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Water pollution

Yi-Di Li, Ying Chen, Li Wang, Lin Yao, Xu-Ming Pan, Duu-Jong Lee
This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands...
February 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
G S Dolci, H Z Rosa, L T Vey, C S Pase, R C S Barcelos, V T Dias, L Loebens, P Dalla Vecchia, C A Bizzi, B Baldisserotto, M E Burger
Exposure to hypoxia has shown beneficial adjustments in different species, including silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), especially in situations of aquatic contamination with pollutants such as manganese (Mn). Considering that hypoxia is seasonal in the natural aquatic environment, we decided to assess whether these adaptive mechanisms could be maintained when reoxygenation is established. Silver catfish acclimated to moderate hypoxia (∼3 mg L(-1), 41% O2 saturation) for 10 days and subsequently exposed to Mn (∼8...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Md Nurul Amin, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal
Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Benjamin Holt, Rebecca Trinh, Michelle M Gierach
Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yunjie Xia, Jun Tao, Leiming Zhang, Renjian Zhang, Shuanglin Li, Yunfei Wu, Junji Cao, Xiaojia Wang, Qingxia Ma, Zhe Xiong
To evaluate the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) size distribution on aerosol chemical and optical properties, dominant chemical components including water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM1 and PM2.5, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp), and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) were collected synchronously at an urban site in Guangzhou, south China during a typical summer month in 2009 and a winter month in 2010. PM1 (sizes smaller than 1μm) constituted 77% and 63% of PM2...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Tatenda Dalu, Luc Brendonck
Agriculture is vital in sustaining human livelihoods. However, agriculture as it is currently practiced, is contributing to the degradation of freshwater ecosystems globally. We investigated impacts of irrigation return flows from sugarcane farming on water quality and health status of the Chiredzi and Runde Rivers, a biodiversity hotspot region in south-eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The water quality at inlets from the crop field into the wetland system; wetland outlets into the river systems; and river sites upstream and downstream of wetland outlets were monitored during the dry and wet seasons...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
J Mahlknecht, D Merchán, M Rosner, A Meixner, R Ledesma-Ruiz
The La Paz aquifer system (Baja California Sur, Mexico) is under severe anthropogenic pressure because of high groundwater abstraction for urban supply (city of La Paz, around 222,000 inhabitants) and irrigated agriculture (1900ha). In consequence, seawater has infiltrated the aquifer, forcing the abandonment of wells with increased salinity. The objective of this study was to assess seawater intrusion, understand the hydrogeochemical processes involved and estimate the contribution of seawater in the wells tested...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kevin K Y Ho, Kenneth M Y Leung
Application of organotins in antifouling systems on ship hulls has been globally prohibited by the International Maritime Organization since September 2008. It is, therefore, anticipated that there is a recovery of imposex-affected gastropod populations worldwide. We studied the population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera in six locations around Hong Kong's coastal waters, covering different degrees of organotin contamination for 25months (2011-2013). Abundance and density of R. clavigera were higher in clean sites, while they tended to grow faster in polluted sites...
February 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hongru Feng, Yuan Lin, Yuzhen Sun, Huiming Cao, Jianjie Fu, Ke Gao, Aiqian Zhang
Short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) that were introduced as alternatives for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been widely produced and used. However, few studies have investigated the environmental process of short chain PFSAs, and the related adsorption mechanisms still need to be uncovered. The water-oxide interface is one of the major environmental interfaces that plays an important role in affecting the adsorption behaviour and transport potential of the environmental pollutant. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of five PFSAs and their adsorption on hydrated hematite surface as well...
February 14, 2017: Water Research
Mikael B Gustavsson, Andreas Hellohf, Thomas Backhaus
Registration dossiers for 11,678 industrial chemicals were retrieved from the database of the European Chemicals Agency, of which 3566 provided a numerical entry for the corresponding predicted no effect concentration for the freshwater environment (PNEC). A distribution-based examination of 2244 of these entries reveals that the average PNEC of an industrial chemical in Europe is 238nmol/L, covering a span of 9 orders of magnitude. A comparison with biocides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and WFD-priority pollutants reveals that, in average, industrial chemicals are least hazardous (hazard ranking: industrial chemicals≪pharmaceuticals<pesticides<Water Framework Directive priority pollutants<biocides)...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Y C Lai, C C Chien, Z H Yang, Rao Y Surampalli, C M Kao
  The goal of this study was to establish a modeling tool for river water quality with a direct linkage to the water quality index (WQI5) calculation and the river water quality model, the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), for pollutant transport modeling. The integrated WASP and WQI5 tool was field-tested to assess pollutant loadings and their impacts on river environment. Suspended solid (SS) and electric conductivity (EC) correlation equations and the WQI5 calculation tool were included in the water quality model and direct WQI5 calculation...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Mojtaba Rafiee, Steve W Lyon, Banafsheh Zahraie, Georgia Destouni, Nemat Jaafarzadeh
  This paper investigates a novel simulation-optimization (S-O) framework for identifying optimal treatment levels and treatment processes for multiple wastewater dischargers to rivers. A commonly used water quality simulation model, Qual2K, was linked to a Genetic Algorithm optimization model for exploration of relevant fuzzy objective-function formulations for addressing imprecision and conflicting goals of pollution control agencies and various dischargers. Results showed a dynamic flow dependence of optimal wastewater loading with good convergence to near global optimum...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Ahmed El Nemr, Ghada F El-Said
  Heavy metal contamination in both sediments and molluscs from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast was investigated. Seawater, sediments, and mollusc samples were collected from representative locations along the coastal area. Different representations of the data set, including, statistical methods (correlation matrix and cluster analyses), various sediment quality assessment methods, and bioaccumulation factor calculation, were combined to investigate the trends of heavy metals, identify pollution sources, and assess sediment quality from a toxicological point of view...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Bo Liu, Rui-Ming Han, Wen-Lin Wang, Hong Yao, Feng Zhou
To reveal the detailed vertical oxygen distribution at the sediment-water interface (SWI) and its relation with the oxygen consumption processes during and after aeration of polluted urban rivers, experimental systems constructed with collected sediment and in situ overlying water from a polluted urban river were aerated above or beneath the sediment-water interface 12 h a day for 15 days and left nonaerated for the following 10 days. The results showed that aeration of water or sediment both increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the SWI, characterized by shifts in a "decrease-increase-decrease" manner during around 3 h for the aeration of water treatment (AW) and 6 h for the aeration of sediment treatment (AS)...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shakil A Romshoo, Reyaz Ahmad Dar, Khalid Omar Murtaza, Irfan Rashid, Farooq A Dar
Physico-chemical groundwater (GW) parameters were evaluated to understand the hydrogeochemical processes in the Siwalik plains of Jammu and Kashmir, India. During the 2012-2013 post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons, GW samples (n = 207) from deep bore wells and shallow open wells were chemically analysed. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and Fe(2+)) and anions (HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and F(-)) showed a wide spatio-temporal variation. Results suggest that weathering and dissolution of carbonates and silicate rocks is the main source of water mineralization...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sofia Macedo, Tiago Torres, Miguel M Santos
The presence of emerging pollutants in the environment is of major concern not only because of the potential negative impact in human health, but also due to the potential toxicity to non-target organisms. Within the personal and care products (PCPs), the disinfectant Triclosan (TCS) is one of the most concerning compounds. Once in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a small part of TCS can be biotransformed into a more persistent by-product: methyl-triclosan (M-TCS). Although several studies have focused on the occurrence of this compound in the water systems, the information on its toxicity to aquatic organisms is very limited...
February 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Weifeng Chen, Jinzhi Ni
The surface heterogeneous atoms of carbonaceous materials (CMs) play an important role in adsorption of organic pollutants. However, little is known about the surface heterogeneous atoms of CMs might generate different effect on adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds by porous carbonaceous materials - activated carbons (ACs) and non-porous carbonaceous materials (NPCMs). In this study, we observed that the surface oxygen and nitrogen atoms could decrease the adsorption affinity of both ACs and NPCMs for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), but the degree of decreasing effects were very different...
February 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Li Gao, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Wenqi Peng, Jin Lu, Jijun Gao
The environmental impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has raised widespread concern especially in relation to metal pollution. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technology was applied to investigate arsenic (As) remobilization in sediment cores collected from the main stream and a tributary in the TGR during July 2015. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical distributions of CDGT-As varied among the four sampling sites. For the same DGT probe, the horizontal distributions of CDGT-As (0-6mm, 6-12mm, 12-18mm) exhibited similarity in the overlying water and different tendencies in the sediment profiles; the vertical variations of CDGT-As showed different mobilization tendencies...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Eduardo Palermo, Jeffrey Laut, Oded Nov, Paolo Cappa, Maurizio Porfiri
Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed environmental mapping of a polluted body of water using a miniature instrumented boat, which was remotely controlled by the participants through their physical gesture tracked by a low-cost markerless motion capture system...
2017: PloS One
Angela M Gutierrez, Thomas D Dziubla, J Zach Hilt
The constant growth in population worldwide over the past decades continues to put forward the need to provide access to safe, clean water to meet human needs. There is a need for cost-effective technologies for water and wastewater treatment that can meet the global demands and the rigorous water quality standards and at the same maximizing pollutant efficiency removal. Current remediation technologies have failed in keeping up with these factors without becoming cost-prohibitive. Most recently, nanotechnology has been sought as the best alternative to increase access to water supplies by remediating those already contaminated and offering ways to access unconventional sources...
February 23, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
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