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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730931/a-reading-model-from-the-perspective-of-japanese-orthography-connectionist-approach-to-the-hypothesis-of-granularity-and-transparency
#1
Mutsuo Ijuin, Taeko N Wydell
This study presents a computer simulation model of reading in Japanese syllabic kana and morphographic kanji. The model was based on the simulation model developed by Harm and Seidenberg for reading in English. The purpose of building the current model was to verify the validity of the hypothesis of granularity and transparency (HGT) postulated by Wydell and Butterworth, focusing on the granularity dimension. The HGT was developed in order to explain the behavioral dissociation between excellent reading skills in Japanese and poor reading skills in English of an English-Japanese bilingual individual as well as the relatively low incidence of developmental dyslexia in Japan...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729533/common-brain-structure-findings-across-children-with-varied-reading-disability-profiles
#2
Mark A Eckert, Kenneth I Vaden, Amanda B Maxwell, Stephanie L Cute, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Virginia W Berninger
Dyslexia is a developmental disorder in reading that exhibits varied patterns of expression across children. Here we examined the degree to which different kinds of reading disabilities (defined as profiles or patterns of reading problems) contribute to brain morphology results in Jacobian determinant images that represent local brain shape and volume. A matched-pair brain morphometry approach was used to control for confounding from brain size and research site effects in this retrospective multi-site study of 134 children from eight different research sites...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725022/action-video-games-improve-reading-abilities-and-visual-to-auditory-attentional-shifting-in-english-speaking-children-with-dyslexia
#3
Sandro Franceschini, Piergiorgio Trevisan, Luca Ronconi, Sara Bertoni, Susan Colmar, Kit Double, Andrea Facoetti, Simone Gori
Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#4
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715717/reading-network-in-dyslexia-similar-yet-different
#5
Karen E Waldie, Anna J Wilson, Reece P Roberts, David Moreau
Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterized by reading and phonological difficulties, yet important questions remain regarding its underlying neural correlates. In this study, we used partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analytic technique, to investigate the neural networks used by dyslexics while performing a word-rhyming task. Although the overall reading network was largely similar in dyslexics and typical readers, it did not correlate with behavior in the same way in the two groups. In particular, there was a positive association between reading performance and both right superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula activation in dyslexic readers but a negative correlation in typical readers...
July 15, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712970/cortical-responses-to-tone-and-phoneme-mismatch-as-a-predictor-of-dyslexia-a-systematic-review
#6
Susanne Volkmer, Gerd Schulte-Körne
Evidence from event-related-potential (ERP) studies has repeatedly shown differences in the perception and processing of auditory stimuli in children with dyslexia compared to control children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) - an ERP component reflecting passive auditory change detection ability - has been found to be reduced, not only in children with a diagnosis of dyslexia, but also in infants and preschool children at risk of developing dyslexia. However, the results are controversial due to the different methods, age of the children and stimuli used...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710941/procedural-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-specific-language-impairment-dyslexia-schizophrenia-developmental-coordination-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-second-order-meta-analysis
#7
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0...
October 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710937/developmental-surface-and-phonological-dyslexia-in-both-greek-and-english
#8
Andreas Sotiropoulos, J Richard Hanley
The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading)...
July 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691254/response-to-intervention-as-a-predictor-of-long-term-reading-outcomes-in-children-with-dyslexia
#9
Sanne W van der Kleij, Eliane Segers, Margriet A Groen, Ludo Verhoeven
The goal of this study was to investigate how growth during a phonics-based intervention, as well as reading levels at baseline testing, predicted long-term reading outcomes of children with dyslexia. Eighty Dutch children with dyslexia who had completed a 50-week phonics-based intervention in grade 4 were tested in grade 5 on both word and pseudoword (following regular Dutch orthographic patterns) reading efficiency and compared to 93 typical readers. In grade 5 the children with dyslexia were still significantly slower in word and pseudoword reading than their typically developing peers...
July 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688740/reading-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-their-relationship-to-developmental-dyslexia-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Veronica Whitford, Gillian A O'Driscoll, Debra Titone
Although schizophrenia and developmental dyslexia are considered distinct disorders in terms of clinical presentation and functional outcome, they both involve disruption in the processes that support skilled reading, including language, auditory perception, visual perception, oculomotor control, and executive function. Further, recent work has proposed a common neurodevelopmental basis for the two disorders, as suggested by genetic and pathophysiological overlap. Thus, these lines of research suggest that reading may be similarly impacted in schizophrenia and dyslexia...
July 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686908/a-longitudinal-study-investigating-neural-processing-of-speech-envelope-modulation-rates-in-children-with-a-family-risk-for-dyslexia
#11
Astrid De Vos, Sophie Vanvooren, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental deficit in the synchronization of neural oscillations to temporal information in speech may underlie phonological processing problems in dyslexia. Since previous studies were performed cross-sectionally in school-aged children or adults, developmental aspects of neural auditory processing in relation to reading acquisition and dyslexia remain to be investigated. The present longitudinal study followed 68 children during development from pre-reader (5 years old) to beginning reader (7 years old) and more advanced reader (9 years old)...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686635/visuo-spatial-cueing-in-children-with-differential-reading-and-spelling-profiles
#12
Chiara Banfi, Ferenc Kemény, Melanie Gangl, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll, Karin Landerl
Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191) of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684307/discriminant-validity-of-spatial-and-temporal-postural-index-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
Maria Pia Bucci, Nathalie Goulème, Coline Stordeur, Eric Acquaviva, Isabelle Scheid, Aline Lefebvre, Christophe-Loïc Gerard, Hugo Peyre, Richard Delorme
Autism, learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder are often comorbid disorders. In order to try and find some markers that might be transnosographic, we hypothesized that abnormal postural sway profiles may discriminate children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) from typically developing children. The aim of our study was thus to compare spatial and temporal measures of the Center of Pressure in three distinct groups of children with NDDs (high functioning autism spectrum disorders, learning disabilities (dyslexia) and attention deficit/hyperactive disorders) and in typically developing children...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675663/postural-control-in-children-with-dyslexia-effects-of-emotional-stimuli-in-a-dual-task-environment
#14
Nathalie Goulème, Christophe-Loïc Gerard, Maria Pia Bucci
The aim of this study was to compare the visual exploration strategies used during a postural control task across participants with and without dyslexia. We simultaneously recorded eye movements and postural control while children were viewing different types of emotional faces. Twenty-two children with dyslexia and twenty-two aged-matched children without dyslexia participated in the study. We analysed the surface area, the length and the mean velocity of the centre of pressure for balance in parallel with visual saccadic latency, the number of saccades and the time spent in regions of interest...
July 4, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670621/changes-in-dti-diffusivity-and-fmri-connectivity-cluster-coefficients-for-students-with-and-without-specific-learning-disabilities-in-written-language-brain-s-response-to-writing-instruction
#15
Todd L Richards, Virginia W Berninger, Kevin J Yagle, Robert D Abbott, Daniel J Peterson
Before and after computerized writing instruction, participants completed assessment with normed measures and DTI and fMRI connectivity scanning. Evidence-based differential diagnosis was used at time 1 to assign them to diagnostic groups: typical oral and written language (n=6), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=10), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading, n=20), and OWL LD (impaired syntax construction, n=6). The instruction was aimed at subword letter writing, word spelling, and syntax composing...
April 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654032/assessing-working-memory-in-children-the-comprehensive-assessment-battery-for-children-working-memory-cabc-wm
#16
Kathryn Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray, Mary Alt, Nelson Cowan, Samuel Green, Trudy Kuo, Tiffany P Hogan
The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children - Working Memory (CABC-WM) is a computer-based battery designed to assess different components of working memory in young school-age children. Working memory deficits have been identified in children with language-based learning disabilities, including dyslexia(1)(,)(2) and language impairment(3)(,)(4), but it is not clear whether these children exhibit deficits in subcomponents of working memory, such as visuospatial or phonological working memory. The CABC-WM is administered on a desktop computer with a touchscreen interface and was specifically developed to be engaging and motivating for children...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646168/the-causal-relationship-between-dyslexia-and-motion-perception-reconsidered
#17
Sung Jun Joo, Patrick M Donnelly, Jason D Yeatman
It is well established that visual sensitivity to motion is correlated with reading skills. Yet, the causal relationship between motion sensitivity and reading skills has been debated for more than thirty years. One hypothesis posits that dyslexia is caused by deficits in the motion processing pathway. An alternative hypothesis explains the motion processing deficit observed in dyslexia as the consequence of a lack, or poor quality, of reading experience. Here we used an intensive reading intervention program to test the causal relationship between learning to read and motion processing in children...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645843/longitudinal-changes-in-reading-network-connectivity-related-to-skill-improvement
#18
Jessica Wise Younger, Elliot Tucker-Drob, James R Booth
Attempts to characterize the neural differences between individuals with and without dyslexia generally point to reduced activation in and connectivity between brain areas in a reading network composed of the inferior frontal gyrus, the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, and the dorsal temporo-parietal circuit. However, developmental work on brain activity during reading has indicated that some brain areas show developmental decreases in activation with age. Thus, reading network connectivity may also show decreases that are positively associated with increases in reading ability...
June 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641146/early-development-and-predictors-of-morphological-awareness-disentangling-the-impact-of-decoding-skills-and-phonological-awareness
#19
Jeremy M Law, Pol Ghesquière
BACKGROUND: Morphological Awareness (MA) has been demonstrated to be influential on the reading outcomes of children and adults. Yet, little is known regarding MA's early development. AIM: The aim of this study is to better understand MA at different stages of development and its association with Phonological Awareness (PA) and reading. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In a longitudinal design the development of MA was explored in a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and age-matched controls from kindergarten up to and including grade 2...
June 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624595/atypical-perceptual-processing-of-faces-in-developmental-dyslexia
#20
Yafit Gabay, Eva Dundas, David Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Developmental Dyslexia (DD) is often attributed to phonological processing deficits. Recent evidence, however, indicates the need for a more general explanatory framework to account for DD's range of deficits. The current study examined the specificity versus domain generality of DD by comparing the recognition and discrimination of three visual categories (faces and words with cars as control stimuli) in typical and dyslexic readers. Relative to controls, not only did dyslexic individuals perform more poorly on word recognition, but they also matched faces more slowly, especially when the faces differed in viewpoint, and discriminated between similar faces (but not cars) more poorly...
June 15, 2017: Brain and Language
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