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Thomas Dresler, Stephanie Bugden, Camilo Gouet, Marie Lallier, Darlene G Oliveira, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Ana C Pires, Yunqi Wang, Camila Zugarramurdi, Janaina Weissheimer
Neuroimaging has undergone enormous progress during the last two and a half decades. The combination of neuroscientific methods and educational practice has become a focus of interdisciplinary research in order to answer more applied questions. In this realm, conditions that hamper learning success and have deleterious effects in the population - such as learning disorders (LD) - could especially profit from neuroimaging findings. At the moment, however, there is an ongoing debate about how far neuroscientific research can go to inform the practical work in educational settings...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Cathryn Knight
Given that an estimated 5-10% of the worldwide population is said to have dyslexia, it is of great importance that teachers have an accurate understanding of what dyslexia is and how it effects their students. Using results from a large-scale survey of teachers in England and in Wales (N ≈ 2,600), this paper demonstrates that teachers held a basic understanding of dyslexia, based on the behavioural issues that it is associated with. Teachers lacked the knowledge of the biological (i.e., neurological) and cognitive (i...
July 17, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Huaiting Gu, Fang Hou, Lingfei Liu, Xiu Luo, Pauline Denis Nkomola, Xinyan Xie, Xin Li, Ranran Song
BACKGROUND: It is well known that males have a higher prevalence of developmental dyslexia (DD) than females. Although the mechanism underlying this gender difference remains unknown, the contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene, which shows sex-specific patterns in some neurodevelopmental disorders, has attracted extensive attention. This study aimed to explore whether CNTNAP2 shows a sex-specific association with DD in a Chinese population. METHODS: Using genomic DNA samples of 726 students [372 cases (282 male, 90 female), 354 controls (267 male, 87 female)], we genotyped five SNPs of CNTNAP2...
July 12, 2018: EBioMedicine
Thanh Vân Phan, Diana M Sima, Caroline Beelen, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Dirk Smeets, Maaike Vandermosten
Pediatric brain volumetric analysis based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is of particular interest in order to understand the typical brain development and to characterize neurodevelopmental disorders at an early age. However, it has been shown that the results can be biased due to head motion, inherent to pediatric data, and due to the use of methods based on adult brain data that are not able to accurately model the anatomical disparity of pediatric brains. To overcome these issues, we proposed child metrix , a tool developed for the analysis of pediatric neuroimaging data that uses an age-specific atlas and a probabilistic model-based approach in order to segment the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Erika Ferraz, Thais Dos Santos Gonçalves, Thais Freire, Tais de Lima Ferreira Mattar, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Luciana Paula Maximino, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro Crenitte
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a phonological remediation reading and writing program in individuals with dyslexia, through behavioral and objective evaluations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty children diagnosed with dyslexia, aged 8-14 years, were included in this study. Group I (GI) was composed of 10 children who took part in the program, and group II (GII) consisted of 10 subjects who did not take the remediation. The pre-testing evaluated phonological awareness, rapid naming, working memory, reading and writing of words and nonwords, thematic writing, and auditory evoked potential - P300...
July 12, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
M R van den Bunt, M A Groen, S W van der Kleij, M W Noordenbos, E Segers, K R Pugh, L Verhoeven
Although dyslexia is characterized by a deficit in phonological representations, the nature of this deficit is debated. Previously, it was shown that adults with dyslexia respond differently to online manipulations of auditory feedback. In the present study, we found that individual differences in reading and reading-related skills within a group of 30 children (10-13 years old) with dyslexia were associated with the response to altered feedback. The fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus was not directly related to the response to altered feedback...
July 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Ellie R H van Setten, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
The present study investigates whether grade 6 reading outcomes, reading fluency, and reading comprehension can be predicted by grade 3 reading fluency, familial risk of dyslexia (FR), and grade 3 reading related skills: rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness (PA), and vocabulary. In a sample of 150 children, of whom 83 had a parent with dyslexia, correlation and regression analyses were performed. FR, measured on a continuous scale, was by itself related to all outcomes. However, FR did not explain any variance on top of grade 3 reading fluency...
July 11, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Gloria Cappelli, Sabrina Noccetti, Giorgio Arcara, Valentina Bambini
The study assessed the pragmatic skills of 19 well-compensated Italian-speaking young adults with dyslexia compared with controls. A comprehensive pragmatic assessment tool was employed, targeting production and comprehension (Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates [APACS]). Participants were also administered a series of standardized tests to assess verbal and non-verbal cognitive abilities, including executive functions and social cognition tests. Data were analysed with the aim of understanding whether pragmatic abilities are compromised in dyslexia and of exploring associations between pragmatic performance and other cognitive domains...
July 11, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Luiz G Guidi, Zoe G Holloway, Christophe Arnoult, Pierre F Ray, Anthony P Monaco, Zoltán Molnár, Antonio Velayos-Baeza
Study of knockout (KO) mice has helped understand the link between many genes/proteins and human diseases. Identification of infertile KO mice provides valuable tools to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying gamete formation. The KIAA0319L gene has been described to have a putative association with dyslexia; surprisingly, we observed that homozygous KO males for AU040320, KIAA0319L ortholog, are infertile and present a globozoospermia-like phenotype. Mutant spermatozoa are mostly immotile and display a malformed roundish head with no acrosome...
July 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michal Ronen, Adi Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Riki Taitelbaum-Swead, Leah Fostick
Auditory temporal processing (ATP) has been related in the literature to both speech perception as well as reading and phonological awareness. In aging adults, it is known to be related to difficulties in speech perception. In the present study, we aimed to test whether an age-related deficit in ATP would also be accompanied by poor reading and phonological awareness. Thirty-eight aging adults were compared to 55 readers with dyslexia and 42 young normal readers on temporal order judgment (TOJ), speech perception, reading, and phonological awareness tests...
July 5, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Lauren S Baron, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Shelley Gray, Kathryn L Cabbage, Samuel Green, Nelson Cowan
Purpose: Orthographic facilitation describes the phenomenon in which a spoken word is produced more accurately when its corresponding written word is present during learning. We examined the orthographic facilitation effect in children with dyslexia because they have poor learning and recall of spoken words. We hypothesized that including orthography during spoken word learning would facilitate learning and recall. Method: Children with dyslexia and children with typical development (n = 46 per group), 7-9 years old, were matched for grade and nonverbal intelligence...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Dazhi Cheng, Qing Xiao, Qian Chen, Jiaxin Cui, Xinlin Zhou
A number of studies have investigated the cognitive deficits underlying dyslexia and dyscalculia. Yet, it remains unclear as to whether dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with the common visual perception deficits. The current investigation analyzed cognitive performance in children with dyslexia, dyscalculia, comorbidity, and typically developing subjects. The results showed that children with dyslexia, dyscalculia and comorbidity exhibited common deficits in numerosity processing and visual perception...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Michelle Luciano, Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Timothy C Bates, Ian J Deary
A number of candidate genes for reading and language impairment have been replicated, primarily in samples of children with developmental disability or delay, although these genes are also supported in adolescent population samples. The present study used a systematic approach to test 14 of these candidate genes for association with reading assessed in late adulthood (two cohorts with mean ages of 70 and 79 years). Gene-sets (14 candidates, axon-guidance and neuron migration pathways) and individual SNPs within each gene of interest were tested for association using imputed data referenced to the 1000 genomes European panel...
June 29, 2018: Behavior Genetics
J Richard Hanley, Andreas Sotiropoulos
The case is reported of an individual (N.K.) with a developmental spelling impairment (dysgraphia) who has no apparent problems in reading. His performance therefore provides further evidence of a classical dissociation between impaired spelling and preserved reading in individuals with developmental literacy problems. The dissociation is observed when N.K. is asked to read and spell in either his first (Greek) or his second language (English). An investigation of his spelling performance revealed that his impairment was more selective than that of P...
June 25, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Saskia Kohnen, Lyndsey Nickels, Leonie Geigis, Max Coltheart, Genevieve McArthur, Anne Castles
Surface dyslexia is characterised by poor reading of irregular words while nonword reading can be completely normal. Previous work has identified several theoretical possibilities for the underlying locus of impairment in surface dyslexia. In this study, we systematically investigated whether children with surface dyslexia showed different patterns of reading performance that could be traced back to different underlying levels of impairment. To do this, we tested 12 English readers, replicating previous work in Hebrew (Gvion & Friedmann, 2013; 2016; Friedmann & Lukov, 2008; Friedmann & Gvion, 2016)...
May 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rebecca Chamberlain, Nicola Brunswick, Joseph Siev, I C McManus
Conflicting empirical and theoretical accounts suggest that dyslexia is associated with either average, enhanced, or impoverished high-level visuospatial processing relative to controls. Such heterogeneous results could be due to the presence of wider variability in dyslexic samples, which is unlikely to be identified at the single study level, due to lack of power. To address this, this study reports a meta-analysis of means and variances in high-level visuospatial ability in 909 non-dyslexic and 956 dyslexic individuals...
June 25, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Carine Michel, Patrick Quercia, Lise Joubert
To better identify the distinctive characteristics of space representation in the radial dimension, we have proposed a new paradigm: the landmarks alignment task where two parallel aluminum bars were radially presented. Children had to move a landmark along one bar and place it at the same location as the reference landmark placed by the examiner on the parallel bar. The major interest of this task was its capacity to assess space representation in the radial dimension when considering a spatial landmark that oriented the subject's attention toward the orthogonal dimension...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Sarah A Raskin
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) has emerged as a form of episodic memory that is frequently impaired in a variety of clinical populations. Neuropsychologists who routinely evaluate these populations are often unaware of the possibility of PM deficits or the impact these deficits may have on everyday functioning. The objective of this special issue is to provide an overview of the nature of prospective deficits in a range of clinical populations, to discuss neuropsychological assessment techniques, and to critically evaluate management strategies...
July 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Shay Menashe
The aim of this study was to gain additional knowledge about the asynchrony phenomenon in developmental dyslexia, especially when spatial selective attention is manipulated. Adults with developmental dyslexia and non-impaired readers underwent two experimental tasks, one including alphabetic stimuli (pre-lexical consonant-vowel syllables) and the other containing non-alphabetic stimuli (pictures and sounds of animals). Participants were instructed to attend to the right or left hemifields and to respond to all stimuli on that hemifield...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
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