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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356010/a-life-in-academia-my-career-in-brief
#1
Kenneth Hugdahl
In this article I have summarized some of the main trends and topics of my research career, spanning a time period of 50 years, from its start as a master student at the Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Sweden to seeing the end of a long career, now at the University of Bergen, Norway. This journey has, apart from having been a journey across various disciplines and topics in experimental psychology, psychophysiology and neuropsychology, functional neuroimaging and cognitive neuroscience, also been a social class journey for me personally...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352968/children-with-dyslexia-show-a-reduced-processing-benefit-from-bimodal-speech-information-compared-to-their-typically-developing-peers
#2
Gesa Schaadt, Elke van der Meer, Ann Pannekamp, Regine Oberecker, Claudia Männel
During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i...
January 15, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346032/pathways-into-literacy-the-role-of-early-oral-language-abilities-and-family-risk-for-dyslexia
#3
Sietske van Viersen, Elise H de Bree, Marjolein Zee, Ben Maassen, Aryan van der Leij, Peter F de Jong
The present study investigated the role of early oral language and family risk for dyslexia in the two developmental pathways toward reading comprehension, through word reading and through oral language abilities. The sample contained 237 children (164 at family risk for dyslexia) from the Dutch Dyslexia Program. Longitudinal data were obtained on seven occasions when children were between 4 and 12 years old. The relationship between early oral language ability and reading comprehension at the age of 12 years was mediated by preliteracy skills and word-decoding ability for the first pathway and by later language abilities for the second pathway...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335274/doctors-from-overseas-are-missing-out-on-dyslexia-screening-researchers-find
#4
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330347/performance-of-candidates-disclosing-dyslexia-with-other-candidates-in-a-uk-medical-licensing-examination-cross-sectional-study
#5
Zahid B Asghar, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, Chris Elfes, Jo Richardson, James Larcombe, Katherine A Neden, Amer Salim, David Smalley, Carol Blow
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare performance of candidates who declared an expert-confirmed diagnosis of dyslexia with all other candidates in the Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) of the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners licensing examination. STUDY DESIGN: We used routinely collected data from candidates who took the AKT on one or more occasions between 2010 and 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse performance of candidates who declared dyslexia with all other candidates, adjusting for candidate characteristics known to be associated with examination success including age, sex, ethnicity, country of primary medical qualification, stage of training, number of attempts and time spent completing the test...
January 12, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323179/neither-action-nor-phonological-video-games-make-dyslexic-children-read-better
#6
Magdalena Łuniewska, Katarzyna Chyl, Agnieszka Dębska, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Joanna Plewko, Marcin Szczerbiński, Jakub Szewczyk, Anna Grabowska, Katarzyna Jednoróg
The prevalence and long-term consequences of dyslexia make it crucial to look for effective and efficient ways of its therapy. Action video games (AVG) were implied as a possible remedy for difficulties in reading in Italian and English-speaking children. However, the studies examining the effectiveness of AVG application in dyslexia suffered from significant methodological weaknesses such as small sample sizes and lack of a control group with no intervention. In our study, we tested how two forms of training: based on AVG and on phonological non-action video games (PNAVG), affect reading in a group of fifty-four Polish children with dyslexia...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321232/hypermyelination-of-the-left-auditory-cortex-in-developmental-dyslexia
#7
Michael A Skeide, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Robert Trampel, Andreas Schäfer, Claudia Männel, Katharina von Kriegstein, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Cortical malformations are documented postmortem in speech processing areas of the dyslexic human brain. The goal of this pilot study was to find out if such anatomic anomalies can be detected noninvasively and in vivo. METHODS: We developed a reconstruction of left perisylvian cortex profiles at a resolution of 400 μm using T1 data acquired with ultra-high-field MRI at 7T. Cortical thickness, myelinated cortical thickness, and layer-wise myelination were then compared in 6 men with developmental dyslexia and 6 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, education level, and nonverbal IQ...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316015/tracking-the-effects-of-dyslexia-in-reading-and-spelling-development-a-longitudinal-study-of-greek-readers
#8
Vassiliki Diamanti, Nata Goulandris, Morag Stuart, Ruth Campbell, Athanassios Protopapas
In this study, we followed Greek children with and without dyslexia for 18 months, assessing them twice on a battery of phonological, reading, and spelling tasks, aiming to document the relative progress achieved and to uncover any specific effects of dyslexia in the development of reading and spelling beyond the longitudinal associations among variables that are observed in typical readers. A wide-ranging match was achieved between the dyslexic group and the younger reading-matched comparison group, enabling longitudinal comparisons on essentially identical initial performance profiles...
January 5, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304447/dyslexia-as-a-multi-deficit-disorder-working-memory-and-auditory-temporal-processing
#9
Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301650/exploring-the-disclosure-decisions-made-by-physiotherapists-with-a-specific-learning-difficulty
#10
G Yeowell, J Rooney, P C Goodwin
OBJECTIVES: To explore the disclosure decisions made in the workplace by physiotherapy staff with a specific learning difficulty (SpLD). DESIGN & SETTING: An exploratory qualitative design was used, which was informed by the social model of disability. The research was undertaken in North West England. It is presented according to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of eight physiotherapists recognised as having a SpLD were recruited...
October 27, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288270/unstable-binocular-fixation-affects-reaction-times-but-not-implicit-motor-learning-in-dyslexia
#11
Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Alicja Brenk-Krakowska, Pawel Nawrot, Patrycja Rusiak, Ryszard Naskrecki
Purpose: Individuals with developmental dyslexia suffer not only from reading problems as more general motor deficits can also be observed in this patient group. Both psychometric clinical tests and objective eyetracking methods suggest that unstable binocular fixation may contribute to reading problems. Because binocular instability may cause poor eye-hand coordination and impair motor control, the primary aim of this study was to explore in dyslexic subjects the influence of unstable binocular fixation on reaction times (RTs) and implicit motor learning (IML), which is one of the fundamental cerebellar functions...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276529/neurobiological-bases-of-reading-disorder-part-ii-the-importance-of-developmental-considerations-in-typical-and-atypical-reading
#12
Jessica M Black, Zhichao Xia, Fumiko Hoeft
Decoding-based reading disorder (RD; aka developmental dyslexia) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5-10% of school-aged children across languages. Even though neuroimaging studies suggest an impairment of the left reading network in RD, the onset of this deficit and its developmental course, which may include constancy and change, is largely unknown. There is now growing evidence that the recruitment of brain networks underlying perceptual, cognitive and linguistic processes relevant to reading acquisition varies with age...
October 2017: Language and Linguistics Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#13
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256162/comparing-the-effect-of-thinking-maps-training-package-developed-by-the-thinking-maps-method-on-the-reading-performance-of-dyslexic-students
#14
Salar Faramarzi, Mohammadreza Moradi, Ahmad Abedi
The present study aimed to develop the thinking maps training package and compare its training effect with the thinking maps method on the reading performance of second and fifth grade of elementary school male dyslexic students. For this mixed method exploratory study, from among the above mentioned grades' students in Isfahan, 90 students who met the inclusion criteria were selected by multistage sampling and randomly assigned into six experimental and control groups. The data were collected by reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth edition...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253247/atypical-structural-asymmetry-of-the-planum-temporale-is-related-to-family-history-of-dyslexia
#15
Jolijn Vanderauwera, Irene Altarelli, Maaike Vandermosten, Astrid De Vos, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
Research on the neural correlates of developmental dyslexia indicates atypical anatomical lateralization of the planum temporale, a higher-order cortical auditory region. Yet whether this atypical lateralization precedes reading acquisition and is related to a familial risk for dyslexia is not currently known. In this study, we address these questions in 2 separate cohorts of young children and adolescents with and without a familial risk for dyslexia. Planum temporale surface area was manually labeled bilaterally, on the T1-weighted MR brain images of 54 pre-readers (mean age: 6...
January 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249911/lexical-reading-in-dysfluent-readers-of-german
#16
Melanie Gangl, Kristina Moll, Manon W Jones, Chiara Banfi, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Karin Landerl
Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading style in an eye-tracking paradigm with German dysfluent 3rd and 4th graders. Twenty-six TypFix-readers (fixation counts within the range of 47 age-matched typical readers) were compared with 42 HighFix-readers (increased fixation counts)...
2018: Scientific Studies of Reading
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240020/association-study-of-fgf18-with-developmental-dyslexia-in-chinese-population
#17
Huan Chen, Yuxi Zhou, Zeng Ge, Qian Li, Qinsheng Sun, Liyuan Zheng, Hong Lv, Li-Hai Tan, Yimin Sun
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurobiological disorder featured by reading disabilities. In recent years, genome-wide approaches provided new perspectives to discover novel candidate genes of DD. In a previous study, rs9313548 located downstream of FGF18 showed borderline genome-wide significant association with DD. Herein, we selected rs9313548 and 11 independent tag single nucleotide polymorphisms covering gene region of FGF18 to perform association analysis with DD among 978 Chinese dyslexic cases and 998 controls recruited from elementary schools...
December 12, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235188/evaluation-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-norwegian-screening-test-for-dyslexia
#18
Trude Nergård-Nilssen, Kenneth Eklund
The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of a screening protocol for Norwegian students in upper secondary school. The protocol was designed to assess skills that are at stake in dyslexia. It was administered to 232 students. In the absence of a "gold standard," comparisons were made between students who reported normal literacy skills (n = 184) and literacy problems (n = 48). Significant group differences were found across all areas. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated good discriminatory power...
December 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234050/a-different-vision-of-dyslexia-local-precedence-on-global-perception
#19
Sandro Franceschini, Sara Bertoni, Tiziana Gianesini, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Individuals perceive the wor(l)d hierarchically. Firsty, the global visual scene is processed by the right hemisphere, and later, the local features are perceived by the left hemisphere. Based on this hierarchical analysis, humans evolved unique communication ability: reading. However, for about 10% of people reading acquisition is extremely difficult, they are affected by a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia. Differences in perceiving the wor(l)d might be one of the causes of reading disabilities...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232042/evaluation-of-visual-motion-perception-ability-in-mice-with-knockout-of-the-dyslexia-candidate-susceptibility-gene-dcdc2
#20
Amanda R Rendall, Peter A Perrino, Joseph J LoTurco, R Holly Fitch
Developmental dyslexia is a heritable disability characterized by difficulties in learning to read and write that cannot be explained by comorbid factors such as intellectual impairment, lack of educational opportunity, or other neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy or primary sensory impairments (blindness, deafness)). Dyslexia is considered a common neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting 5%-12% of the population (Lyon, Shaywitz & Shaywitz, 2003; Peterson & Pennington, 2012). It is also a highly heterogeneous disorder, with varied intermediate phenotypes, that include visual and cross-modal integration deficits...
December 12, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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