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Neonatal infants

M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Cho-Ming Chao, Faady Yahya, Alena Moiseenko, Caterina Tiozzo, Amit Shrestha, Negah Ahmadvand, Elie El Agha, Jennifer Quantius, Salma Dilai, Vahid Kheirollahi, Matthew Jones, Jochen Wilhem, Gianni Carraro, Harald Ehrhardt, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Guillermo Barreto, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold, Rosanna G Abellar, Werner Seeger, Ralph Schermuly, Jin-San Zhang, Parviz Minoo, Saverio Bellusci
Inflammation-induced FGF10 protein deficiency is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurely born infants characterized by arrested alveolar development. So far, experimental evidence for a direct role of FGF10 in lung disease is lacking. Using the hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury as a mouse model of BPD, the impact of Fgf10 deficiency in Fgf10(+/-) versus Fgf10(+/+) pups was investigated. In normoxia, no lethality of Fgf10(+/+) or Fgf10(+/-) pups was observed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Megan O'Reilly, Bernard Thébaud
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 11 % of all births worldwide. Advances in perinatal care have enabled the survival of preterm infants born as early as 23-24 weeks of gestation. However, many are affected by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)-a common respiratory complication of preterm birth, which has life-long consequences for lung health. Currently, there is no specific treatment for BPD. Recent advances in stem cell research have opened new therapeutic avenues for prevention/repair of lung damage...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
October 21, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Evangelia Elenis, Gunilla Sydsjö, Alkistis Skalkidou, Claudia Lampic, Agneta Skoog Svanberg
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies resulting through oocyte donation have been associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes for the mother, such as gestational hypertensive disorders. However, little is known about possible neonatal complications of such pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neonatal health outcomes among singleton pregnancies in a population of relatively young and healthy oocyte recipients in Sweden, taking into account the medical indication leading to treatment...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Elli Toivonen, Outi Palomäki, Heini Huhtala, Jukka Uotila
BACKGROUND: The safety of vaginal breech delivery has been debated for decades. Although it has been shown to predispose infants to immediate depression, several observational studies have also shown that attempting vaginal breech delivery does not increase perinatal morbidity or low Apgar score at the age of five minutes. Cardiotocography monitoring is recommended during vaginal breech delivery, but comparative data describing differences between cardiotocography tracings in breech and vertex deliveries is scarce...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Tianwei E Zhou, José C Rivera, Vikrant K Bhosle, Isabelle Lahaie, Zhuo Shao, Houda Tahiri, Tang Zhu, Anna Polosa, Allison Dorfman, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Santiago Costantino, Gregory A Lodygensky, Pierre Lachapelle, Sylvain Chemtob
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the most common cause of blindness in premature infants, has long been associated with inner retinal alterations. However, recent studies reveal outer retinal dysfunctions in patients formerly afflicted with ROP. We have recently demonstrated that choroidal involution occurs early in retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the choroidal involution and its long-term impact on retinal function. An oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used. In vitro and ex vivo assays were applied to evaluate cytotoxic effects of IL-1β on choroidal endothelium...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Teeda Pinyavat, David O Warner, Randall P Flick, Mary Ellen McCann, Dean B Andropoulos, Danquig Hu, Jeffrey W Sall, Marisa N Spann, Caleb Ing
During the Fifth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment Symposium, experts and stakeholders met to present and discuss recent advances made in the study of neurodevelopmental outcomes after exposure to anesthetic drugs in infants and children. This article summarizes the update of 5 ongoing clinical studies: General Anesthesia compared to Spinal Anesthesia, Toxicity of Remifentanil and Dexmedetomidine, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids, the University of California San Francisco human cohort study, and Columbia University Medical Center Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging study...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Amee M Bigelow, Brandon S Arnold, Gregory C Padrutt, John M Clark
In current practice, children with anatomically normal hearts routinely undergo fluoroscopy-free ablations. Infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) represent the most difficult population to perform catheter ablation without fluoroscopy. We report two neonatal patients with CHD in whom cardiac ablations were performed without fluoroscopy. The first infant had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum with refractory supraventricular tachycardia, and the second infant presented with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve along with persistent supraventricular tachycardia...
October 21, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Olubukunola Adesanya, Mubariz Naqvi
We report a rare, but serious, complication of a malpositioned umbilical venous catheter in a term male infant who developed laceration, hematoma, and necrosis of liver, ascites, and left-sided obstructive uropathy secondary to extravasation of total parenteral nutrition. Abdominal paracentesis confirmed the presence of parenteral nutrition in the peritoneal cavity. Although, the umbilical venous catheterization is a common intravenous access used in neonatal intensive care units, judicious continued monitoring of its use should be practiced to avoid serious complications...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
Bryan M Corbett, Charles O'Connell, Mallory A Boutin, Nabil I Fatayerji, Charles W Sauer
BACKGROUND Methylergonovine is an ergot alkaloid used to treat post-partum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Mistaking methylergonovine for vitamin K with accidental administration to the neonate is a rare iatrogenic illness occurring almost exclusively in the delivery room setting. Complications of ergot alkaloids in neonates include respiratory depression, seizures, and death. CASE REPORT A term infant was inadvertently given 0.1 mg of methylergonovine intramuscularly in the right thigh. The error was only noted when the vial of medication was scanned, after administration, identifying it as methylergonovine rather than vitamin K...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Alexandre Boulos, Katherine Rand, Josh A Johnson, Jacqueline Gautier, Michael Koster
Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed, and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Isabell B Purdy, Mary Alice Melwak, Joan R Smith, Carole Kenner, Rebecca Chuffo-Siewert, Donna J Ryan, Sue Hall
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful environment for infants, their families, and the healthcare team. There is an immediate need for neonatal nurses to embrace and translate the new National Perinatal Association recommendations for psychosocial support of NICU parents into clinical practice to demonstrate best practices for infants, their families, and the whole team. PURPOSE: To summarize the current evidence-based practice recommendations and to provide suggestions for team members to develop strategies to adopt and implement them through quality improvement (QI) projects...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
R Pineda, R Guth, A Herring, L Reynolds, S Oberle, J Smith
OBJECTIVE: Very preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience alterations in sensory experiences. Defining types, timing and frequency of sensory-based interventions that optimize outcomes can inform environmental modifications. The objective of this study was to conduct an integrative review on sensory-based interventions used with very preterm infants in the NICU to improve infant and parent outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The data sources include MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
M Stavel, J Wong, Z Cieslak, R Sherlock, M Claveau, P S Shah
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of concomitant administration of prophylactic indomethacin and early enteral feeds on the risk of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants, and to describe the variation in prophylactic indomethacin use in Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of 4268 ELBW infants born at <30 weeks' gestation admitted to Canadian neonatal units between 2010 and 2014 was conducted. Prophylactic indomethacin (I+ or I-, administered within 24 h) and early feeding (E+ or E-, initiated in the first 2 days) exposures were studied concurrently and independently...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
L Murli, A Thukral, M J Sankar, S Vishnubhatla, A K Deorari, V K Paul, A Sakariah, Dolma, R Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measured from shielded skin and serum total bilirubin (STB) in infants (34 to 41 weeks of gestation) with hyperbilirubinemia receiving phototherapy (PT). STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort study, we shielded a small area of skin on sternum using a commercial photo-opaque patch (BilEclipseTM, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA). The TcB from the shielded skin (TcBs) and STB were measured at four time points-before initiation, 12 and 24 h during and once after (12 h) cessation of PT...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Linling Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yifeng Liu, Runjv Zhang, Yiqing Wu, Yun Huang, Feng Liu, Meigen Li, Saijun Sun, Lanfeng Xing, Yimin Zhu, Yiyi Chen, Li Xu, Liangbi Zhou, Hefeng Huang, Dan Zhang
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006-2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
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