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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098799/occurrence-of-emerging-micropollutants-in-water-systems-in-gauteng-mpumalanga-and-north-west-provinces-south-africa
#1
Elijah M M Wanda, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Bhekie B Mamba, Titus A M Msagati
The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS)...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098324/ionic-screening-and-dissociation-are-crucial-for-understanding-chemical-self-propulsion-in-polar-solvents
#2
Aidan T Brown, Wilson C K Poon, Christian Holm, Joost de Graaf
Polar solvents like water support the bulk dissociation of themselves and their solutes into ions, and the re-association of these ions into neutral molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, e.g., H2O2 ⇌ H(+) + HO2(-). Using continuum theory, we study the influence of these association-dissociation reactions on the self-propulsion of colloids driven by surface chemical reactions (chemical swimmers). We find that association-dissociation reactions should have a strong influence on swimmers' behaviour, and therefore should be included in future modelling...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098196/enhanced-removal-of-as-v-from-aqueous-solution-using-modified-hydrous-ferric-oxide-nanoparticles
#3
Lijuan Huo, Xibai Zeng, Shiming Su, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang
Hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) is most effective with high treatment capacity on arsenate [As(V)] sorption although its transformation and aggregation nature need further improvement. Here, HFO nanoparticles with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or starch as modifier was synthesized for the purpose of stability improvement and As(V) removal from water. Comparatively, CMC might be the optimum stabilizer for HFO nanoparticles because of more effective physical and chemical stability. The large-pore structure, high surface specific area, and the non-aggregated nature of CMC-HFO lead to increased adsorption sites, and thus high adsorption capacities of As(V) without pre-treatment (355 mg·g(-1)), which is much greater than those reported in previous studies...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097757/palladium-catalyzed-hydrolytic-cleavage-of-aromatic-c-o-bonds
#4
Meng Wang, Hui Shi, Donald M Camaioni, Johannes A Lercher
Metallic palladium surfaces are highly selective in promoting the reductive hydrolysis of aromatic ethers in aqueous phase at relatively mild temperatures and pressures of H2 . At quantitative conversions, the selectivity to hydrolysis products of PhOR ethers was observed to range from 50 % (R=Ph) to greater than 90 % (R=n-C4 H9 , cyclohexyl, and PhCH2 CH2 ). By analysis of the evolution of products with and without incorporation of H2(18) O, the pathway was concluded to be initiated by palladium metal catalyzed partial hydrogenation of the phenyl group to an enol ether...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096662/synthetic-nanoparticles-of-bovine-serum-albumin-with-entrapped-salicylic-acid
#5
E S Bronze-Uhle, B C Costa, V F Ximenes, P N Lisboa-Filho
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs) may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094995/photoluminescence-probing-of-complex-h2o-adsorption-on-ingan-gan-nanowires
#6
Konrad Maier, Andreas Helwig, Gerhard Muller, Pascal Hille, Jörg Teubert, Martin Eickhoff
We demonstrate that the complex adsorption behavior of H2O on InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays is directly revealed by their ambient-dependent photoluminescence properties. Under low-humidity, ambient-temperature, and low-excitation-light conditions, H2O adsorbates cause a quenching of the photoluminescence. In contrast, for high humidity levels, elevated temperature, and high excitation intensity, H2O adsorbates act as efficient photoluminescence enhancers. We show that this behavior, which can only be detected due to the low operation temperature of the InGaN/GaN nanowires, can be explained on the basis of single H2O adsorbates forming surface recombination centers and multiple H2O adsorbates forming surface passivation layers...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094970/octagon-to-square-wetting-area-transition-of-water-ethanol-droplets-on-micro-pyramid-substrate-by-increasing-ethanol-concentration
#7
Huicheng Feng, Karen Siew-Ling Chong, Kian Soo Ong, Fei Duan
The wettability and evaporation of water-ethanol binary droplets on the substrate with micro-pyramid cavities are studied by controlling initial ethanol concentrations. The droplets form octagonal initial wetting areas on the substrate. As the ethanol concentration increases, the side ratio of the initial wetting octagon increases from 1.5 at 0% of ethanol concentration to 3.5 at 30% of ethanol concentration. The increasing side ratio indicates that the wetting area transforms from an octagon to a square if we consider the octagon as a square with its four corners cut...
January 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094920/antifouling-thin-film-composite-membranes-by-controlled-architecture-of-zwitterionic-polymer-brush-layer
#8
Caihong Liu, Jongho Lee, Jun Ma, Menachem Elimelech
In this study, we demonstrate a highly antifouling thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane by grafting a zwitterionic polymer brush via atom-transfer radical-polymerization (ATRP), a controlled, environmentally benign chemical process. Initiator molecules for polymerization were immobilized on the membrane surface by bio-inspired catechol chemistry, leading to the grafting of a dense zwitterionic polymer brush layer. Surface characterization revealed that the modified membrane exhibits reduced surface roughness, enhanced hydrophilicity, and lower surface charge...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094887/exploring-the-influence-of-aggregation-on-the-structure-and-fluorescent-properties-of-a-tetraphenylethylene-derivative-a-theoretical-study
#9
Ying-Chen Duan, Yong Wu, Jun-Ling Jin, Dong-Mei Gu, Yun Geng, Min Zhang, Zhongmin Su
The case that aggregation brings a huge influence on the structure and fluorescent property of 5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde (P4TA) was detailedly investigated here by employing both quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics. Besides the isolated molecule, the aggregated molecule both in water and crystal state was studied by focusing on the comparison of photoelectronic properties, including the geometrical and electronic structures at ground and excited states, emission and internal conversation properties...
January 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094798/stable-isotopes-in-the-atmospheric-marine-boundary-layer-water-vapour-over-the-atlantic-ocean-2012-2015
#10
Marion Benetti, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, Gilles Reverdin, Árný Erla Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Giovanni Aloisi, Max B Berkelhammer, Bernard Bourlès, Denis Bourras, Gaëlle de Coetlogon, Ann Cosgrove, Anne-Katrine Faber, Jacques Grelet, Steffen Bo Hansen, Rod Johnson, Hervé Legoff, Nicolas Martin, Andrew J Peters, Trevor James Popp, Thierry Reynaud, Malte Winther
The water vapour isotopic composition ((1)H2(16)O, H2(18)O and (1)H(2)H(16)O) of the Atlantic marine boundary layer has been measured from 5 research vessels between 2012 and 2015. Using laser spectroscopy analysers, measurements have been carried out continuously on samples collected 10-20 meter above sea level. All the datasets have been carefully calibrated against the international VSMOW-SLAP scale following the same protocol to build a homogeneous dataset covering the Atlantic Ocean between 4°S to 63°N...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094492/tuning-the-surface-properties-of-graphene-oxide-by-surface-initiated-polymerization-of-epoxides-an-efficient-method-for-enhancing-gas-separation
#11
Yu Wu, Pan Jia, Linli Xu, Zhangyan Chen, Linhong Xiao, Jinhua Sun, Jun Zhang, Yong Huang, Christopher W Bielawski, Jianxin Geng
Here we describe an in situ approach for growing polyepoxides from the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) using a surface-initiated polymerization reaction. The polymerization methodology is facile and general as a broad range of epoxides carrying various functional groups have been successfully polymerized by simply adding GO powders in the epoxide monomers. The resultant polyepoxide grafted GO are found to show enhanced dispersibility in various common solvents and to exhibit increased d-spacing between the basal planes...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094471/cleanable-air-filter-transferring-moisture-and-effectively-capturing-pm2-5
#12
Xinglei Zhao, Yuyao Li, Ting Hua, Pan Jiang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The lethal danger of particulate matter (PM) pollution on health leads to the development of challenging individual protection materials that should ideally exhibit a high PM2.5 purification efficiency, low air resistance, an important moisture-vapor transmission rate (MVTR), and an easy-to-clean property. Herein, a cleanable air filter able to rapidly transfer moisture and efficiently capture PM2.5 is designed by electrospinning superhydrophilic polyacrylonitrile/silicon-dioxide fibers as the adsorption-desorption vector for moisture-vapor, and hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride fibers as the repellent components to avoid the formation of capillary water under high humidity...
January 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094363/photoassist-phosphorylated-tio2-as-a-catalyst-for-direct-formation-of-5-hydroxymethyl-furfural-from-glucose
#13
Masashi Hattori, Keigo Kamata, Michikazu Hara
Photo-assisted phosphorylation of an anatase TiO2 catalyst was examined to improve its catalytic performance for the direct production of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), a versatile chemical platform, from glucose. In phosphorylation based on simple esterification between phosphoric acid and surface OH groups on anatase TiO2 with water-tolerant Lewis acid sites, the density of phosphates immobilized on TiO2 is limited to 2 phosphates nm(-2), which limits selective HMF production. Phosphorylation of the TiO2 surface under fluorescent light irradiation increases the surface phosphate density to 50%, which is higher than the conventional limit, thus preventing the adsorption of hydrophilic glucose molecules on TiO2 and resulting in a more selective HMF production over photoassist-phosphorylated TiO2...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094318/hydrogen-reduction-of-molybdenum-oxide-at-room-temperature
#14
Andreas Borgschulte, Olga Sambalova, Renaud Delmelle, Sandra Jenatsch, Roland Hany, Frank Nüesch
The color changes in chemo- and photochromic MoO3 used in sensors and in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells can be traced back to intercalated hydrogen atoms stemming either from gaseous hydrogen dissociated at catalytic surfaces or from photocatalytically split water. In applications, the reversibility of the process is of utmost importance, and deterioration of the layer functionality due to side reactions is a critical challenge. Using the membrane approach for high-pressure XPS, we are able to follow the hydrogen reduction of MoO3 thin films using atomic hydrogen in a water free environment...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094209/simplified-low-dose-rate-infant-total-body-irradiation
#15
Nels Knutson, Y James Rao, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Stephanie M Perkins, H Harold Li
PURPOSE: Low-dose-rate total body irradiation (LDR TBI) in infants possesses unique challenges because of the setup limitations imposed by anesthesia. We present an LDR TBI method with an anteroposterior/posteroanterior arrangement and dose rate < 10 cGy/minute for infants (thickness <14 cm) without the use of a beam attenuator. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The delivery used a 6 MV TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with adjustable meterset rates below 100 MU/minute...
October 24, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093973/adsorptive-removal-of-metal-ions-from-water-using-functionalized-biomaterials
#16
Kanchanmala Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Synthesis and modification of cost-effective sorbents for removing heavy metals from water resources is an area of significance. It had been reported that materials with biological origins, such as agricultural and animal waste, are excellent alternatives to conventional adsorbents due to their higher affinity, capacity and selectivity towards metal ions. These properties of biomaterials help to reduce or detoxify metal ions concentration in contaminated water to acceptable regulatory standards...
January 16, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093894/importance-of-body-water-in-the-efficacy-of-convective-solute-transport-in-online-hemodiafiltration
#17
Nicolás Macías, Alba Santos García, Almudena Vega Martínez, Soraya Abad Estébanez, Marian Goicoechea Diezhandino, Juan Manuel López Gómez
High-volume online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has been associated with improved patient survival compared to conventional hemodialysis in recent trials, where the importance of convective volume (CV) in this benefit is noted. The purpose of this study was to determine the corporal composition parameters influencing the efficacy of CV in the removal of different molecular weight (MW) molecules. Demographic data, corporal composition parameters with bioimpedance spectroscopy, dialysis features and the reduction rates of different MW molecules in a four-hour OL-HDF session were collected in 61 patients...
January 16, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093775/how-does-temperature-influences-the-development-of-lactococcosis-transcriptomic-and-immunoproteomic-in%C3%A2-vitro-approaches
#18
R Castro, M Reguera-Brito, G H López-Campos, M M Blanco, M Aguado-Urda, J F Fernández-Garayzábal, A Gibello
Lactococcus garvieae is the aetiological agent of lactococcosis, a haemorrhagic septicaemia that affects marine and freshwater fish, with special incidence and economic relevance in farmed rainbow trout. Water temperature is one of the most important predisposing factors in the development of lactococcosis outbreaks. Lactococcosis in trout usually occur when water temperatures rise to about 18 °C, while fish carriers remain asymptomatic at temperatures below 13 °C. The aim of this work was to analyse the differences in the complete transcriptome response of L...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093321/sulfur-compound-oxidation-and-carbon-co-assimilation-in-the-haloalkaliphilic-sulfur-oxidizers-thioalkalivibrio-versutus-and-thioalkalimicrobium-aerophilum
#19
Wee Kiong Ang, Mahbob Maisarah, Rabeb Dhouib, Ulrike Kappler
Alkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are highly abundant in naturally occurring soda lakes,where they are found both in surface waters and sediments. Here we studied oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate in batch cultures of Thioalkalimicrobium aerophilum and Thioalkalivibrio versutus, two species that represent different metabolic types, as indicated by the absence or presence of sulfur production during growth, respectively. With thiosulfate, both species showed the expected sulfur oxidation patterns; however, during growth on sulfide, both T...
January 13, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093127/magnetic-beads-based-dna-hybridization-chain-reaction-amplification-and-dnazyme-recognition-for-colorimetric-detection-of-uranyl-ion-in-seafood
#20
Hongyan Zhang, Xian Cheng, Lian Chen, Fan Mo, LiangJun Xu, FengFu Fu
A novel colorimetric biosensor, which employs DNAzyme-functionalized magnetic beads (MBs) as recognition probe, enzyme-assisted catalytic oxidation of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate) as signal and DNA hybridization chain reaction as amplification strategy, has been developed for detecting trace uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in seafood and aqueous environment with high sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrated that UO2(2+) can specifically cleave DNAzyme immobilized on MBs surface to release a short single-strand DNA (primer), and the released primer trigger DNA hybridization chain reaction to form a long one dimensional DNA concatamer on the MBs surface...
March 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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