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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442358/an-oscillopathic-approach-to-developmental-dyslexia-from-genes-to-speech-processing
#1
REVIEW
Miguel Jiménez-Bravo, Victoria Marrero, Antonio Benítez-Burraco
Developmental dyslexia is a heterogeneous condition entailing problems with reading and spelling. Several genes have been linked or associated to the disease, many of which contribute to the development and function of brain areas important for auditory and phonological processing. Nonetheless, a clear link between genes, the brain, and the symptoms of dyslexia is still pending. The goal of this paper is contributing to bridge this gap. With this aim, we have focused on how the dyslexic brain fails to process speech sounds and reading cues...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440815/15q11-2-cnv-affects-cognitive-structural-and-functional-correlates-of-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia
#2
M O Ulfarsson, G B Walters, O Gustafsson, S Steinberg, A Silva, O M Doyle, M Brammer, D F Gudbjartsson, S Arnarsdottir, G A Jonsdottir, R S Gisladottir, G Bjornsdottir, H Helgason, L M Ellingsen, J G Halldorsson, E Saemundsen, B Stefansdottir, L Jonsson, V K Eiriksdottir, G R Eiriksdottir, G H Johannesdottir, U Unnsteinsdottir, B Jonsdottir, B B Magnusdottir, P Sulem, U Thorsteinsdottir, E Sigurdsson, D Brandeis, A Meyer-Lindenberg, H Stefansson, K Stefansson
Several copy number variants have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and these variants have been shown to also influence cognitive abilities in carriers unaffected by psychiatric disorders. Previously, we associated the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion with specific learning disabilities and a larger corpus callosum. Here we investigate, in a much larger sample, the effect of the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion on cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. We report that the deletion confers greatest risk of the combined phenotype of dyslexia and dyscalculia...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439565/shared-temporoparietal-dysfunction-in-dyslexia-and-typical-readers-with-discrepantly-high-iq
#3
Roeland Hancock, John D E Gabrieli, Fumiko Hoeft
It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy...
December 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436889/design-and-implementation-of-a-tactile-stimulation-device-to-increase-auditory-discrimination
#4
Shahrzad Abbasi Baharanchi, Majid MohammadBeigi, Fatemeh Abnavi, Samira Tavakol
Reading is a complex process that requires various simultaneous brain processes. One of the most common types of reading disorders is developmental dyslexia, and one of the objectives of speech therapy sessions for children with developmental dyslexia is to increase their auditory discrimination. One of the most commonly used Auditory Discrimination Tests (ADTs) is Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT). It includes minimal pair words categorized by characteristics of vowels and consonants. The goal of this research is to design and implement a tactile stimulation device based on Wepman's test to increase auditory discrimination in children with developmental dyslexia in therapy sessions, so that while playing each word for the children, vibrational cues are presented to their left palm and fingers...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436204/disabled-graduate-entry-medical-student-experience
#5
Simon Tso
BACKGROUND: This study explored the experiences of graduate-entry medicine degree programme students who were disabled on the disclosure of their disability and the challenging disability issues they encountered during their degree programme. METHODS: Eight student volunteers with a disability from the University of Warwick graduate-entry medicine degree programme took part in this study. Audio recordings of their semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436202/a-common-genetic-variant-in-foxp2-is-associated-with-language-based-learning-dis-abilities-evidence-from-two-italian-independent-samples
#6
Alessandra Mozzi, Valentina Riva, Diego Forni, Manuela Sironi, Cecilia Marino, Massimo Molteni, Stefania Riva, Franca R Guerini, Mario Clerici, Rachele Cagliani, Sara Mascheretti
Language-based Learning Disabilities (LLDs) encompass a group of complex, comorbid, and developmentally associated deficits in communication. Language impairment and developmental dyslexia (DD) represent the most recognized forms of LLDs. Substantial genetic correlations exist between language and reading (dis)abilities. Common variants in the FOXP2 gene were consistently associated with language- and reading-related neuropsychological and neuroanatomical phenotypes. We tested the effect of a FOXP2 common variant, that is, rs6980093 (A/G), on quantitative measures of language and reading in two independent Italian samples: a population-based cohort of 699 subjects (3-11 years old) and a sample of 572 children with DD (6-18 years old)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424400/-brodmann-areas-39-and-40-human-parietal-association-area-and-higher-cortical-function
#7
Yasuhisa Sakurai
The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia)...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423976/screening-for-dyslexia-in-french-speaking-university-students-an-evaluation-of-the-detection-accuracy-of-the-alouette-test
#8
Eddy Cavalli, Pascale Colé, Gilles Leloup, Florence Poracchia-George, Liliane Sprenger-Charolles, Abdessadek El Ahmadi
Developmental dyslexia is a lifelong impairment affecting 5% to 10% of the population. In French-speaking countries, although a number of standardized tests for dyslexia in children are available, tools suitable to screen for dyslexia in adults are lacking. In this study, we administered the Alouette reading test to a normative sample of 164 French university students without dyslexia and a validation sample of 83 students with dyslexia. The Alouette reading test is designed to screen for dyslexia in children, since it taps skills that are typically deficient in dyslexia (i...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409401/effect-of-chunk-strength-on-the-performance-of-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-on-artificial-grammar-learning-task-may-be-related-to-complexity
#9
Rachel Schiff, Pesia Katan, Ayelet Sasson, Shani Kahta
There's a long held view that chunks play a crucial role in artificial grammar learning performance. We compared chunk strength influences on performance, in high and low topological entropy (a measure of complexity) grammar systems, with dyslexic children, age-matched and reading-level-matched control participants. Findings show that age-matched control participants' performance reflected equivalent influence of chunk strength in the two topological entropy conditions, as typically found in artificial grammar learning experiments...
April 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406742/reading-disability-spectrum-early-and-late-recognition-subthreshold-and-full-comorbidity
#10
Krisztina Tárnokiné Törő, Mónika Miklósi, Eszter Horanyi, Gábor Pers Kovács, Judit Balázs
Several studies have reported high comorbidity for reading disability (RD) and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of subthreshold and full psychiatric disorders with RD while comparing subgroups based on age of RD recognition (early vs. late). We analyzed data from 130 children with RD and 82 typically developing children aged 7 to 18 years. RD was assessed with the Dyslexia Differential Diagnosis Maastricht-Hungarian Standard Test. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Kid...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406683/evaluating-the-sources-and-functions-of-gradiency-in-phoneme-categorization-an-individual-differences-approach
#11
Efthymia C Kapnoula, Matthew B Winn, Eun Jong Kong, Jan Edwards, Bob McMurray
During spoken language comprehension listeners transform continuous acoustic cues into categories (e.g., /b/ and /p/). While long-standing research suggests that phonetic categories are activated in a gradient way, there are also clear individual differences in that more gradient categorization has been linked to various communication impairments such as dyslexia and specific language impairments (Joanisse, Manis, Keating, & Seidenberg, 2000; López-Zamora, Luque, Álvarez, & Cobos, 2012; Serniclaes, Van Heghe, Mousty, Carré, & Sprenger-Charolles, 2004; Werker & Tees, 1987)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400808/dcdc2-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-developmental-dyslexia-in-chinese-uyghur-children
#12
Yun Chen, Hua Zhao, Yi-Xin Zhang, Peng-Xiang Zuo
Developmental dyslexia is a complex reading and writing disorder with strong genetic components. In previous genetic studies about dyslexia, a number of candidate genes have been identified. These include DCDC2, which has repeatedly been associated with developmental dyslexia in various European and American populations. However, data regarding this relationship are varied according to population. The Uyghur people of China represent a Eurasian population with an interesting genetic profile. Thus, this group may provide useful information about the association between DCDC2 gene polymorphisms and dyslexia...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#13
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394222/exploring-the-impact-of-living-with-dyslexia-the-perspectives-of-children-and-their-parents
#14
Suze Leitão, Peta Dzidic, Mary Claessen, Joanne Gordon, Kate Howard, Mandy Nayton, Mark E Boyes
PURPOSE: A small but growing body of literature indicates that children with dyslexia are at elevated risk of internalising and externalising mental health problems. However, little research addresses why this might be the case, particularly from the point of view of the children or their parents. This study therefore aimed to explore the lived experiences of children with dyslexia, and their parents. METHOD: Drawing on a phenomenological approach, 13 children with dyslexia and 21 parents were interviewed...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388708/word-learning-deficits-in-children-with-dyslexia
#15
Mary Alt, Tiffany Hogan, Samuel Green, Shelley Gray, Kathryn Cabbage, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387593/a-case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-with-vertical-neglect
#16
Hilary Glazer, Leila Saadatpour, Leilani Doty, Kenneth M Heilman
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndrome caused by a neurodegenerative disease that often presents with visuospatial deficits, and can be debilitating. PCA is often characterized by elements of Balint's syndrome and dyslexia. The most common underlying pathology has been found to be Alzheimer's disease. Signs of horizontal neglect are frequently associated with PCA, but the presence of vertical (or altitudinal) neglect has not yet been reported in a patient with PCA or other forms of neurodegenerative dementia...
April 7, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383990/revisiting-the-enigma-of-musicians-with-dyslexia-auditory-sequencing-and-speech-abilities
#17
Jennifer Zuk, Paula Bishop-Liebler, Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Emma Moore, Katie Overy, Graham Welch, Nadine Gaab
Previous research has suggested a link between musical training and auditory processing skills. Musicians have shown enhanced perception of auditory features critical to both music and speech, suggesting that this link extends beyond basic auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent musicians who also have dyslexia show these specialized abilities, considering often-observed persistent deficits that coincide with reading impairments. The present study evaluated auditory sequencing and speech discrimination in 52 adults comprised of musicians with dyslexia, nonmusicians with dyslexia, and typical musicians...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380399/local-and-global-processing-in-block-design-tasks-in-children-with-dyslexia-or-nonverbal-learning-disability
#18
Ramona Cardillo, Irene C Mammarella, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Cesare Cornoldi
Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure...
April 2, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377626/problems-with-visual-statistical-learning-in-developmental-dyslexia
#19
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Hilda Bjork Danielsdottir, Margret Gudmundsdottir, Kristjan Helgi Hjartarson, Elin Astros Thorarinsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Previous research shows that dyslexic readers are impaired in their recognition of faces and other complex objects, and show hypoactivation in ventral visual stream regions that support word and object recognition. Responses of these brain regions are shaped by visual statistical learning. If such learning is compromised, people should be less sensitive to statistically likely feature combinations in words and other objects, and impaired visual word and object recognition should be expected. We therefore tested whether people with dyslexia showed diminished capability for visual statistical learning...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353390/evidence-for-a-differential-interference-of-noise-in-sub-lexical-and-lexical-reading-routes-in-healthy-participants-and-dyslexics
#20
Ana Pina Rodrigues, José Rebola, Helena Jorge, Maria José Ribeiro, Marcelino Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Marieke van Asselen
The ineffective exclusion of surrounding noise has been proposed to underlie the reading deficits in developmental dyslexia. However, previous studies supporting this hypothesis focused on low-level visual tasks, providing only an indirect link of noise interference on reading processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of noise on regular, irregular, and pseudoword reading in 23 dyslexic children and 26 age- and IQ-matched controls, by applying the white noise displays typically used to validate this theory to a lexical decision task...
March 29, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
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