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Water pollution

Nadavala Siva Kumar, Mohammad Asif, Mansour I Al-Hazzaa, Ahmed A Ibrahim
Most industrial waste discharges are often contaminated with phenolic compounds, which constitute a major source of water pollution owing to their toxicity and low biodegradability. Development of cost-effective treatment of such industrial wastewater is therefore of paramount importance. Towards this end, we explore the efficacy of Pine bark powder (PBP), which is an agricultural solid waste material, as a low-cost biosorbent without any pre-treatment, for the adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous media...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Gustav M Kessel, Nicole E Phillips
For organisms with complex life histories, carry-over effects (COEs) can manifest between life stages, when conditions experienced by one stage influence the next, as well as trans-generationally, when the parental environment affects offspring. Here we used multiple global change-associated stressors to examine both forms of COE simultaneously in an intertidal limpet with mixed development (i.e. planktonic larvae hatch from benthic egg masses). Adult Siphonaria australis were subjected to four treatments over four weeks: an ambient control, a treatment featuring elevated water temperature (25°C) and UVB (1...
2018: PloS One
Juliana M Schöntag, Alcione A Alves, Luis G Romero Esquivel, Maurício L Sens
Population growth requires more food production and as a consequence, there is the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, among them major group are carbamates. At times, runoff of pesticides leads to surface water pollution that serves as a source of public supply. Thus, the presence of these microcontaminants in surface water has become increasingly frequent. The treatment developed in this work uses the principle of adsorption as a technology for the removal of carbamates, more specifically carbofuran. Two methods of coating the polystyrene beads with iron oxide were used to adsorb these microcontaminants from the water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Mikael Larsson, Ataollah Nosrati, Simarpreet Kaur, Jochen Wagner, Ulf Baus, Magnus Nydén
Mine waters and tailings generated from mining and mineral processing activities often have detrimental impact on the local environment. One example is acid mine drainage, in which sulphides in the mining waste react with water and oxygen to produce an acidic environment that subsequently dissolves host rock minerals from the waste containing toxic metals and trace elements. Copper is one such metal of significance, as it is mined at large volumes in sulphide containing ores. It has strong biocidal activity that greatly affects ecosystems...
February 2018: Heliyon
Mark A Adams, Nina Buchmann, Janet Sprent, Thomas N Buckley, Tarryn L Turnbull
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N...
March 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ashley L Bolden, Kim Schultz, Katherine E Pelch, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective to pursue. This process is known to use greater than 1,000 chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, detergents, and biocides. In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Nuria Vela, May Calín, María J Yáñez-Gascón, Isabel Garrido, Gabriel Pérez-Lucas, José Fenoll, Simón Navarro
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are xenobiotics that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, and elimination of the natural hormones. In this paper, the photodegradation of six EDs in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents at pilot plant scale is reported. The EDs were bisphenol A, bisphenol B, diamyl phthalate, butyl benzylphthalate, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, and ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. ZnO as photocatalyst in tandem with Na2 S2 O8 as electron acceptor under natural sunlight were used...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Meng Tian, Yu Long, Dan Xu, Shuoyun Wei, Zhengping Dong
Nowadays, chemical catalytic methods for the treatment of organic wastes are attracting more and more research attention. In the current research, novel catalysts with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported on the hollow mesoporous silica nanotubes (h-mSiO2 ) were synthesized for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The key point for the fabrication of the catalysts is that a certain thickness of the silica shell was wrapped on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) or Pd/MWNTs through biphase stratification approach, and then the samples were calcined to remove the MWNTs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Aziza Hadj Ltaïef, Simona Sabatino, Federica Proietto, Salah Ammar, Abdellatif Gadri, Alessandro Galia, Onofrio Scialdone
The treatment of toxic organic pollutants by electro-Fenton (EF) presents some drawbacks such as the necessity to work at low pH and the low solubility of oxygen in water contacted with air or oxygen at room pressure that results often in slow and relatively low abatements. Here, the coupled adoption of natural heterogeneous catalysts and of relatively high pressure was proposed in order to improve the performances of EF for the treatment of organic pollutants. Caffeic acid (CA) and 3-chlorophenol were used as model resistant organic pollutants...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hu Cheng, Yang Song, Fang Wang, Rongting Ji, Xiaona Li, Yuhao Fu, Xinglun Yang, Yongrong Bian, Xin Jiang
Porous materials have great prospective applications for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technology because of their large specific surface area and pore volume. In this study, a hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) was synthesized by simple hydrothermal reaction and potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation of crude biomass and found to be an efficient adsorbent for SPME of organic pollutants. Results show that the as-prepared HPC has a partly graphitic amorphous-like structure with ultrahigh specific surface area (2551 m2 /g), high pore volume (1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shu-Long Li, Yun Yu, Peng Yang, Hui Wang, Cheng Zhang, Min Liu, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Tong Shen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu
The role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases has been increasingly recognized. While major advance has been made in understanding biological pathogen-induced autoimmune diseases, chemically triggered autoimmunity is poorly understood. Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common environmental pollutant, has recently been shown to induce autoimmunity. This study explored whether TCE could cause imbalance of T helper (Th) cell subsets which would contribute to the pathogenesis of TCE-induced medicamentosa-like dermatitis...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Ashraf M Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed A Al-Kahtani, Omar M Elmenshawy, Hany Elsawy, Aly M Hafez, Marwa A Genena
In this field study, the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn) in water and a suite of biochemical and histological biomarkers in the grouper ( Epinephelus tauvina) were assessed at four sites in the Arabian Gulf. Samples were taken from a relatively non-urban reference site, called Salwa (S1), and three effluent-dominated sites, namely Al-aziziyah in southern Dammam city (S2), the Al-Jubail coast (S3), and Manifa (S4). Toxic metals, namely Pb and Co (at all sites) and Fe (at S3), were elevated in water samples relative to the internationally permissible limits...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Shannon McGinnis, Susan Spencer, Aaron Firnstahl, Joel Stokdyk, Mark Borchardt, David T McCarthy, Heather M Murphy
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a known source of human fecal pollution and human pathogens in urban water bodies, which may present a significant public health threat. To monitor human fecal contamination in water, bacterial fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are traditionally used. However, because FIOs are not specific to human sources and do not correlate with human pathogens, alternative fecal indicators detected using qPCR are becoming of interest to policymakers. For this reason, this study measured correlations between the number and duration of CSOs and mm of rainfall, concentrations of traditional FIOs and alternative indicators, and the presence of human pathogens in two urban creeks...
February 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Zhang, Huahong Shi, Jinping Peng, Yinghui Wang, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Paul K S Lam
The pollution of marine environments and inland waters by plastic debris has raised increasing concerns worldwide in recent years. China is the world's largest developing country and the largest plastic producer. In this review, we gather available information on microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems. The results show that microplastics are ubiquitous in the investigated inland water systems, and high microplastic abundances were observed in developed areas. Although similar sampling and analytical methods were used for microplastic research in inland water and marine systems, methods of investigation should be standardized in the future...
March 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Li, Hongyuan Zheng, Tieyu Wang, Minghong Cai, Pei Wang
The bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic properties of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) resulted in strict regulations on PFAAs, especially in developed countries. Consequently, the industry manufacturing of PFAAs shifts from long-chain to short-chain. In order to better understand the pollution situation of PFAAs in marine environment under this new circumstance, the occurrence of 17 linear PFAAs was investigated in 30 surface seawater samples from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean (123°E to 24°W, 32 to 82°N) during the sixth Chinese Arctic Expedition in 2014...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yanshuai Xing, Xiaoshuang Meng, Lei Wang, Junjie Zhang, Zijing Wu, Xinying Gong, Chenye Wang, Hongwen Sun
Triazole contaminants in water and soil environments can form complexes with metal ions, and therefore affect the bioavailability and toxicity of some heavy metals. In present study, significant increase of copper (Cu) uptake by earthworm (Eisenia fetida) was observed when combined pollution of benzotriazole (BTR) presented in soil. For instance, Cu accumulation in earthworms increased 55% approximately when BTR presented at the BTR/Cu molar ratio of 1:2.5. While the single Cu exposure (at 32 mg kg-1 in soil) resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in earthworms from 0...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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