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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645012/associations-between-toxic-and-essential-trace-elements-in-maternal-blood-and-fetal-congenital-heart-defects
#1
Yanqiu Ou, Michael S Bloom, Zhiqiang Nie, Fengzhen Han, Jinzhuang Mai, Jimei Chen, Shao Lin, Xiaoqing Liu, Jian Zhuang
Prenatal exposure to toxic trace elements, including heavy metals, is an important public health concern. Few studies have assessed if individual and multiple trace elements simultaneously affect cardiac development. The current study evaluated the association between maternal blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) levels and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring. This hospital-based case-control study included 112 case and 107 control infants. Maternal peripheral blood draw was made during gestational weeks 17-40 and used to determine trace element levels by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644831/inflammatory-and-vascular-placental-lesions-are-associated-with-neonatal-amplitude-integrated-eeg-recording-in-early-premature-neonates
#2
Dorit Paz-Levy, Letizia Schreiber, Offer Erez, Sharon Goshen, Justin Richardson, VIadimir Drunov, Orna Staretz Chacham, Eilon Shany
INTRODUCTION: Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#3
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643232/caffeine-protects-against-anticonvulsant-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#4
Stefanie Endesfelder, Ulrike Weichelt, Cornelia Schiller, Marco Sifringer, Ivo Bendix, Christoph Bührer
Phenobarbital is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures but may induce neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Methylxanthine caffeine is used for the treatment of apnea in newborn infants and appears to be neuroprotective, as shown by antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in oxidative stress models in newborn rodents and reduced rates of cerebral palsy in human infants treated with caffeine. We hypothesized that caffeine may counteract the proapoptotic effects of phenobarbital in newborn rats...
June 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638850/probiotic-lactobacillus-species-strengthen-intestinal-barrier-function-and-tight-junction-integrity-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
Brian P Blackwood, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Joseph D Nicolas, Justyna S Grothaus, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease that occurs in newborn infants. It is associated with major morbidity and affects 5% of all infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Probiotics have variable efficacy in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis. Tight junctions (TJ) are protein complexes that maintain epithelial barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strengthen intestinal barrier function, promote TJ integrity, and protect against experimental NEC...
April 2017: J Probiotics Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638278/lifespan-and-associated-factors-of-peripheral-intravenous-cannula-among-infants-admitted-in-public-hospitals-of-mekelle-city-tigray-ethiopia-2016
#6
Eskedar Birhane, Kalayou Kidanu, Mekuria Kassa, Dawit Gerezgiher, Lidia Tsegay, Brhanu Weldu, Genet Kidane, Hadgu Gerensea
BACKGROUND: Peripheral Intravenous cannula (IV) is the most common vascular access device used to administer medications with the exception of medication or fluid with high or low PH or hyperosmolarity which may cause severe damage to small veins. The insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula in newborn infants can be difficult. Appropriate veins with sufficient capacity to insert a cannula become less available throughout the hospital stay. Once a peripheral intravenous cannula is inserted, it is desirable that its patency can be maintained as long as possible...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637490/lipoid-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-by-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-star-gene-mutation-in-an-italian-infant-an-uncommon-cause-of-adrenal-insufficiency
#7
Carla Bizzarri, Elisa Pisaneschi, Mafalda Mucciolo, Stefania Pedicelli, Daniela Galeazzi, Antonio Novelli, Marco Cappa
BACKGROUND: Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (OMIM n. 201710) is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. It is characterized by severe adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis impairment due to a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Affected infants experience salt loss, but glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy enables long-term survival. Classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is relatively common in Japan and Korea but extremely rare in Caucasian populations...
June 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637056/-urosepsis-in-children
#8
Josef Oswald
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases in children. Urosepsis in childhood, though rare, is the most complicated possible variant. In newborns and infants, unspecific symptoms are a significant barrier to a fast and reliable diagnosis, which is crucial to successful treatment. In addition to urine and laboratory tests as well as non-invasive examinations (ultrasound), there may be an indication for invasive examinations of the kidneys (DMSA scans) in cases of a severe infection...
June 21, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634025/impaired-cerebral-autoregulation-in-preoperative-newborn-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Jodie K Votava-Smith, Christopher J Statile, Michael D Taylor, Eileen C King, Jesse M Pratt, David P Nelson, Erik C Michelfelder
OBJECTIVES: To characterize cerebral autoregulation (CA) in preoperative newborn infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This was a prospective, pilot study of term newborns with CHD who required intensive care. Continuous mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SCTO2) via near-infrared spectroscopy, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were collected. Significant low-frequency coherence between MAP and SCTO2 was used to define impaired CA in 20-minute epochs...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#10
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631494/a-study-on-preterm-births-during-2013-2015-shiraz-iran
#11
Elham Jaberi, Mirkazemi Roksana
Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality and a substantial portion of neonatal morbidities. The perinatal mortality and morbidity statistics in developing countries are inadequate. In this study, we assessed prevalence and health outcomes of preterm deliveries in tertiary care university hospitals. A retrospective study of hospital records of premature babies born in all the five governmental tertiary care settings during the time interval of 2013-2015 in Shiraz was conducted. Result of this study showed that there was an overall 127...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631328/phenotypic-characterisation-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-blood-cultures-in-newborn-infants-with-a-special-focus-on-staphylococcus-capitis
#12
Gustaf Ehlersson, Bengt Hellmark, Olov Svartström, Bianca Stenmark, Bo Söderquist
AIM: This Swedish study determined which species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were found in neonatal blood cultures and whether they included Staphylococcus capitis clones with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin. METHODS: CoNS isolates (n=332) from neonatal blood cultures collected at Örebro University Hospital during 1987-2014 were identified to species level with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
June 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631226/introduction-of-a-simple-second-tier-screening-test-for-c5-isobars-in-dried-blood-spots-reducing-the-false-positive-rate-for-isovaleric-acidaemia-in-expanded-newborn-screening
#13
R S Carling, D Burden, I Hutton, R Randle, K John, J R Bonham
In 2015 the English Newborn Screening programme expanded to include Isovaleric Acidaemia (IVA). Screening is performed by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry of isovalerylcarnitine. Isovalerylcarnitine is isobaric with pivaloylcarnitine which can be present in blood due to the use of pivalic ester pro-drugs or pivalic acid derivatives used as emollients in some nipple creams; the potential for false positives (FP) is well documented. A pilot study in England screened 438,164 babies, 18 had presumptive positive results but only 4 were confirmed as true positives (TP)...
June 20, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630878/prediction-of-brain-tissue-temperature-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
Lisa Holper, Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, Nicola Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset)...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629714/-clinical-observation-of-newborns-with-infection-risk-a-safe-practice
#15
Carla Escribano García, María Del Mar Montejo Vicente, Raquel Izquierdo Caballero, Carmen María Samaniego Fernández, Sara Isabel Marín Urueña, María Elena Infante López, Sonia Caserío Carbonero
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset neonatal sepsis refers to an infection which starts during the first 72hours of birth, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific evidence shows that infected infants present with symptoms during the first hours after delivery. There has been a significant decrease in this condition with the implementation of guidelines for its prevention. However, International guidelines still recommend the evaluation of these infants using painful tests...
June 16, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629243/effect-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-myocardial-dysfunction-in-term-neonates-with-perinatal-asphyxia-%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Rakesh Kotha, B Vishnu Bhat, B Adhisivam, P Ajith
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on myocardial dysfunction in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Randomized Controlled Trial conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 120 newborns with perinatal asphyxia who were randomized to 2 groups (therapeutic hypothermia and normothermia). Cardiac enzyme profile changes between groups were assessed at 0, 24, 72 hrs CPK-MB and troponin I levels were estimated by immune inhibition and quantitative immunochromatography methods respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626374/bochdalek-hernia-in-an-adult-with-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#17
Mohammed Al-Dugdugi, Abdulhameed Alhazmi, Abdulhadi Khaliel, Luis Perez
Bochdalek hernia (BH) can be a life-threatening condition in infants. Approximately 85.3% of newborns with a BH are immediately at high risk and have a high mortality rate due to respiratory insufficiency [Kocakusak et al.: Hernia 2005;9: 284-287]. However, BH is almost asymptomatic in adults and discovered only incidentally [Wilkins et al.: Clin Imaging 1994;18: 224-229]. Complicated BH in adults might present with visceral incarceration and lethal complications. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding and acute pancreatitis are rarely reported in the literature as complications of BH in adults...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625760/multifetal-pregnancy-reduction-of-triplets-to-twins-compared-with-non-reduced-triplets-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Yaniv Zipori, Jigal Haas, Howard Berger, Eran Barzilay
The current systematic review and meta-analysis evaluate the perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies following multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR) compared with non-reduced triplet pregnancies. All studies comparing perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies following MPR to non-reduced triplet pregnancies were considered. MEDLINE, non-indexed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science were searched for relevant published articles up to August 2016. The search yielded 653 publications of which 92 were assessed for eligibility...
May 31, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625031/inadequate-dietary-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-intake-among-indonesian-pregnant-women-is-associated-with-lower-newborn-weights-in-urban-jakarta
#19
Dudung Angkasa, Victor Tambunan, Helda Khusun, Fiastuti Witjaksono, Rina Agustina
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acid intake during pregnancy has been confirmed to affect newborn birth outcomes in the developed world. However, the association between maternal omega-3 fatty acid intake and birth size is unknown in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of maternal omega-3 fatty acid intake with newborn birth size. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 282 pregnant women aged 19-40 years who had a gestational age of >32 weeks and received antenatal care at 10 health centres and one referral hospital in East Jakarta, Indonesia...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624306/preclinical-assessment-of-safety-of-maternal-vaccination-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-in-cotton-rats
#20
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Stefanie N Vogel, Marina S Boukhvalova
Maternal immunization directed to control RSV infection in newborns and infants is an appealing vaccination strategy currently under development. In this work we have modeled maternal vaccination against RSV in cotton rats (CR) to answer two fundamental questions on maternal vaccine safety. We tested (i), whether a known, unsafe RSV vaccine (i.e., FI-RSV Lot 100 vaccine) induces vaccine enhanced disease in the presence of passively transferred, RSV maternal immunity, and (ii) whether the same FI-RSV vaccine could induce vaccine enhanced disease in CR litters when used to immunize their RSV-primed mothers...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
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