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Single bead

Janani Sampath, Lisa M Hall
We simulate a single spherical nanoparticle (NP) surrounded by partially neutralized ionomers. The coarse-grained ionomers consist of a linear backbone of neutral monomer beads with charged pendant beads and counterions, along with pendant 'sticker' beads that represent unneutralized acid groups. Two different NP interactions are considered; one in which the NP interacts uniformly with all beads in the system (neutral NP) and another in which the NP has higher cohesive interactions with ions and stickers (sticky NP)...
May 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Mark J Bluth, Martin H Bluth
Molecular pathology techniques continue to evolve. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) remains the cornerstone methodology for nucleic acid amplification, improvements in nucleic acid detection methodologies (i.e. PCR) have increased the detection sensitivity by using fluorescent and bead based array technologies. Single base pair lesions can be detected via sequencing and related techniques to discern point mutations in disease pathogenesis. Novel technologies, such as high- resolution melting analysis, provide fast high throughput post PCR analysis of genetic mutations or variance in nucleic acid sequences...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Brian Moths, T A Witten
Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Fabio C Zegarra, Dirar Homouz, Yossi Eliaz, Andrei G Gasic, Margaret S Cheung
We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α/β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β-barrel α-spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Yang Chen, Jine Wang, Yajie Zhang, Lijun Xu, Tian Gao, Bing Wang, Renjun Pei
Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA, which can be selected in vitro by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). In order to develop novel light-up probes to substitute G-quadruplex (G4), we selected a DNA aptamer for crystal violet (CV), a triphenylmethane light-up dye, by a modified affinity chromatography-based SELEX. The ssDNA pool was first coupled on streptavidin-coated agarose beads through a biotin labeled complementary oligonucleotide, and then the aptamer sequences would be released from agarose beads by CV affinity...
May 17, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Matthew J Everly, Mustimbo Roberts, Robert Townsend, Robert A Bray, Howard M Gebel
Preventing conversion of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) from an IgM-to-IgG could a way to prevent chronic rejection. We evaluated whether belatacept-treated patients [belatacept less-intensive (LI) more-intensive (MI) regimens] have a lower rate of conversion than cyclosporine A (CsA) treated patients. We included 330 HLA mismatched patients from two phase-3 trials with either (a) complete donor/recipient HLA-A,-B,-DR, and -DQ loci typing or (b) incomplete HLA typing with IgG DSA detected pre- or post-transplant...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Jorge Malheiro, Sofia Santos, Sandra Tafulo, Leonídio Dias, La Salete Martins, Isabel Fonseca, Manuela Almeida, Sofia Pedroso, Idalina Beirão, António Castro-Henriques, António Cabrita
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) remains associated with reduced kidney graft survival and no clear prognostic marker is available. METHODS: We investigated whether donor-specific antibodies (DSA) ability to bind C1q in comparison with ABMR C4d status, both indirect signs of complement activation, improve risk stratification at time of ABMR. Hence, among 467 patients in whom ≥1 graft biopsy was performed between 2008 and 2015, we included 56 with ABMR according to Banff'15 criteria...
May 3, 2018: Transplantation
Zetty Azalea Sutirman, Mohd Marsin Sanagi, Khairil Juhanni Abd Karim, Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim, Binta Hadi Jume
In this study, the Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions removal behavior of crosslinked chitosan beads grafted poly(methacrylamide) (abbreviated as crosslinked chitosan-g-PMAm) from single metal ion solutions was investigated. The modified chitosan beads presented a remarkable improvement in acid resistance. The batch experiments demonstrated that pH of solution played a significant role in adsorption. It was found that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Cd(II) were optimum at pH 4 and pH 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities for Cu(II) and Cd(II) based on Langmuir equation were 140...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eloy Povedano, Alejandro Valverde, Víctor Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, María Pedrero, Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño, Rodrigo Barderas, Pablo San Segundo-Acosta, Alberto Peláez-García, Marta Mendiola, David Hardisson, Susana Campuzano, José Manuel Pingarron
We report a rapid and sensitive electrochemical strategy for the detection of gene-specific 5-methylcytosine DNA methylation. Magnetic beads (MBs) modified with an antibody specific for 5-methylcytosines (5-mC) are employed for the selective capture of any 5-mC methylated single-stranded (ss)DNA sequence. A flanking region next to the 5-mCs of the captured methylated ssDNA is recognized by selective hybridization with a synthetic biotinylated DNA sequence, further labeled with an HRP streptavidin conjugate...
May 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Arnaud Lesaine, Daniel Bonamy, Georges Gauthier, Cindy L Rountree, Véronique Lazarus
Layers obtained by drying a colloidal dispersion of silica spheres are found to be a good benchmark to test the elastic behaviour of porous media, in the challenging case of high porosities and nano-sized microstructures. Classically used for these systems, Kendall's approach explicitly considers the effect of surface adhesive forces onto the contact area between the particles. This approach provides the Young's modulus using a single adjustable parameter (the adhesion energy) but provides no further information on the tensorial nature and possible anisotropy of elasticity...
May 8, 2018: Soft Matter
Ruben R G Soares, Denis R Santos, Inês F Pinto, Ana M Azevedo, M Raquel Aires-Barros, Virginia Chu, João P Conde
Portable, rapid, cost effective and simple analytical tools are in increasing demand to facilitate the routine monitoring of target chemical/biological compounds at the point-of-need. Such devices are highly relevant within the context of food safety, particularly concerning the screening of highly toxic and strictly regulated mycotoxins. To achieve ultrarapid detection of mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol, at the point-of-need, a novel multiplexed bead-based microfluidic competitive immunosensor, coupled with an array of a-Si:H thin-film photodiodes for integrated fluorescence signal acquisition, is reported...
May 8, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Wenwen Feng, Chun Yue, Wusigale, Yingzhou Ni, Li Liang
Proteins and polysaccharides have been widely used as wall materials to prepare novel carriers for the encapsulation of a single bioactive component or co-encapsulation of different bioactive components. Emulsion-filled gel beads generally contain three essential components: oil droplets, interface membrane of emulsifier, and gel matrix. In this study, emulsion-filled gel beads were prepared by the combination of heat-denatured whey protein isolate (WPI)'s emulsification and alginate's gelation at various protein and oil contents, in order to discuss simultaneous encapsulation, protection and release of hydrophobic α-tocopherol and amphiphilic resveratrol...
June 2018: Food Research International
Galina Severova-Andreevska, Ladislava Grcevska, Gordana Petrushevska, Koco Cakalaroski, Aleksandar Sikole, Olivera Stojceva-Taneva, Ilina Danilovska, Ninoslav Ivanovski
INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation became a routine and successful medical treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease in the last 30 years all over the world. Introduction of Luminex based Single Antigen Beads (SAB) and recent BANFF consensus of histopathological phenotypes of different forms of rejection enables more precise diagnosis and changes the therapeutic approach. The graft biopsies, protocol or cause, indicated, remain a golden diagnostic tool for clinical follow up of kidney transplant recipients (KTR)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
N Ichimaru, T Takayama, H Hirase, Y Hisayama, M Kawamura, S Nakazawa, T Kato, T Abe, J-Y Kaimori, R Imamura, N Nonomura, S Takahara
BACKGROUND: Immunocomplex capture fluorescence analysis (ICFA) detects donor-specific antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA), but the detection sensitivity of HLA class II antibodies using conventional ICFA is as low as 57%. The aim of the study was to improve the detection sensitivity of HLA class II antibodies by ICFA, and compare the ICFA results with the Luminex single-antigen bead test. METHODS: Six DSA-negative kidney transplant donors and recipient pairs and 10 HLA class II DSA-positive pairs were included in the study...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Benjamin F McLean, Julie K Mattiske, Ryan P Balzan
The jumping to conclusions bias (JTC), in which some people gather less information than others before making a decision, has been linked to delusions in psychosis. JTC is usually identified via the beads task, in which a sequence of beads (the "target" sequence) is used to measure the amount of evidence participants require before making a decision. Yet, despite its common use, the reliability of the task has never been properly investigated. We investigated its reliability, and tested an alternate version which used distractor sequences to obfuscate the target sequence...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Kyle W Anderson, Elyssia S Gallagher, Jeffrey W Hudgens
Membrane proteins are currently the most common targets for pharmaceuticals. However, characterization of their structural dynamics by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is sparse due to insufficient automated methods to handle full-length membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Additionally, membrane lipids used to mimic the membrane environment and to solubilize membrane proteins can impair chromatography performance and cause ion suppression in the mass spectrometer. The workflow discussed herein advances HDX-MS capabilities and other MS applications for membrane proteins by providing a fully automated method for HDX-MS analysis based on a phospholipid removal scheme compatible with robotic handling...
May 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
M Siemons, C N Hulleman, R Ø Thorsen, C S Smith, S Stallinga
Point spread function (PSF) engineering is used in single emitter localization to measure the emitter position in 3D and possibly other parameters such as the emission color or dipole orientation as well. Advanced PSF models such as spline fits to experimental PSFs or the vectorial PSF model can be used in the corresponding localization algorithms in order to model the intricate spot shape and deformations correctly. The complexity of the optical architecture and fit model makes PSF engineering approaches particularly sensitive to optical aberrations...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Burcu Ayoglu, Peter Nilsson, Jochen M Schwenk
With the increasing number of binding reagents for affinity-based investigations of the human proteome, high-throughput tools for the characterization of the used reagents become essential. For the analysis of binding selectivity, bead-based antigen arrays offer a miniaturized and parallelized assay platform to meet such needs, as they enable two-dimensional multiplexing to analyze up to 384 samples against up to 500 analytes in a single round of analysis. In this chapter, we describe our protocols for the generation of multiplex bead arrays built on immobilized protein fragments, as well as biotinylated peptides...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Miranda N Emaus, Kevin D Clark, Paige Hinners, Jared L Anderson
Nucleic acid extraction and purification represents a major bottleneck in DNA analysis. Traditional methods for DNA purification often require reagents that may inhibit quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) if not sufficiently removed from the sample. Approaches that employ magnetic beads may exhibit lower extraction efficiencies due to sedimentation and aggregation. In this study, four hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were investigated as DNA extraction solvents with the goal of improving DNA enrichment factors and compatibility with downstream bioanalytical techniques...
April 28, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yue Zhang, Xi-Tong Zhang, Qi Zhang, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang
In the present study, a gastric retention floating system for Brucea javanica oil, composed of alginate and carrageenan, was prepared using ionotropic gelation. Parameters for floatability, drug load, encapsulation efficiency, bead morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo gastric retention were evaluated. The optimized formulation via Box-Behnken design consisted of 1.7% alginate (W/V), 1.02% carrageenan (W/V), 1.4% CaCO3 (W/V), and a gelling bath of pH 0.8. The alginate-carrageenan-Brucea javanica oil beads had a porous structure and exhibited up to 24 h of in vitro floatability with a load capacity of 45%-55% and an encapsulation efficiency of 70%-80%...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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