption into the bulk or desorption into the vapor...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thomas J Hopkins, Karthik Raghunathan, Atilio Barbeito, Mary Cooter, Mark Stafford-Smith, Rebecca Schroeder, Katherine Grichnik, Richard Gilbert, Solomon Aronson
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the association between American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) designation and 48-h mortality for both elective and emergent procedures in a large contemporary dataset (patient encounters between 2009 and 2014) and compared this association with data from a landmark study published by Vacanti et al. in 1970. METHODS: Patient history, hospital characteristics, anesthetic approach, surgical procedure, efficiency and quality indicators, and patient outcomes were prospectively collected for 732,704 consecutive patient encounters between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at 233 anesthetizing locations across 19 facilities in two US states and stored in the Quantum™ Clinical Navigation System (QCNS) database...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
Ned Gilbert-Kawai
Whilst attending a conference in the not too distant past, I was fortunate enough to be seated at lunch next to a very eminent octogenarian academic. Conversation ensued, and I was instantly captivated by his stories. These were not narratives filled with scientific facts, but rather anecdotes of his life and the pathways he had taken to get where he was today. Fascinated by such accounts, I set about the task of interviewing persons of scientific acclaim, to learn more about their life stories and unwritten tales...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Bobby Yanagawa, Gosta B Pettersson, Gilbert Habib, Marc Ruel, Gustavo Saposnik, David A Latter, Subodh Verma
There has been an overall improvement in surgical mortality for patients with infective endocarditis (IE), presumably because of improved diagnosis and management, centered around a more aggressive early surgical approach. Surgery is currently performed in approximately half of all cases of IE. Improved survival in surgery-treated patients is correlated with a reduction in heart failure and the prevention of embolic sequelae. It is reported that between 20% and 40% of patients with IE present with stroke or other neurological conditions...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
Christopher Coyle, Fay H Cafferty, Samuel Rowley, Mairead MacKenzie, Lindy Berkman, Sudeep Gupta, C S Pramesh, Duncan Gilbert, Howard Kynaston, David Cameron, Richard H Wilson, Alistair Ring, Ruth E Langley
BACKGROUND: There is a considerable body of pre-clinical, epidemiological and randomised data to support the hypothesis that aspirin has the potential to be an effective adjuvant cancer therapy. METHODS: Add-Aspirin is a phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial with four parallel cohorts. Patients who have undergone potentially curative treatment for breast (n=3100), colorectal (n=2600), gastro-oesophageal (n=2100) or prostate cancer (n=2120) are registered into four tumour specific cohorts...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Atul Kumar Chaturvedi, Ruchir Kant, Namrata Rastogi
A novel strategy is reported here for the synthesis of an indenopyrazole scaffold bearing a phosphonate group. The entire sequence includes nucleophilic addition-elimination, Seyferth-Gilbert homologation, transphosphorylation, and a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of diazoalkylphosphonates in a perfect "domino" manner.
October 24, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Ann W McMahon, Kevin Watt, Jian Wang, Dionna Green, Ram Tiwari, Gilbert J Burckart
BACKGROUND: Pediatric drug development is plagued by small sample sizes, unvalidated clinical endpoints, and limited studies. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether age stratification within the pediatric population could be used to (1) assess response to a pharmacologic intervention and to (2) design future trials based upon published stratified disease data using clinical trial simulation (CTS). METHODS: Data available from the literature for Kawasaki disease (KD) was used in the model...
2016: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Louisa Gilbert, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Danil Nikitin, Olga Rychkova, Tara McCrimmon, Irena Ermolaeva, Nadejda Sharonova, Aibek Mukambetov, Timothy Hunt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) are serious public health threats among women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of a two-session IPV and GBV screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment model (WINGS) with HIV counselling and testing for women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan, using a pre/post-design...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Mark R Gilbert, Stephanie L Pugh, Ken Aldape, A Gregory Sorensen, Tom Mikkelsen, Marta Penas-Prado, Felix Bokstein, Young Kwok, R Jeffrey Lee, Minesh Mehta
Angiogenesis, a hallmark of glioblastoma, can potentially be targeted by inhibiting the VEGF pathway using bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of these regimens in the cooperative group setting. Eligibility included age ≥18, recurrent or progressive GBM after standard chemoradiation. Treatment was intravenous bevacizumab 10 mg/kg and either irinotecan (CPT) 125 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks or temozolomide (TMZ) 75-100 mg/m(2) day 1-21 of 28 day cycle...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ruobing Zhang, Gilbert O Fruhwirth, Oana Coban, James E Barrett, Thomas Burgoyne, Sang Hak Lee, Paul Dennis Simonson, Murat Baday, Boris Kholodenko, Clare E Futter, Tony Ng, Paul R Selvin
Heterogeneity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in genetically identical cells, which occurs in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, remains poorly understood. MAPK cascades integrate signals emanating from different EGFR spatial locations, including the plasma membrane and endocytic compartment. We previously hypothesized that in EGF-stimulated cells the MAPK phosphorylation (pMAPK) level and activity are largely determined by the spatial organization of the EGFR clusters within the cell...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Shang-Ju Li, Abraham Flaxman, Riyadh Lafta, Lindsay Galway, Tim K Takaro, Gilbert Burnham, Amy Hagopian
OBJECTIVES: We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. METHOD: To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings...
2016: PloS One
Katie Harron, Ruth Gilbert, David Cromwell, Jan van der Meulen
OBJECTIVE: Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013...
2016: PloS One
Lucia Calvisi, Erin Gilbert, Davide Tonini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Fátima Sánchez Barreiro, Filipe G Vieira, Michael D Martin, James Haile, M Thomas P Gilbert, Nathan Wales
Population genetic studies of non-model organisms frequently employ reduced representation library (RRL) methodologies, many of which rely on protocols in which genomic DNA is digested by one or more restriction enzymes. However, because high molecular weight DNA is recommended for these protocols, samples with degraded DNA are generally unsuitable for RRL methods. Given that ancient and historic specimens can provide key temporal perspectives to evolutionary questions, we explored how custom-designed RNA probes could enrich for RRL loci (Restriction Enzyme-Associated Loci baits, or REALbaits)...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Gabriela Abrego, Julio García, Bruce Gilbert, Scott Forseen, Michael Toscano
Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon extra nodal disease that represents about 1-3% of lymphoma cases. Imaging findings are variable and non-specific. Computed tomography may demonstrate lytic lesions with sequestra and periosteal reaction. On magnetic resonance imaging, lesions are T1WI hypointense and T2WI hyperintense, related to peritumoral edema or bone marrow replacement. Rarely lesions may have associated fibrosis and show a more hypointense signal pattern on T2WI. After administration of contrast, PBL tends to enhance avidly...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Rebecca A Gilbert, Graham J Hitch, Tom Hartley
The capacity of serially ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel "rehearsal-probe" task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to remember serial order. Participants listened to a sub-span sequence of spoken digits and silently rehearsed the items and their timing during an unfilled retention interval...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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