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S Viswanathan, R Merheb, Xintong Wen, M Collin, S Groh-Wargo
BACKGROUND: Compared to early enteral feeds, delayed introduction and slow enteral feeding advancement to reduce necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is not well studied in micropremies (<750g birth weight). METHODS: Pre-post case control study. Micropremies who followed a standardized slow enteral feeding (SSEF) protocol (September 2009 to March 2015) were compared with a similar group of historical controls (PreSSEF, January 2003 to July 2009). Enteral feeding withheld for first 10-14 days and advanced at <10 ml/kg/day in the SSEF group...
2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
I Minoli, P R Castillo, H Ginsberg, J Muraskas
OBJECTIVE: To present the short- and long-term (20 years) growth and developmental outcomes of four micropremies (birth weight of less than 500 grams). METHOD: Retrospective review of medical records and prospective assessment/interview with patients and their families. RESULTS: One infant was lost at long-term follow-up. The other three showed a quite satisfactory health status and life style in early adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Despite extreme low birth weight (less than 500 grams) normal outcomes are possible...
2013: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Ahmed Khan, Koert de Waal
Pneumoperitoneum in the newborn is an acute surgical emergency requiring immediate surgical intervention to ensure survival. It refers to radiological evidence of rupture of an air-containing viscus with resultant soiling of the peritoneal cavity. A female baby was born preterm at 29 weeks with birth weight of 650 grams. She developed abdominal distension on day 6, and abdominal radiography revealed presence of free air in the peritoneum. She proceeded for a laparotomy, and intraoperative findings revealed blood in the peritoneum with an area of inflammation and a small perforation...
2012: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Hee Joon Yu, Eun Sun Kim, Jin Kyu Kim, Hye Soo Yoo, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
PURPOSE: The outcomes of small for gestational age (SGA) infants especially in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) are controversial. This study evaluated the mortality and morbidity of ELBWIs, focusing on whether or not they were also SGA. METHODS: The medical records of 415 ELBWIs (birth weight <1,000 g), who were inborn and admitted to the Samsung Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit from January 2000 to December 2008, were reviewed retrospectively...
June 2011: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Yasumasa Yamada, Teruo Kyuno, Satoshi Suzuki, Tetsuya Ito, Ineko Kato, Hajime Togari
During neonatal respiratory support, maintaining optimal humidity minimizes the risk of airway occlusion and chronic lung disease. With neonatal respiratory support using a heated humidifier,condensation following decreases in temperature within the unheated part of the inspiratory circuit represents a serious problem, due to the resulting drop in absolute humidity. Several reports describing the temperature/humidity gradient in the unheated inspiratory limb have excluded the endotracheal tube (ETT). The present study investigated the extent to which the temperature gradient in the ETT affects breathing gas conditioning in premature infants, who display tiny minute volumes...
July 2008: Pediatric Pulmonology
Anna Locatelli, Nadia Roncaglia, Camilla Andreotti, Valentina Doria, Daniela Doni, John C Pezzullo, Alessandro Ghidini
OBJECTIVE: To assess which factors independently affect survival in infants weighing 750g or less. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the obstetric, neonatal, and placental pathology information of all non-malformed neonates with birth weight of 750g or less from January 1998 to December 2002. Logistic regression analysis was used to control for the effect of confounding variables. A P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Fifty nine neonates fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 30 (51%) survived the perinatal period...
November 1, 2005: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
P Ballabh, M Simm, J Kumari, A N Krauss, A Jain, C Califano, M L Lesser, S Cunningham-Rundles
AIMS: To study a longitudinal change in the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L on neutrophils and monocytes in very low birth weight babies who develop respiratory distress syndrome, to compare these levels between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and non-BPD infants, and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on these adhesion molecules. METHODS: Of 40 eligible neonates, 11 neonates were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks (BPD 36 weeks), 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days, but not at 36 weeks (BPD d28), and 13 infants did not develop BPD...
January 2004: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Maureen T O'Connor, Betty R Vohr, Richard Tucker, William Cashore
OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complication seen in many very low birth weight infants. Severe ROP has been called a "marker" for severe disability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and severity of ROP among infants < or =1250 g birth weight treated in the Special Care Nursery at Women & Infants' Hospital over a period of 7 years from 1994 to 2000. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of ROP data combined with neonatal follow-up data...
December 2003: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
S Patole, J Lee, J Whitehall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1999: Indian Pediatrics
S A Atkinson
There is increasing evidence that mother's milk is an appropriate feeding even for LBW and VLBW infants. During early neonatal life, supplements in the form of human milk fortifiers or single nutrients may be necessary to maintain an adequate biochemical status especially for sodium, phosphorus, and protein. The ideal amount and balance of supplemental nutrients to add to mother's milk for small premature infants remain unknown. From research to date, it is clear that growth responses to fortified mother's milk fed in early life may not be the most important outcomes in relation to long-term growth and development...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
S J Newell
Clinical practice demands knowledge of gastrointestinal ontogeny and the factors that affect our ability to use enteral feeding in the micropremie. The decisions regarding milk type (when and how it should be given) are considered in the light of current physiologic and clinical evidence. Special considerations apply in the micropremie who is also small for gestational age and NEC must be avoided. Trophic feeding now has an established role, allowing the infant to benefit from enteral feeds even when full nutritive milk feeding is not possible...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
P J Thureen, W W Hay
There is a growing body of evidence that early nutritional practices may affect short-term growth and developmental outcome. In addition, they may play a role in determining adult health and disease. There is much that needs to be learned about safe and efficacious nutrient administration in the ELBW population; about techniques to assess the effect of different nutritional strategies; and about the long-term effects of these regimen or development outcome, growth, and disease.
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
W J Cashore
Although it has been customary to treat neonatal jaundice at lower serum bilirubin levels in low-birth weight infants than in term infants, the threshold bilirubin levels and long-term benefits for early treatment of preterm infants have not been validated. This article summarizes and evaluates existing evidence and strategies for early treatment of bilirubin in micropremies and recommends a conservative but flexible approach to early monitoring and phototherapy for jaundice in extremely low-birth weight infants...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
J Rigo, M De Curtis, C Pieltain, J C Picaud, B L Salle, J Senterre
Environmental factors, nutritional supplies, hormonal status, diseases, and treatments appear to affect postnatal skeletal growth and mineralization in VLBW infants. Compared with their term counterparts, ELBW infants are at risk of postnatal growth deficiency and osteopenia at the time of hospital discharge. From recent data, DXA is becoming one of the reference techniques to evaluate mineral status, whole-body composition, and effects of dietary manipulations on weight gain composition and mineral accretion in preterm infants...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
S Baumgart, A T Costarino
There are five problem schemas presented in this article that indicate potential contradictions in therapeutic goals: (1) shock and edema presenting upon premature birth; (2) the hyperosmolar state, problematic in patients less than 750 g birth weight; (3) the respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, often complicated by patent ductus arteriosus; (4) bronchopulmonary dysplasia, resulting from prematurity and mechanical ventilation; and (5) late onset of hyponatremia, sometimes accompanied by growth failure in the recovering premature...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
P J Aggett
The current limited understanding of the ontogeny and mechanisms of the metabolism of iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, and manganese in the micropremie are reviewed. The effects of early delivery on these processes are considered, as are the suggested amounts of these trace elements required for micropremies.
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
F R Greer
Vitamin metabolism and requirements are reviewed for the micropremie (1000 Pounds g birthweight), for parenteral and enteral feedings. Recommendations are presented in table format. Human milk fortifiers and special formulas for the preterm infant are reviewed. For parenteral nutrition, only MVI Pediatric is currently available in the United States. Two millimeters per kilogram is recommended for the micropremie as the most satisfactory method of providing supplemental vitamins in total parenteral nutrition solutions...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
R Uauy, P Mena, C Rojas
Lipids are structural components of all tissues and are indispensable for cell membrane synthesis. The brain, retina, and other neural tissues are particularly rich in LCPUFAs, affecting neural structural development and function. LCPUFAs serve also as specific precursors for eicosanoid production (prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes). These autocrine and paracrine mediators are powerful regulators of numerous cell and tissue functions (e.g., thrombocyte aggregation, inflammatory reactions, and leukocyte functions, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation, blood pressure, bronchial constriction, uterine contraction)...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
G Putet
Intravenous lipid emulsions often provide substance for the very low-birth weight or extremely low-birth weight infant that need total parenteral nutrition. The process used in this type of treatment as well as the effects of such treatment are discussed at length in this article. Some of the main compounds of representative lipid emulsions are listed and evaluated and the benefits and consequences of their use are presented.
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
S C Kalhan, S Iben
Although extensive data are available on the impact of nutrient and protein administration on growth, plasma amino acids, and nitrogen balance in the newborn and growing infants, relatively few studies have carefully examined the dynamic aspects of protein metabolism in vivo and particularly in the micropremie or ELBW infant. These studies show that the very preterm infants, either because of immaturity or because of the intercurrent illness, have high rates of protein turnover and protein breakdown. This high rate of proteolysis is not as responsive to nutrient administration...
March 2000: Clinics in Perinatology
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