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Surface water

Zahra Fakhroueian, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Mehdi Assmar, Alireza Massiha, Afshin Zahedi, Pegah Esmaeilzadeh, Fatemeh Katouzian, Sara Rezaei, Peyman Keyhanvar, Alireza Mozafari Dehshiri
Nanoformulations derived from fine porous ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) can offer strong potential medical applications; especially in cancer therapy. ZnO QD NPs was synthesized by sol-gel hydrothermal process, fast cold quenching and further smart surface functionalization methods to obtain ultrasmall size (1-4 nm) NPs. ZnO nanopolymer, a wetting agent, PEG co-solvent and water/oil emulsion stabilizer were considered in our nanofluid formulation. The resulting nanofluid was characterized by SEM, FTIR, photoluminescence, band gap energy, zeta potential and UV-Vis spectroscopy...
March 22, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Lu Xu, Gordon Bosiljevac, Kyle Yu, Yi Y Zuo
Langmuir monolayer self-assembled at the air-water interface represents an excellent model for studying phase transition and lipid polymorphism in two dimensions. Compared to numerous studies of phospholipid phase transitions induced by isothermal compression, there are very scarce reports on two-dimensional phase transitions induced by isobaric heating. This is mainly due to technical difficulties of continuously regulating temperature variations while maintaining a constant surface pressure in a classical Langmuir-type film balance...
March 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Manoj Kumar, Jie Zhong, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Joseph S Francisco
. The role of aqueous surfaces in promoting atmospheric chemistry is increasingly being recognized. However, the bimolecular chemistries of Criegee intermediates, which influence the tropospheric budget of OH radicals, organic acids, hydroperoxides, nitrates, sulfates and particulate material, remain less explored on an aqueous surface. Herein we have employed Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and two-layer ONIOM(QM:MM) in electronic embedding scheme to study the reaction and the spectroscopic signal of anti-CH3CHOO with nitric acid (HNO3) at the air-water interface, which is expected to be an important reaction in the polluted urban environments...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jia-Li Liu, Zhi-Ling Tang, Jia-Qi Zhang, Yaqin Chai, Ying Zhuo, Ruo Yuan
The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are excellent on account of the high photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the poor solubility and radical instability of PAHs in the aqueous solution severely restricted the further biological application. Here, 9,10 - diphenylanthracene (DPA) nano blocks (NBs) with good dispersibility and stability in aqueous solution were prepared according to morphology-controlled technology employing water-soluble polymers as a protectant...
March 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kun Wu, Yuanyuan Chen, Yongqiang Ouyang, Hang Lei, Ting Liu
Granular zirconium-aluminum hybrid adsorbent (GZAHA) was fabricated for efficient defluoridation of groundwater in filter application. GZAHA was formed through the aggregation of massive Zr/Al oxide nanoparticles with an amorphous pattern. This adsorbent has a satisfactory mechanical strength, a specific surface area of 29.55 m2 /g, and numerous hydroxyl groups on the surface. F adsorption equilibrium could be achieved within 12 h, and the sorption process followed a pseudo-second-order reaction rate. The maximum adsorption capacity of F estimated from the Langmuir model was 65...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mei Wang, Ya Tang, Christopher W N Anderson, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, Jinyan Yang
Contamination of soil and water with fluorine (F) leached from phosphogypsum (PG) stacks is a global environmental issue. Millions of tons of PG is produced each year as a by-product of fertilizer manufacture, and in China, weathering is exacerbated by acid rain. In this work, column leaching experiments using simulated acid rain were run to evaluate the mobility of F and the impact of weathering on native bacterial community composition in PG. After a simulated summer rainfall, 2.42-3.05 wt% of the total F content of PG was leached and the F concentration in leachate was above the quality standard for surface water and groundwater in China...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Honghong Li, Yujie Feng, Xuesheng Li, Dongqiang Zeng
This work investigated drinking water contamination by 11 commonly used herbicides in sugarcane production areas in Guangxi, China. The work developed an analytical method for determination of these herbicides in environmental waters. This work studied herbicide residues in drinking water in Guangxi, China. The maximum residues and percent of detects were: (0.091 µg/L, 29.2%, atrazine), (0.018 µg/L, 8.3%, ametryne), (0.188 µg/L, 8.3%, aetolaehlor), (0.139 µg/L, 4%, simazine), (0.585 µg/L, 62.5%, atrazine), (0...
March 21, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Lei Zhao, Jiangtao Cheng
Besides the Wenzel state, liquid droplets on micro/nanostructured surfaces can stay in the Cassie state and consequently exhibit intriguing characteristics such as a large contact angle, small contact angle hysteresis and exceptional mobility. Here we report molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the wetting dynamics of Cassie-state water droplets on nanostructured ultrahydrophobic surfaces with an emphasis on the genesis of the contact line friction (CLF). From an ab initio perspective, CLF can be ascribed to the collective effect of solid-liquid retarding and viscous damping...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Eduardo Duque-Redondo, Yamada Kazuo, Iñigo López-Arbeloa, Hegoi Manzano
Cementation is a widespread technique to immobilize nuclear waste due to the low leachability of cementitious materials. The capacity of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), the main component of cement, to retain radionuclide Cs has been empirically studied at the macroscale, yet the specific molecular scale mechanisms that govern the retention have not been determined. In this work, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the adsorption and diffusivity of Cs into a C-S-H gel nanopore. From the simulations, it was possible to distinguish three types of Cs adsorption configurations on the C-S-H: an inner-sphere surface site where Cs is strongly bound, an outer-sphere surface site where Cs is loosely bound, and Cs free in the nanopore...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
J Surma, S Assonov, D Herwartz, C Voigt, M Staubwasser
This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰.17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor (* RV ) and of inflowing water (* RWI ) determine the isotope distribution in17 O-excess over δ18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sonia R Lakhotia, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay, Premlata Kumari
In this paper, a new approach to synthesize thin-film nanocomposite membranes using cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) by pre-seeding interfacial polymerization method was reported. Prepared membranes were examined using contact angle, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to observe its hydrophilicity, pore size, morphology, surface chemistry, and roughness, respectively. Surface charges of the prepared membranes were also qualitatively calculated with the help of contact angle measurements by using the Grahame equation...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie Krifka, Verena Preis, Martin Rosentritt
(1) Background: This study evaluated the bonding performance of high translucency zirconia after diverse surficial decontamination and cleaning procedures. (2) Methods: High translucency zirconia (LavaTM Esthetic) specimens (2.0 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) were exposed to different surface treatments prior to bonding to CoCr cylinders (d = 5 mm, height = 3 mm). All surfaces were sandblasted (40 µm aluminum oxide, 2 bar) and treated with alcohol (al), saliva (s), saliva + water (sw), or saliva + NaOCl + water (sn) before bonding was performed with the following adhesive luting systems: RelyXTM Unicem 2 (RX), ScotchbondTM Universal (SBU) + RelyXTM Ultimate (RU) or Monobond Plus (MP) + Multilink® Automix (ML)...
November 14, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Dan Zhao, James Kit-Hon Tsoi, Hai Ming Wong, Chun Hung Chu, Jukka P Matinlinna
This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm²) and randomly divided into five groups, immersed into four commercially-available paediatric OTC oral liquids (two for paracetamol, both sugared; and two for chlorpheniramine, one sugared and one sugar-free), with deionized water as control. The pH of the oral liquids ranged from 2...
May 11, 2017: Dent J (Basel)
Pepijn G Moerman, Pierre C Hohenberg, Eric Vanden-Eijnden, Jasna Brujic
Miscible liquids can phase separate in response to a composition change. In bulk fluids, the demixing begins on molecular-length scales, which coarsen into macroscopic phases. By contrast, confining a mixture in microfluidic droplets causes sequential phase separation bursts, which self-organize into rings of oil and water to make multilayered emulsions. The spacing in these nonequilibrium patterns is self-similar and scale-free over a range of droplet sizes. We develop a modified Cahn-Hilliard model, in which an immiscibility front with stretched exponential dynamics quantitatively predicts the spacing of the layers...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bin Tian, Bining Tian, Bethany Smith, M C Scott, Qin Lei, Ruinian Hua, Yue Tian, Yi Liu
Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets were first reported as a 2D material for the application of field-effect transistors in 2014 and have stimulated intense activity among physicists, chemists, and material and biomedical scientists, driving research into novel synthetic techniques to produce BP nanosheets. At present, exfoliation is the main route toward few-layer BP nanosheets via employing bulk BP as raw material. However, this is a complicated and time-consuming process, which is difficult for the large-scale synthesis of BP nanosheets...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Riza Eka Saputra, Yayuk Astuti, Adi Darmawan
This work investigated the synthesis of dimethoxydimethylsilane:tetraethoxysilane (DMDMS:TEOS) silica thin films as well as the effect of DMDMS:TEOS molar ratios and calcination temperature on hydrophobic properties of silica thin films and its correlation with the FTIR spectra behaviour. The silica thin films were synthesized by sol-gel method using combination of DMDMS and TEOS as silica precursors, ethanol as solvent and ammonia as catalyst, with DMDMS and TEOS molar ratio of 10:90, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 90:10...
March 14, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Adam L Crane, Douglas P Chivers, Maud C O Ferrari
Exposure to intense predation risk can induce morphological and behavioural phenotypes that prepare prey, often at young ages, for surviving attacks from unknown predators. However, previous studies revealed that this survival advantage depended on the predator species. Here, we used alarm cues from injured conspecifics to simulate a period of high predation risk for embryonic wood frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus. Two weeks post-hatching, we tested whether the embryonic risk exposure influenced survival in encounters with two novel predators: (1) a spider (Dolomedes sp...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Juliana M Schöntag, Alcione A Alves, Luis G Romero Esquivel, Maurício L Sens
Population growth requires more food production and as a consequence, there is the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, among them major group are carbamates. At times, runoff of pesticides leads to surface water pollution that serves as a source of public supply. Thus, the presence of these microcontaminants in surface water has become increasingly frequent. The treatment developed in this work uses the principle of adsorption as a technology for the removal of carbamates, more specifically carbofuran. Two methods of coating the polystyrene beads with iron oxide were used to adsorb these microcontaminants from the water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Jacinta C Conrad, Ryan Poling-Skutvik
Bacteria overwhelmingly live in geometrically confined habitats that feature small pores or cavities, narrow channels, or nearby interfaces. Fluid flows through these confined habitats are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments colonized by bacteria. Moreover, these flows occur on timeand length scales comparable to those associated with motility of bacteria and with the formation and growth of biofilms, which are surface-associated communities that house the vast majority of bacteria and protect them from host and environmental stresses...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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