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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238262/a-cell-free-protein-synthesis-approach-to-biosensing-htrb-specific-endocrine-disruptors
#1
Amin S M Salehi, Miriam J Shakalli Tang, Mark Thomas Smith, Jeremy M Hunt, Robert A Law, David W Wood, Bradley Charles Bundy
Here we introduce a Rapid Adaptable Portable In-vitro Detection biosensor platform (RAPID) for detecting ligands that interact with NHRs. The RAPID platform can be adapted for field use, allowing rapid evaluation of EDC presence or absence in environmental samples, and could also be applied for drug screening. The biosensor is based on an engineered, allosterically-activated fusion protein, which contains the ligand-binding domain (LBD) from a target NHR (human thyroid receptor in this work). In vitro expression of this protein using cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) technology in the presence of an EDC leads to activation of a reporter enzyme, reported through a straightforward colorimetric assay output...
February 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238170/multiple-approaches-to-assess-the-safety-of-artisanal-marine-food-in-a-tropical-estuary
#2
A C Padovan, M J Neave, N C Munksgaard, K S Gibb
In this study, metal and metalloid concentrations and pathogens were measured in shellfish at different locations in a tropical estuary, including sites impacted by sewage and industry. Oyster, mangrove snails and mud snails did not exceed Australian and New Zealand Food Standards maximum levels for copper, lead or estimated inorganic arsenic at any site although copper concentrations in oysters and mud snails exceeded generally expected levels at some locations. Bacterial community composition in shellfish was species-specific regardless of location and different to the surrounding water and sediment...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237904/anaerobic-digestion-of-sewage-sludge-with-grease-trap-sludge-and-municipal-solid-waste-as-co-substrates
#3
A Grosser, E Neczaj, B R Singh, Å R Almås, H Brattebø, M Kacprzak
The feasibility of simultaneous treatment of multiple wastes via co-digestion was studied in semi-continuous mode at mesophilic conditions. The obtained results indicated that sewage sludge, organic fraction of municipal waste (OFMSW) and grease trap sludge (GTS) possess complementary properties that can be combined for successful anaerobic digestion. During the co-digestion period, methane yield and VS removal were significantly higher in comparison to digestion of sewage sludge alone. Addition of GTS to digesters treating sewage sludge resulted in increased VS removal and methane yield up to 13% (from 50 to 56...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236757/ex-situ-catalytic-pyrolysis-of-wastewater-sewage-sludge-a-micro-pyrolysis-study
#4
Kaige Wang, Yan Zheng, Xifeng Zhu, Catherine E Brewer, Robert C Brown
Concerns over increasing amounts of sewage sludge and unsustainability of current disposal methods have led to development of alternative routes for sludge management. The large amount of organics in sewage sludge makes it potential feedstock for energy or fuel production via thermochemical pathways. In this study, ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis using HZSM-5 catalyst was explored for the production of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons and nutrient-rich char from sewage sludge. The optimal pyrolysis and catalysis temperatures were found to be 500°C and 600°C, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236709/microplastic-in-the-surface-waters-of-the-ross-sea-antarctica-occurrence-distribution-and-characterization-by-ftir
#5
Alessandra Cincinelli, Costanza Scopetani, David Chelazzi, Emilia Lombardini, Tania Martellini, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Maria Cristina Fossi, Simonetta Corsolini
This is the first survey to investigate the occurrence and extent of microplastic (MPs) contamination in sub surface waters collected near-shore and off-shore the coastal area of the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Moreover, a non-invasive method to analyze MPs, consisting in filtration after water sampling and analysis of the dried filter through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 2D Imaging, using an FPA detector, was proposed. The non-invasiveness of analytical set-up reduces potential bias and allows subsequent analysis of the filter sample for determination of other classes of contaminants...
February 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236506/co-pyrolysis-characteristics-of-municipal-sewage-sludge-and-hazelnut-shell-by-tg-dtg-ms-and-residue-analysis
#6
Xinyang Xu, Bing Zhao, Manli Sun, Xi Chen, Mingchuan Zhang, Haibo Li, Shucong Xu
Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell blend have been studied in this work. The behavior of co-pyrolysis was researched by a method of multi-heating rates and different blend ratios to analyze thermal decomposition stages. The experimental data of the blended samples in TG-DTG plots were compared with calculated data to investigate the interactions during co-pyrolysis. The bio-chars investigated by SEM and FTIR spectra were used to examine the physical and chemical changes...
February 21, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235740/influence-of-metals-on-essential-oil-content-and-composition-of-lemongrass-cymbopogon-citratus-d-c-stapf-grown-under-different-levels-of-red-mud-in-sewage-sludge-amended-soil
#7
Meenu Gautam, Madhoolika Agrawal
Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w)...
February 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231539/a-new-model-to-predict-diffusive-self-heating-during-composting-incorporating-the-reaction-engineering-approach-rea-framework
#8
Aditya Putranto, Xiao Dong Chen
During composting, self-heating may occur due to the exothermicities of the chemical and biological reactions. An accurate model for predicting maximum temperature is useful in predicting whether the phenomena would occur and to what extent it would have undergone. Elevated temperatures would lead to undesirable situations such as the release of large amount of toxic gases or sometimes would even lead to spontaneous combustion. In this paper, we report a new model for predicting the profiles of temperature, concentration of oxygen, moisture content and concentration of water vapor during composting...
February 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229216/enhanced-biotransformation-of-triclocarban-by-ochrobactrum-sp-tcc-1-under-anoxic-nitrate-respiration-conditions
#9
Hui Yun, Bin Liang, Deyong Kong, Zhiling Li, Guoshu Qi, Aijie Wang
Antimicrobial triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is frequently detected in soils and sediments for the widely reclaim of sewage sludge or biosolid in recent decades. This resulted from a weak removal of TCC during wastewater treatment, and most of it adsorbed onto sewage sludge. As the toxicity and persistence of TCC in the environment, the elimination of TCC from the source of output is of great importance, particularly in anoxic process. In this study, the biotransformation of TCC by a newly isolated TCC-degrading strain Ochrobactrum sp...
February 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#10
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219786/the-effect-of-the-source-of-microorganisms-on-adaptation-of-hydrolytic-consortia-dedicated-to-anaerobic-digestion-of-maize-silage
#11
Krzysztof Poszytek, Adam Pyzik, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities...
February 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219320/microorganism-and-agricultural-based-biosorbents-towards-removal-of-cadmium-from-waste-water-an-overview
#12
Souvik Pal, Subhankar Mukherjee, Nabarun Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Non-degradable and persistent nature of Cadmium (Cd) poses high toxicity to human, plants and animals. Several industrial processes generated wastes are the main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters into the environment. Although, World Health Organization (WHO) has set the limit of Cd in drinking water is 0.005 mg L-1, the industrial activities release much higher concentrations of metal ions to the water stream than the prescribed limits, which leads to the increasing health hazards and environmental pollution...
February 20, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219155/-genotype-distribution-of-human-enteroviruses-isolated-from-swage-in-shanghai-during-year-2013-2014
#13
Y Y Li, J Lu, X Z Wang, Y Y Yang, J Fei, L P Zhang, Z Li, C S Li, Y Zuo
Objective: To explore the time and genotype distribution of human enterovirus (HEV) isolated from sewage in Shanghai in 2013-2014. Methods: One sewage sample each was collected from two local sewage plants located in Minhang District and Jiading District on the same day at the day 24-28 of every month from 2013 to 2014. Each sample weighed 1 L. The specimens were concentrated by anionic membrane absorption, eluted with beef extract solution, and then used to inoculate RD, HEp-2, and L20B cell lines. A total of 249 enterovirus strains were isolated from sewage samples during the study period, including 185 non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 64 poliovirus (PV) strains, which were identified as vaccine strains...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218842/medium-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-cps-dominate-in-australian-sewage-sludge
#14
Sicco Hendrik Brandsma, Louise van Mourik, Jake William O'Brien, Geoff Eaglesham, Pim E G Leonards, Jacob De Boer, Christie Gallen, Jochen F Mueller, Caroline Gaus, Christian Bogdal
To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216133/effects-of-copper-oxide-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-life-stage-dependent-full-life-cycle-in-enchytraeus-crypticus
#15
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuONMs) have various applications in industry and enter the terrestrial environment, e.g. via sewage sludge. The effects of CuONMs and copper chloride (CuCl2) were studied comparing the standard enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT) and the full life cycle test (FLCt) with Enchytraeus crypticus. CuONMs mainly affected growth or juveniles' development, whereas CuCl2 mainly affected embryo development and/or hatching success and adults survival. Compared to the ERT, the FLCt allowed discrimination of effects between life stages and provided indication of the underlying mechanisms; further, the FLCt showed increased sensitivity, e...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215962/two-colour-fluorescence-fluorimetric-analysis-for-direct-quantification-of-bacteria-and-its-application-in-monitoring-bacterial-growth-in-cellulose-degradation-systems
#16
Kwabena O Duedu, Christopher E French
Monitoring bacterial growth is an important technique required for many applications such as testing bacteria against compounds (e.g. drugs), evaluating bacterial composition in the environment (e.g. sewage and wastewater or food suspensions) and testing engineered bacteria for various functions (e.g. cellulose degradation). T?=1,^FigItem(1) ^ReloadFigure=Yesraditionally, rapid estimation of bacterial growth is performed using spectrophotometric measurement at 600nm (OD600) but this estimation does not differentiate live and dead cells or other debris...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214775/role-of-c-di-gmp-in-anammox-aggregation-and-systematic-analysis-of-its-turnover-protein-in-candidatus-jettenia-caeni
#17
Yongzhao Guo, Sitong Liu, Xi Tang, Fenglin Yang
The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been recognized as a promising sewage treatment approach. Considering the susceptibility, it is meaningful to study the behaviors of anammox bacteria under the unfavorable conditions. Here, we found that anammox bacteria more probably tended to aggregation by the regulation of c-di-GMP against the unfavorable environmental stresses (low temperature, aerobic condition and low pH). Further using multiple protein sequence alignment, we systematically examined the functionality of thirteen genes encoding putative c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes in anammox organism Candidatus Jettenia caeni, revealing most of the predicted enzymes were predicted to be active...
February 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214713/comparative-analysis-of-metagenomes-of-italian-top-soil-improvers
#18
Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Rosangela Tozzoli, Valeria Michelacci, Stefano Morabito
Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214698/value-adding-conversion-and-volume-reduction-of-sewage-sludge-by-anaerobic-co-digestion-with-crude-glycerol
#19
Kensuke Kurahashi, Chie Kimura, You Fujimoto, Hayato Tokumoto
In this study, conversion of sewage sludge to biogas by anaerobic co-digestion with crude glycerol was examined. When 0.126g/L crude glycerol was added to the reactor, only methane was produced. Upon addition of 5.04g/L crude glycerol, hydrogen production occurred, and a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) was generated in the liquid phase. On day 6, the dry weight was largely composed of organic acids (48%) and 1,3-PDO (17%), which are water-soluble. Degradation of 1,3-PDO was very slow, which is advantageous for recovery...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214442/hydrothermal-liquefaction-of-sewage-sludge-under-isothermal-and-fast-conditions
#20
Lili Qian, Shuzhong Wang, Phillip E Savage
We investigated the effects of water loading, sludge moisture content, recovery solvent, and additives on the product yields and compositions from isothermal (673K, 60min) and fast (773K, 1min) hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sewage sludge. The water loading (which affects pressure within the reactor) plays a small role in product yields. The sludge moisture content had a larger effect with the highest biocrude yields (26.8wt% from isothermal HTL and 27.5wt% from fast HTL) being produced from sludge that was 85wt% moisture...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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