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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108497/cortical-thickness-and-local-gyrification-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#1
Victoria J Williams, Jenifer Juranek, Paul Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
Developmental dyslexia is frequently associated with atypical brain structure and function within regions of the left hemisphere reading network. To date, few studies have employed surface-based techniques to evaluate cortical thickness and local gyrification in dyslexia. Of the existing cortical thickness studies in children, many are limited by small sample size, variability in dyslexia identification, and the recruitment of prereaders who may or may not develop reading impairment. Further, no known study has assessed local gyrification index (LGI) in dyslexia, which may serve as a sensitive indicator of atypical neurodevelopment...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106790/contributions-of-letter-speech-sound-learning-and-visual-print-tuning-to-reading-improvement-evidence-from-brain-potential-and-dyslexia-training-studies
#2
REVIEW
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Maurits W van der Molen
We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure...
January 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102620/when-does-speech-sound-disorder-matter-for-literacy-the-role-of-disordered-speech-errors-co-occurring-language-impairment-and-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#3
Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
BACKGROUND: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. METHOD: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090728/exploring-text-and-icon-graph-interpretation-in-students-with-dyslexia-an-eye-tracking-study
#4
Sunjung Kim, Rebecca Wiseheart
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs...
January 16, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089431/adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-show-selective-impairments-in-time-based-and-self-initiated-prospective-memory-self-report-and-clinical-evidence
#5
James H Smith-Spark, Adam P Zięcik, Christopher Sterling
BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) would seem to be impaired in dyslexia but evidence is currently limited in scope. AIMS: There is a need, therefore, firstly, to explore PM under controlled conditions using a broader range of PM tasks than used previously and, secondly, to determine whether objectively measured and self-reported PM problems can be found in the same individuals with dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The responses of 30 adults with dyslexia were compared with those of 30 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia on a self-report and a clinical measure of PM...
January 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079041/ophthalmic-abnormalities-in-children-with-dyslexia-a-look-at-current-research
#6
EDITORIAL
S Karande, A Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074887/association-analysis-of-dyslexia-candidate-genes-in-a-dutch-longitudinal-sample
#7
Amaia Carrion-Castillo, Ben Maassen, Barbara Franke, Angelien Heister, Marlies Naber, Aryan van der Leij, Clyde Francks, Simon E Fisher
Dyslexia is a common specific learning disability with a substantive genetic component. Several candidate genes have been proposed to be implicated in dyslexia susceptibility, such as DYX1C1, ROBO1, KIAA0319, and DCDC2. Associations with variants in these genes have also been reported with a variety of psychometric measures tapping into the underlying processes that might be impaired in dyslexic people. In this study, we first conducted a literature review to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dyslexia candidate genes that had been repeatedly implicated across studies...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070910/formation-of-orthographic-representations-in-spanish-dyslexic-children-the-role-of-syllable-complexity-and-frequency
#8
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Fernando Cuetos
Recent studies have suggested that Spanish children with dyslexia have difficulty storing orthographic representations of new words. But given that the syllable plays an important role in word recognition in Spanish, it is possible that the formation of orthographic representations is influenced by the characteristics of the syllables that make up the words. The objective of this study was to determine whether syllabic frequency and syllabic complexity influence orthographic learning in children with dyslexia...
January 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059865/efferent-vision-therapy
#9
Janet C Rucker, Paul H Phillips
BACKGROUND: Traditional orthoptic therapy used by ophthalmologists, orthoptists, and optometrists is directed at improving visual acuity, ocular alignment, or both. For example, convergence exercises are used to treat convergence insufficiency (CI). However, other forms of "vision therapy" are directed at improving "visual processing and efficiency." The therapeutic regimen often entails repetitive ocular motor tasks performed during multiple office visits with a behavioral optometrist...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056152/a-general-audiovisual-temporal-processing-deficit-in-adult-readers-with-dyslexia
#10
Ana A Francisco, Alexandra Jesse, Margriet A Groen, James M McQueen
Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of audiovisual speech and nonspeech stimuli, their time window of audiovisual integration for speech (using incongruent /aCa/ syllables), and their audiovisual perception of phonetic categories...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045463/neurogenetics-of-developmental-dyslexia-from-genes-to-behavior-through-brain-neuroimaging-and-cognitive-and-sensorial-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
S Mascheretti, A De Luca, V Trezzi, D Peruzzo, A Nordio, C Marino, F Arrigoni
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040133/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-mosaicism-for-a-small-supernumerary-marker-chromosome-derived-from-chromosome-8-or-r-8-p11-22%C3%A2-q11-21-in-an-18-year-old-female-with-short-stature-obesity-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-intellectual-disability
#12
Chih-Ping Chen, Shuan-Pei Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Peih-Shan Wu, Yen-Ni Chen, Shin-Wen Chen, Chien-Wen Yang, Meng-Shan Lee, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 18-year-old female presented with short stature, obesity, developmental delay, speech delay, dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability. Cytogenetic analysis of the peripheral blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar[22]/46,XX[18]. Array comparative genomic hybridization and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the peripheral blood to determine the origin and mosaicism of the sSMC, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction was used to exclude uniparental disomy...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018285/neural-signature-of-dcd-a-critical-review-of-mri-neuroimaging-studies
#13
REVIEW
Maëlle Biotteau, Yves Chaix, Mélody Blais, Jessica Tallet, Patrice Péran, Jean-Michel Albaret
The most common neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., developmental dyslexia (DD), autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) have been the subject of numerous neuroimaging studies, leading to certain brain regions being identified as neural correlates of these conditions, referring to a neural signature of disorders. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), however, remains one of the least understood and studied neurodevelopmental disorders. Given the acknowledged link between motor difficulties and brain features, it is surprising that so few research studies have systematically explored the brains of children with DCD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018276/reading-disability-and-quality-of-life-based-on-both-self-and-parent-reports-importance-of-gender-differences
#14
Judit Balazs, Monika Miklosi, Krisztina T Toro, Diana Nagy-Varga
Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate self- and parent-rated quality of life (QoL) in children with a reading disability (RD) and the impact of comorbid psychopathology, with special focus on age and gender differences. Methods: Using the Dyslexia Differential Diagnosis Maastricht-Hungarian standard test, 127 children (aged < 18) were included in the RD group and 81 in the control group. To measure comorbid psychopathology, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was administered. To evaluate the children's QoL self- and parent-rated versions of the Measure of Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents (ILK) were used...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011436/phonological-abilities-in-literacy-impaired-children-brain-potentials-reveal-deficient-phoneme-discrimination-but-intact-prosodic-processing
#15
Claudia Männel, Gesa Schaadt, Franziska K Illner, Elke van der Meer, Angela D Friederici
Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands...
November 27, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009278/dysfunction-of-rapid-neural-adaptation-in-dyslexia
#16
Tyler K Perrachione, Stephanie N Del Tufo, Rebecca Winter, Jack Murtagh, Abigail Cyr, Patricia Chang, Kelly Halverson, Satrajit S Ghosh, Joanna A Christodoulou, John D E Gabrieli
Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004879/comprehension-and-generation-of-metaphoric-language-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-dyslexia
#17
Anat Kasirer, Nira Mashal
Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity)...
December 22, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990724/audio-visual-speech-in-noise-perception-in-dyslexia
#18
Thijs van Laarhoven, Mirjam Keetels, Lemmy Schakel, Jean Vroomen
Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) may experience, besides reading problems, other speech-related processing deficits. Here, we examined the influence of visual articulatory information (lip-read speech) at various levels of background noise on auditory word recognition in children and adults with DD. We found that children with a documented history of DD have deficits in their ability to gain benefit from lip-read information that disambiguates noise-masked speech. We show with another group of adult individuals with DD that these deficits persist into adulthood...
December 18, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974128/-research-advances-in-susceptible-genes-for-developmental-dyslexia-in-children
#19
Rui Kong, Ran-Ran Song
Developmental dyslexia in children is one of the neurodevelopmental disorders and is affected by various susceptible genes. In recent years, researchers have found some susceptible genes for dyslexia via chromosome analysis, genome-wide association studies, association analysis, gene function research, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological techniques. This article reviews the research advances in susceptible genes for developmental dyslexia, and with the study on susceptible genes for dyslexia, it lays a foundation for in-depth studies on the "gene-brain-behavior" level and provides scientific clues for exploring etiology and pathogenesis of dyslexia...
December 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968731/advances-in-dyslexia-genetics-new-insights-into-the-role-of-brain-asymmetries
#20
S Paracchini, R Diaz, J Stein
Dyslexia is a common condition affecting up to 10% school-aged children. There is strong evidence that genetics plays an important role in dyslexia and is expected to be complex in nature. Few specific susceptibility factors have been identified so far, but their functional characterization has provided novel insights into the biology of dyslexia. In particular, they point to an unexpected role of candidate genes for dyslexia in the biology of cilia, cellular organelles required in many processes including the establishment of left-right asymmetries early in development...
2016: Advances in Genetics
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