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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145402/specific-effects-of-working-memory-training-on-the-reading-skills-of-chinese-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#1
Juanhua Yang, Jun Peng, Dake Zhang, Liling Zheng, Lei Mo
Most research on working memory (WM) training for children with developmental dyslexia (DD) has focused on western alphabetical languages. Moreover, most of these studies used a combination of training tasks targeting a variety of WM components, making it difficult to determine whether WM training generates a general improvement in overall reading, or improves specific cognitive skills corresponding to the WM components that are targeted in training. We tested the general and specific effects of WM training on the reading skills of 45 Chinese children with DD, grades 3 to 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134485/length-effects-in-pseudo-word-spelling-stronger-in-dyslexic-than-in-non-dyslexic-students
#2
Holger Juul, Dorthe Klint Petersen
It is often discussed whether dyslexics show a deviant pattern of reading and spelling development when compared to typically developing students, or whether they follow the same pattern as other students, only at markedly slower rate. The present cross-sectional study investigated phonological encoding skills in dyslexic Danish students. We compared dyslexic and non-dyslexic students from grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 and examined whether effects of item length were stronger in the dyslexic groups. Mixed between-within subjects analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between dyslexia status and item length as the dyslexics at all grade levels were more affected by item length than their non-dyslexic peers...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134484/the-role-of-feedback-in-implicit-and-explicit-artificial-grammar-learning-a-comparison-between-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-adults
#3
Rachel Schiff, Ayelet Sasson, Galit Star, Shani Kahta
The importance of feedback for learning has been firmly established over the past few decades. The question of whether feedback plays a significant role in the statistical learning abilities of adults with dyslexia, however, is currently unresolved. Here, we examined the role of feedback in grammaticality judgment, type of structural knowledge, and confidence rating in both typically developed and dyslexic adults. We implemented two artificial grammar learning experiments: implicit and explicit. The second experiment was directly analogous to the first experiment in all respects except training format: the standard memorization instruction was replaced with an explicit rule-search instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134483/evaluating-the-impact-of-dyslexia-laws-on-the-identification-of-specific-learning-disability-and-dyslexia
#4
B Anne Barber Phillips, Timothy N Odegard
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that impacts word reading accuracy and/or reading fluency. Over half of the states in the USA have passed legislation intended to promote better identification of individuals with dyslexia. To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the potential impact of state laws on the identification of specific learning disability (SLD), and limited data has been presented on the rate at which students in public school settings are identified with dyslexia. The first aim of the current study was to determine if any detectable changes in the identification rates of SLD have occurred in states implementing dyslexia laws because most states do not report number of students identified as dyslexic but rather those students identified with an SLD...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134481/inflectional-morphology-and-dyslexia-italian-children-s-performance-in-a-nonword-pluralization-task
#5
Maria Vender, Federica Mantione, Silvia Savazzi, Denis Delfitto, Chiara Melloni
In this study, we present the results of an original experimental protocol designed to assess the performance in a pluralization task of 52 Italian children divided into two groups: 24 children with developmental dyslexia (mean age 10.0 years old) and 28 typically developing children (mean age 9.11 years old). Our task, inspired by Berko's Wug Test, had the aim of testing the subjects' ability to apply pluralization rules to nonwords in the morphologically complex context of Italian nominal inflection. Results demonstrate that dyslexics display poorer morphological skills in comparison to controls, showing lower accuracy in the task...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#6
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134479/take-flight-the-evolution-of-an-orton-gillingham-based-curriculum
#7
Jeremiah J Ring, Karen J Avrit, Jeffrey L Black
Thirty years ago in this journal, Aylett Royall Cox reported on the development of Alphabetic Phonics, a revision of the existing Orton Gillingham treatment for children with dyslexia. This paper continues that discussion and reports on the evolution of that curriculum as it is represented in a comprehensive dyslexia treatment program informed by intervention research. The paper describes the curriculum and reports data from a hospital-based learning disabilities clinic that provides qualified support for treatment efficacy and the value of added comprehension instruction...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122203/accident-ahead-difficulties-of-drivers-with-and-without-reading-impairment-recognising-words-and-pictograms-in-variable-message-signs
#8
J Roca, P Tejero, B Insa
A timely and accurate acquisition of the information provided by variable message signs (VMS) can be crucial while driving. In the current study, we assess the difficulties of adults with dyslexia acquiring the information shown in VMS and provide evidence to discuss the controversial use of pictograms as potential countermeasures. Twenty-two adults with dyslexia and 22 matched controls completed a simulated driving session. The legibility of 12 VMS was assessed, including six text messages (e.g. "ACCIDENT") and six single pictograms (e...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121855/saccade-adaptation-deficits-in-developmental-dyslexia-suggest-disruption-of-cerebellar-dependent-learning
#9
Edward G Freedman, Sophie Molholm, Michael J Gray, Daniel Belyusar, John J Foxe
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the prevalence of developmental dyslexia in the general population range from 5% to as many as 10%. Symptoms include reading, writing, and language deficits, but the severity and mix of symptoms can vary widely across individuals. In at least some people with dyslexia, the structure and function of the cerebellum may be disordered. Saccadic adaptation requires proper function of the cerebellum and brainstem circuitry and might provide a simple, noninvasive assay for early identification and sub-phenotyping in populations of children who may have dyslexia...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121046/holistic-word-processing-in-dyslexia
#10
Aisling Conway, Nuala Brady, Karuna Misra
People with dyslexia have difficulty learning to read and many lack fluent word recognition as adults. In a novel task that borrows elements of the 'word superiority' and 'word inversion' paradigms, we investigate whether holistic word recognition is impaired in dyslexia. In Experiment 1 students with dyslexia and controls judged the similarity of pairs of 6- and 7-letter words or pairs of words whose letters had been partially jumbled. The stimuli were presented in both upright and inverted form with orthographic regularity and orientation randomized from trial to trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109424/enhancing-reading-performance-through-action-video-games-the-role-of-visual-attention-span
#11
A Antzaka, M Lallier, S Meyer, J Diard, M Carreiras, S Valdois
Recent studies reported that Action Video Game-AVG training improves not only certain attentional components, but also reading fluency in children with dyslexia. We aimed to investigate the shared attentional components of AVG playing and reading, by studying whether the Visual Attention (VA) span, a component of visual attention that has previously been linked to both reading development and dyslexia, is improved in frequent players of AVGs. Thirty-six French fluent adult readers, matched on chronological age and text reading proficiency, composed two groups: frequent AVG players and non-players...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107746/how-many-deficits-in-the-same-dyslexic-brains-a-behavioural-and-fmri-assessment-of-comorbidity-in-adult-dyslexics
#12
Laura Danelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Gabriella Bottini, Nunzio A Borghese, Mirko Lucchese, Maurizio Sberna, Cathy J Price, Eraldo Paulesu
Dyslexia can have different manifestations: this has motivated different theories on its nature, on its underlying brain bases and enduring controversies on how to best treat it. The relative weight of the different manifestations has never been evaluated using both behavioural and fMRI measures, a challenge taken here to assess the major systems called into play in dyslexia by different theories. We found that adult well-compensated dyslexics were systematically impaired only in reading and in visuo-phonological tasks, while deficits for other systems (e...
September 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102664/atypical-callosal-morphology-in-children-with-speech-sound-disorder
#13
Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Lauren Pigdon, Gina Conti-Ramsden, Sheena Reilly, Angela T Morgan
Speech sound disorder (SSD) is common, yet its neurobiology is poorly understood. Recent studies indicate atypical structural and functional anomalies either in one hemisphere or both hemispheres, which might be accompanied by alterations in inter-hemispheric connectivity. Indeed, abnormalities of the corpus callosum - the main fiber tract connecting the two hemispheres - have been linked to speech and language deficits in associated disorders, such as stuttering, dyslexia, aphasia, etc. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the corpus callosum in SSD...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098513/familial-history-of-reading-difficulty-is-associated-with-diffused-bilateral-brain-activation-during-reading-and-greater-association-with-visual-attention-abilities
#14
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
Reading difficulty (RD; or dyslexia) is a heritable condition characterized by slow, inaccurate reading accompanied by executive dysfunction, specifically with respect to visual attention. The current study was designed to examine the effect of familial history of RD on the relationship between reading and visual attention abilities in children with RD using a functional MRI reading task. Seventy-one children with RD participated in the study. Based on parental reports of the existence of RD in one or both of each child's parents, children with RD were divided into two groups: (1) those with a familial history of RD and (2) those without a familial history of RD...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093537/perceptual-integration-and-attention-in-human-extrastriate-cortex
#15
Francesca Strappini, Gaspare Galati, Marialuisa Martelli, Enrico Di Pace, Sabrina Pitzalis
Visual crowding is a perceptual phenomenon with far-reaching implications in both perceptual (e.g., object recognition and reading) and clinical (e.g., developmental dyslexia and visual agnosia) domains. Here, we combined event-related fMRI measurements and wide-field brain mapping methods to investigate whether the BOLD response evoked by visual crowding is modulated by different attentional conditions. Participants underwent two sessions of psychophysical training outside the scanner, and then fMRI BOLD activity was measured simultaneously in early visual areas (including the visual word form area, VWFA), while they viewed strongly-crowded and weakly-crowded Gabor patches in attended and unattended conditions...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081827/study-of-genetic-association-with-dcdc2-and-developmental-dyslexia-in-hong-kong-chinese-children
#16
Mary M Y Waye, Lim K Poo, Connie S-H Ho
BACKGROUND: Doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2) is a doublecortin domain-containing gene family member and the doublecortin domain has been demonstrated to bind to tubulin and enhance microtubule polymerization. It has been associated with developmental dyslexia and this protein family member is thought to function in neuronal migration where it may affect the signaling of primary cilia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to find out if there is any association of genetic variants of DCDC2 with developmental dyslexia in Chinese children from Hong Kong...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072042/active-exergames-to-improve-cognitive-functioning-in-neurological-disabilities-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Gioia Mura, Mauro G Carta, Federica Sancassiani, Sergio Machado, Luca Prosperini
INTRODUCTION: Exergames represent a way to perform physical activity through active video games, serving as potentially useful tool in the field of neurorehabilitation. However, little is known regarding the possible role of exergames in improving cognitive functions in persons suffering from neurological disabilities. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search for relevant articles was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus, PEDro, and Google Scholar. Only randomized controlled studies and non-randomized but controlled studies were retained...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068706/genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-developmental-dyslexia-in-children-systematic-review-of-the-last-decade
#18
Natalia Becker, Mailton Vasconcelos, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Caroline Dos Santos, Lisiane Bizarro, Rosa M M De Almeida, Jerusa Fumagalli De Salles, Maria Raquel Santos Carvalho
Despite advances in the characterization of developmental dyslexia (DD), several questions regarding the interplay between DD-susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors remain open. This systematic review aimed at answering the following questions: What has been the impact of new resources on the knowledge about DD? Which questions remain open? What is the investigative agenda for the short term? Forty-six studies were analyzed. Despite the growing literature on DD candidate genes, most studies have not been replicated...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066855/the-role-of-read1-and-kiaa0319-genetic-variations-in-developmental-dyslexia-testing-main-and-interactive-effects
#19
Vittoria Trezzi, Diego Forni, Roberto Giorda, Marco Villa, Massimo Molteni, Cecilia Marino, Sara Mascheretti
Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex heritable condition characterized by impaired reading abilities. Two well-replicated candidate risk factors are as follows: (1) regulatory element associated with dyslexia 1 (READ1), which is located in intron 2 of DCDC2 and acts as a binding site for protein regulation of DCDC2 expression; and (2) a three-single-nucleotide polymorphism risk haplotype spanning KIAA0319. Phylogenetically similar READ1 variants showed synergistic effects with the KIAA0319 risk haplotype on reading-related phenotypes in a general population sample...
November 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062600/l1-and-l2-reading-skills-in-dutch-adolescents-with-a-familial-risk-of-dyslexia
#20
Ellie R H van Setten, Wim Tops, Britt E Hakvoort, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M Maurits, Ben A M Maassen
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated differences in reading and spelling outcomes in Dutch and English as a second language (ESL) in adolescents with a high familial risk of dyslexia, of whom some have developed dyslexia (HRDys) while others have not (HRnonDys), in comparison to a low familial risk control group without dyslexia (LRnonDys). This allowed us to investigate the persistence of dyslexia in the first language (L1) and the effect of dyslexia on the second language (L2), which has, in this case, a lower orthographic transparency...
2017: PeerJ
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