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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223953/predicting-future-reading-problems-based-on-pre-reading-auditory-measures-a-longitudinal-study-of-children-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#1
Jeremy M Law, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
Purpose: This longitudinal study examines measures of temporal auditory processing in pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia. Specifically, it attempts to ascertain whether pre-reading auditory processing, speech perception, and phonological awareness (PA) reliably predict later literacy achievement. Additionally, this study retrospectively examines the presence of pre-reading auditory processing, speech perception, and PA impairments in children later found to be literacy impaired. Method: Forty-four pre-reading children with and without a family risk of dyslexia were assessed at three time points (kindergarten, first, and second grade)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#2
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182973/dyslexia-risk-gene-relates-to-representation-of-sound-in-the-auditory-brainstem
#3
Nicole E Neef, Bent Müller, Johanna Liebig, Gesa Schaadt, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas C Gunter, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Michael A Skeide, Indra Kraft, Nina Kraus, Frank Emmrich, Jens Brauer, Johannes Boltze, Angela D Friederici
Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children...
January 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179817/the-placenta-and-neurodevelopment-sex-differences-in-prenatal-vulnerability
#4
Tracy L Bale
Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177182/morpheme-based-reading-and-spelling-in-italian-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-and-dysorthography
#5
Paola Angelelli, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Marinella De Salvatore, Cristina Burani
Italian sixth graders, with and without dyslexia, read pseudowords and low-frequency words that include high-frequency morphemes better than stimuli not including any morpheme. The present study assessed whether morphemes affect (1) younger children, with and without dyslexia; (2) spelling as well as reading; and (3) words with low-frequency morphemes. Two groups of third graders (16 children with dyslexia and dysorthography and 16 age-matched typically developing children) read aloud and spelt to dictation pseudowords and words...
February 8, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176347/explaining-the-sex-difference-in-dyslexia
#6
Anne B Arnett, Bruce F Pennington, Robin L Peterson, Erik G Willcutt, John C DeFries, Richard K Olson
BACKGROUND: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. METHODS: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates. We developed an analytic framework that can be applied to group differences in any psychiatric disorder. RESULTS: Males' overrepresentation in the low performance tail of the reading distribution was accounted for by mean and variance differences across sex...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165169/english-as-a-foreign-language-in-bilingual-language-minority-children-children-with-dyslexia-and-monolingual-typical-readers
#7
Paola Bonifacci, Elisa Canducci, Giulia Gravagna, Paola Palladino
The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades)...
February 6, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150963/a-specific-implicit-sequence-learning-deficit-as-an-underlying-cause-of-dyslexia-investigating-the-role-of-attention-in-implicit-learning-tasks
#8
Eva Staels, Wim Van den Broeck
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a general implicit sequence learning deficit was proposed as an underlying cause of dyslexia. This new hypothesis was investigated in the present study by including a number of methodological improvements, for example, the inclusion of appropriate control conditions. The second goal of the study was to explore the role of attentional functioning in implicit and explicit learning tasks. METHOD: In a 2 × 2 within-subjects design 4 tasks were administered in 30 dyslexic and 38 control children: an implicit and explicit serial reaction time (RT) task and an implicit and explicit contextual cueing task...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134569/arithmetic-abilities-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#9
Maryse De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Séverine Casalis, Bruno Vilette, Marie-Pierre Lemaitre, Louis Vallée
A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133634/idea-units-in-notes-and-summaries-for-read-texts-by-keyboard-and-pencil-in-middle-childhood-students-with-specific-learning-disabilities-cognitive-and-brain-findings
#10
Todd Richards, Stephen Peverly, Amie Wolf, Robert Abbott, Steven Tanimoto, Rob Thompson, William Nagy, Virginia Berninger
Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate)...
September 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131533/auditory-brainstem-responses-to-stop-consonants-predict-literacy
#11
Nicole E Neef, Gesa Schaadt, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Precise temporal coding of speech plays a pivotal role in sound processing throughout the central auditory system, which, in turn, influences literacy acquisition. The current study tests whether an electrophysiological measure of this precision predicts literacy skills. METHODS: Complex auditory brainstem responses were analysed from 62 native German-speaking children aged 11-13years. We employed the cross-phaseogram approach to compute the quality of the electrophysiological stimulus contrast [da] and [ba]...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125008/primary-cilia-as-a-possible-link-between-left-right-asymmetry-and-neurodevelopmental-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Andrey Trulioff, Alexander Ermakov, Yegor Malashichev
Cilia have multiple functions in the development of the entire organism, and participate in the development and functioning of the central nervous system. In the last decade, studies have shown that they are implicated in the development of the visceral left-right asymmetry in different vertebrates. At the same time, some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and dyslexia, are known to be associated with lateralization failure. In this review, we consider possible links in the mechanisms of determination of visceral asymmetry and brain lateralization, through cilia...
January 25, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124462/spelling-and-morphology-in-dyslexia-a-developmental-study-across-the-school-years
#13
Rachel Schiff, Ronit Levie
The current study examined the effect of morphological knowledge on spelling development in Hebrew-speaking schoolchildren, adolescents and adults with dyslexia, compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 238 Hebrew-speaking readers of five grade levels of whom 139 were TD and 99 had developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants were tested on a function letter spelling task, a phonological awareness task and a morphological awareness task. The overall picture that emerged from the results is that performance on all measures increased with grade level, with TD participants always scoring higher than peers with DD...
January 25, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115055/dyslexics-faster-decay-of-implicit-memory-for-sounds-and-words-is-manifested-in-their-shorter-neural-adaptation
#14
Sagi Jaffe-Dax, Or Frenkel, Merav Ahissar
Dyslexia is a prevalent reading disability whose underlying mechanisms are still disputed. We studied the neural mechanisms underlying dyslexia using a simple frequency-discrimination task. Though participants were asked to compare the two tones in each trial, implicit memory of previous trials affected their responses. We hypothesized that implicit memory decays faster among dyslexics. We tested this by increasing the temporal intervals between consecutive trials, and by measuring the behavioral impact and ERP responses from the auditory cortex...
January 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114605/auditory-stimulus-processing-and-task-learning-are-adequate-in-dyslexia-but-benefits-from-regularities-are-reduced
#15
Luba Daikhin, Ofri Raviv, Merav Ahissar
Purpose: The reading deficit for people with dyslexia is typically associated with linguistic, memory, and perceptual-discrimination difficulties, whose relation to reading impairment is disputed. We proposed that automatic detection and usage of serial sound regularities for individuals with dyslexia is impaired (anchoring deficit hypothesis), leading to the formation of less reliable sound predictions. Agus, Carrión-Castillo, Pressnitzer, and Ramus, (2014) reported seemingly contradictory evidence by showing similar performance by participants with and without dyslexia in a demanding auditory task that contained task-relevant regularities...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114592/visual-perception-and-reading-new-clues-to-patterns-of-dysfunction-across-multiple-visual-channels-in-developmental-dyslexia
#16
Ana Pina Rodrigues, José Rebola, Helena Jorge, Maria José Ribeiro, Marcelino Pereira, Marieke van Asselen, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Purpose: The specificity of visual channel impairment in dyslexia has been the subject of much controversy. The purpose of this study was to determine if a differential pattern of impairment can be verified between visual channels in children with developmental dyslexia, and in particular, if the pattern of deficits is more conspicuous in tasks where the magnocellular-dorsal system recruitment prevails. Additionally, we also aimed at investigating the association between visual perception thresholds and reading...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108497/cortical-thickness-and-local-gyrification-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#17
Victoria J Williams, Jenifer Juranek, Paul Cirino, Jack M Fletcher
Developmental dyslexia is frequently associated with atypical brain structure and function within regions of the left hemisphere reading network. To date, few studies have employed surface-based techniques to evaluate cortical thickness and local gyrification in dyslexia. Of the existing cortical thickness studies in children, many are limited by small sample size, variability in dyslexia identification, and the recruitment of prereaders who may or may not develop reading impairment. Further, no known study has assessed local gyrification index (LGI) in dyslexia, which may serve as a sensitive indicator of atypical neurodevelopment...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106790/contributions-of-letter-speech-sound-learning-and-visual-print-tuning-to-reading-improvement-evidence-from-brain-potential-and-dyslexia-training-studies
#18
REVIEW
Gorka Fraga González, Gojko Žarić, Jurgen Tijms, Milene Bonte, Maurits W van der Molen
We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure...
January 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102620/when-does-speech-sound-disorder-matter-for-literacy-the-role-of-disordered-speech-errors-co-occurring-language-impairment-and-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#19
Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
BACKGROUND: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. METHOD: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090728/exploring-text-and-icon-graph-interpretation-in-students-with-dyslexia-an-eye-tracking-study
#20
Sunjung Kim, Rebecca Wiseheart
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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