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Floriana Costanzo, Serena Rossi, Cristiana Varuzza, Pamela Varvara, Stefano Vicari, Deny Menghini
Noninvasive brain stimulation transiently modulates reading ability in individuals with dyslexia by facilitating the underactive neural pathways in them. However, its long-term effects have not been determined. This study confirmed the ameliorative effects of multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a training for reading on the reading abilities of children and adolescents with dyslexia and examined whether they are long-lasting. Twenty-six children and adolescents with dyslexia received 3 20-minute sessions per week for 6 weeks (18 sessions) of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, set to 1mA, over the parieto-temporal regions, combined with training for reading...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Fabien Cignetti, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Aurelie Fontan, Marianne Jover, Marie-Odile Livet, Catherine Hugonenq, Frédérique Audic, Brigitte Chabrol, Christine Assaiante
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Liv Elisabet Fridriksdottir, Sigridur Gudjonsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca
A group of adult individuals with dyslexia and a matched group of normally reading individuals participated in a driving simulation experiment. Participants were asked to read the word presented on every direction traffic sign encountered along a route, as far as possible from the sign, maintaining driving performance. Word frequency and word length were manipulated as within-subject factors. We analyzed (a) reading accuracy, (b) how far the sign was when the participant started to give the response, (c) where the participant looked during the time leading up to the response, and (d) the variability of the vehicle's speed during that time and during driving on similar segments of the route that did not present the traffic signs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Monicca Leseyane, Peter Mandende, Mary Makgato, Madoda Cekiso
Background: Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa...
2018: African Journal of Disability
Yarden Gliksman, Avishai Henik
OBJECTIVE: People suffering from developmental dyscalculia (DD) are known to have impairment in numerical abilities and have been found to have weaker processing of countable magnitudes. However, not much research was done on their abilities to process noncountable magnitudes. An example of noncountable magnitude is conceptual size (e.g., mouse is small and elephant is big). Recently, we found that adults process conceptual size automatically. The current study examined automatic processing of conceptual size in students with DD and developmental dyslexia...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Randi Starrfelt, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Ricardo F Allegri, Pablo Bagnatti
The first step from the neuropsychology in Argentina was in 1883 with the thesis of Antonio Piñeiro about the brain localization of the language and vision disorders, only few years after Broca. The aim of this work has been to describe the development of the neuropsychology in Argentina and its relation with the psychology, neurology and psychiatry. The first period was into the neurology with its French school in?uence. In 1907, Jose Ingeniero published in French his book about "amusia", Cristofredo Jakob the "folia neurobiologica" where he described the organization of the human brain, Vicente Dimitri in 1933 his book "aphasia" and Bernardo de Quiros in 1959 his works about dyslexia...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Gloria Di Filippo, Pierluigi Zoccolotti
The study examined whether developmental deficits in reading and numerical skills could be expressed in terms of global factors by reference to the rate and amount (RAM) and difference engine (DEM) models. From a sample of 325 fifth grade children, we identified 5 children with dyslexia, 16 with dyscalculia, 7 with a "mixed pattern," and 49 control children. Children were asked to read aloud words presented individually that varied for frequency and length and to respond (either vocally or manually) to a series of simple number tasks (addition, subtraction, number reading, and number comparisons)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Pawan Sharma, Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Manju Mehta
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia is one of the common problems seen in children worldwide. There is high co-morbidity of dyslexia with attentional and behaviour problems which could have familial pattern. This study aims to compare the attentional and behavioural problems in children with dyslexia and their first-degree relatives with controls. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional comparative study with single interview method in an out-patient setting. Formally diagnosed (ICD-10) cases of 30 children with specific reading disorder and 30 healthy matched controls and their first-degree relatives were assessed using scales in a single setting after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 24, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lisa Kronbichler, Martin Kronbichler
Purpose of Review: Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an impaired acquisition of fluent and skilled reading ability. Numerous studies have explored the neural correlates of this neurodevelopmental disorder, with most classic accounts strongly focussing on left temporoparietal regions. We will review recent findings from structural and functional MRI studies that suggest a more important role of occipitotemporal cortex abnormalities in dyslexia. Recent Findings: Recent findings highlight the role of the occipitotemporal cortex which exhibits functional as well as structural abnormalities in dyslexic readers and in children at risk for dyslexia and suggest a more central role for the occipitotemporal cortex in the pathophysiology of dyslexia...
2018: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Eva Kimel, Merav Ahissar
Studies of performance of individuals with dyslexia on perceptual tasks suggest that their implicit inference of sound statistics is impaired. Previously, using two-tone frequency discrimination, we found that the effect of previous trials' frequencies on judgments of individuals with dyslexia decayed faster than the effect on controls' judgments, and that the adaptation (decrease of neural response to repeated stimuli) of their ERP responses to tones was shorter (Jaffe-Dax et al., 2017). Here, we show the cortical distribution of this abnormal dynamics of adaptation using fast acquisition fMRI...
February 28, 2018: ELife
David Moreau, Anna J Wilson, Nicole S McKay, Kasey Nihill, Karen E Waldie
Learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and their comorbid manifestation are prevalent, affecting as much as 15% of the population. Structural neuroimaging studies have indicated that these disorders can be related to differences in white matter integrity, although findings remain disparate. In this study, we used a unique design composed of individuals with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to systematically explore differences in fractional anisotropy across groups using diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Panagiotis G Simos, Jack Μ Fletcher, Andrew C Papanicolaou
Neuroimaging studies have identified a variety of structural and functional connectivity abnormalities in students experiencing reading difficulties. The present study adopted a novel approach to assess the dynamics of resting-state neuromagnetic recordings in the form of symbolic sequences (i.e., repeated patterns of neuromagnetic fluctuations within and/or between sensors). Participants were 25 students experiencing severe reading difficulties (RD) and 27 age-matched non-impaired readers (NI) aged 7-14 years...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Anick Verpalen, Fons Van de Vijver, Ad Backus
We set out to address the adequacy of dyslexia screening in Dutch and non-western immigrant children, using the Dutch Dyslexia Screening Test (DST-NL) and outcomes of the Dutch dyslexia protocol, both of which are susceptible to cultural bias. Using the protocol as standard, we conducted an ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) analysis in Dutch and immigrant third, fifth, and seventh graders, combining a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Sensitivity and specificity increased with grade, but were non-significant for various subtests in the lowest grade, suggesting considerable non-convergence between the two measures...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Bent Müller, Johannes Boltze, Ivonne Czepezauer, Volker Hesse, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten
An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia...
February 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Katherine S Aboud, Laura A Barquero, Laurie E Cutting
A primary challenge facing the development of interventions for dyslexia is identifying effective predictors of intervention response. While behavioral literature has identified core cognitive characteristics of response, the distinction of reading versus executive cognitive contributions to response profiles remains unclear, due in part to the difficulty of segregating these constructs using behavioral outputs. In the current study we used functional neuroimaging to piece apart the mechanisms of how/whether executive and reading network relationships are predictive of intervention response...
February 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Siuman Chung, Christine A Espin, Claire E Stevenson
The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test. Results supported the technical adequacy of maze scores as indicators of reading level and growth. Alternate-form reliability coefficients were significant and intermediate to high...
2018: Reading and Writing
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