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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931600/micropipette-force-probe-to-quantify-single-cell-force-generation-application-to-t-cell-activation
#1
Anna Sawicka, Avin Babataheri, Stéphanie Dogniaux, Abdul I Barakat, David Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Claire Hivroz, Julien Husson
In response to engagement of surface molecules, cells generate active forces that regulate many cellular processes. Developing tools that permit gathering mechanical and morphological information on these forces is of the utmost importance. Here we describe a new technique, the Micropipette Force Probe, that uses a micropipette as a flexible cantilever that can aspirate at its tip a bead that is coated with molecules of interest and is brought in contact with the cell. This technique simultaneously allows tracking the resulting changes in cell morphology and mechanics as well as measuring the forces generated by the cell...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930983/personalized-peptide-arrays-for-detection-of-hla-alloantibodies-in-organ-transplantation
#2
Pan Liu, Tomokazu Souma, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Xueying Xie, Xunrong Luo, Jing Jin
In organ transplantation, the function and longevity of the graft critically rely on the success of controlling immunological rejection reactivity against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Histocompatibility guidelines are based on laboratory tests of anti-HLA immunity, which presents either as pre-existing or de novo generated HLA antibodies that constitute a major transplantation barrier. Current tests are built on a single-antigen beads (SAB) platform using a fixed set of ~100 preselected recombinant HLA antigens to probe transplant sera...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927662/transarterial-chemoembolization-with-small-drug-eluting-beads-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-experience-from-a-cohort-of-421-patients-at-an-italian-center
#3
Camillo Aliberti, Riccardo Carandina, Sara Lonardi, Vincenzo Dadduzio, Alessandro Vitale, Enrico Gringeri, Giacomo Zanus, Umberto Cillo
PURPOSE: To assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of small drug-eluting embolic (DEE) agents (70-150 μm) for chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, single-arm, retrospective study involved 421 patients (mean age, 66.1 y ± 9.8 [standard deviation]) with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A (n = 88), B (n = 140), or C (n = 193) HCC and Child-Pugh class A (n = 233) or B (n = 188) cirrhosis...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924219/mesoscopic-model-for-dna-g-quadruplex-unfolding
#4
A E Bergues-Pupo, I Gutiérrez, J R Arias-Gonzalez, F Falo, A Fiasconaro
Genomes contain rare guanine-rich sequences capable of assembling into four-stranded helical structures, termed G-quadruplexes, with potential roles in gene regulation and chromosome stability. Their mechanical unfolding has only been reported to date by all-atom simulations, which cannot dissect the major physical interactions responsible for their cohesion. Here, we propose a mesoscopic model to describe both the mechanical and thermal stability of DNA G-quadruplexes, where each nucleotide of the structure, as well as each central cation located at the inner channel, is mapped onto a single bead...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923950/single-molecule-visualization-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-leading-strand-synthesis-reveals-dynamic-interaction-between-mtc-and-the-replisome
#5
Jacob S Lewis, Lisanne M Spenkelink, Grant D Schauer, Flynn R Hill, Roxanna E Georgescu, Michael E O'Donnell, Antoine M van Oijen
The replisome, the multiprotein system responsible for genome duplication, is a highly dynamic complex displaying a large number of different enzyme activities. Recently, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae minimal replication reaction has been successfully reconstituted in vitro. This provided an opportunity to uncover the enzymatic activities of many of the components in a eukaryotic system. Their dynamic behavior and interactions in the context of the replisome, however, remain unclear. We use a tethered-bead assay to provide real-time visualization of leading-strand synthesis by the S...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923715/a-multiplex-bead-based-assay-for-immune-gene-expression-analysis-in-shrimp
#6
Sopacha Arayamethakorn, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri, Wanilada Rungrassamee
Here, we developed a 9-plex bead-based array as a tool to evaluate molecular effects on transcription levels of immune-related genes in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The bead array technology allows simultaneous detection of multiple target genes in a single sample, reducing time, labor and cost. The oligonucleotide probes were designed to target eight immune-related genes that involve in antimicrobial activity, melanization, pathogen pattern recognition proteins, lysozyme and one housekeeping gene as an internal control...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923503/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-detects-bilateral-changes-of-corneal-immune-cells-and-nerves-in-unilateral-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#7
Bernardo M Cavalcanti, Andrea Cruzat, Afsun Sahin, Deborah Pavan-Langston, Eric Samayoa, Pedram Hamrah
PURPOSE: To analyze bilateral corneal immune cell and nerve alterations in patients with unilateral herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) by laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and their correlation with corneal sensation and clinical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled single-center study. Twenty-four eyes of 24 HZO patients and their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes and normal controls (n = 24) were included...
September 15, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922604/a-comparative-study-on-the-performance-of-inert-and-functionalized-spheres-coated-with-solid-dispersions-made-of-two-structurally-related-antifungal-drugs
#8
Naila A Mugheirbi, Peter O'Connell, Dolores R Serrano, Anne Marie Healy, Lynne S Taylor, Lidia Tajber
Fluid bed coating offers potential advantages as a formulation platform for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of poorly soluble drugs, being a one-step manufacturing process which could reduce the risk of phase separation associated with multiple step manufacturing approaches. However, the impact of the physicochemical nature of carrier spheres on the properties and drug release from the ASDs has not been studied in detail. In this work, tartaric acid (TAP) and microcrystalline cellulose (CEL) spheres were chosen as examples of functional and inert beads, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919226/validation-of-hav-biomarker-2a-for-differential-diagnostic-of-hepatitis-a-infected-and-vaccinated-individuals-using-multiplex-serology
#9
Katrin Bohm, Angela Filomena, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Gérard Krause, Claudia Sievers
BACKGROUND: Worldwide about 1.5 million clinical cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections occur every year and increasingly countries are introducing HAV vaccination into the childhood immunization schedule with a single dose instead of the originally licenced two dose regimen. Diagnosis of acute HAV infection is determined serologically by anti-HAV-IgM detection using ELISA. Additionally anti-HAV-IgG can become positive during the early phase of symptoms, but remains detectable after infection and also after vaccination against HAV...
September 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918767/refractive-index-imaging-of-cells-with-variable-angle-near-total-internal-reflection-tir-microscopy
#10
Kevin P Bohannon, Ronald W Holz, Daniel Axelrod
The refractive index in the interior of single cells affects the evanescent field depth in quantitative studies using total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence, but often that index is not well known. We here present method to measure and spatially map the absolute index of refraction in a microscopic sample, by imaging a collimated light beam reflected from the substrate/buffer/cell interference at variable angles of incidence. Above the TIR critical angle (which is a strong function of refractive index), the reflection is 100%, but in the immediate sub-critical angle zone, the reflection intensity is a very strong ascending function of incidence angle...
September 18, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916358/the-functional-characterization-and-comparison-of-two-single-crd-containing-c-type-lectins-with-novel-and-typical-key-motifs-from-portunus-trituberculatus
#11
Mengmeng Huang, Changkao Mu, Yuehong Wu, Fei Ye, Dan Wang, Cong Sun, Zhengbing Lv, Bingnan Han, Chunlin Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins, which play crucial roles in innate immunity including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two single-CRD containing C-type lectins were identified from swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus (designated as PtCTL-2 and PtCTL-3). The open reading frame (ORF) of PtCTL-2 encoded polypeptides of 485 amino acids with a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), while PtCTL-3's ORF encoded polypeptides of 241 amino acids with a coiled-coil region and a single-CRD...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911100/genome-wide-analysis-of-influenza-viral-rna-and-nucleoprotein-association
#12
Nara Lee, Valerie Le Sage, Adalena V Nanni, Dan J Snyder, Vaughn S Cooper, Seema S Lakdawala
Influenza A virus (IAV) genomes are composed of eight single-stranded RNA segments that are coated by viral nucleoprotein (NP) molecules. Classically, the interaction between NP and viral RNA (vRNA) is depicted as a uniform pattern of 'beads on a string'. Using high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP), we identified the vRNA binding profiles of NP for two H1N1 IAV strains in virions. Contrary to the prevailing model for vRNA packaging, NP does not bind vRNA uniformly in the A/WSN/1933 and A/California/07/2009 strains, but instead each vRNA segment exhibits a unique binding profile, containing sites that are enriched or poor in NP association...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905952/detection-of-membrane-bound-and-soluble-antigens-by-magnetic-levitation
#13
Mikkel Schou Andersen, Emily Howard, Shulin Lu, Matthew Richard, Mark Gregory, Gordon Ogembo, Ofer Mazor, Pavel Gorelik, Nathan I Shapiro, Anish V Sharda, Ionita Ghiran
Magnetic levitation is a technique for measuring the density and the magnetic properties of objects suspended in a paramagnetic field. We describe a novel magnetic levitation-based method that can specifically detect cell membrane-bound and soluble antigens by measurable changes in levitation height that result from the formation of antibody-coated bead and antigen complex. We demonstrate our method's ability to sensitively detect an array of membrane-bound and soluble antigens found in blood, including T-cell antigen CD3, eosinophil antigen Siglec-8, red blood cell antigens CD35 and RhD, red blood cell-bound Epstein-Barr viral particles, and soluble IL-6, and validate the results by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy performed in parallel...
September 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875183/zorro-zirconium-oxide-resonators-for-all-in-one-raman-and-whispering-gallery-mode-optical-sensing
#14
N Bontempi, I Vassalini, S Danesi, I Alessandri
We report the observation of whispering-gallery modes in 2 μm-sized SiO2/ZrO2 core/shell beads utilized as all-dielectric Raman enhancers. This allows us to achieve simultaneous optical and Raman ultrasensitive detection with a single spectral analysis. This opportunity opens exciting perspectives for the multimodal chemical sensing and fabrication of optical fiber devices.
September 25, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869685/ratiometric-fluorescence-detection-of-phosphorylated-amino-acids-through-excited-state-proton-transfer-using-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-mip-recognition-nanolayers
#15
Wei Wan, Ana B Descalzo, Sudhirkumar Shinde, Hardy Weißhoff, Guillermo Orellana, Börje Sellergren, Knut Rurack
A 2,3-diaminophenazine bis-urea fluorescent probe monomer (1) was developed. 1 responds to phenylphosphate and phosphorylated amino acids in a ratiometric fashion with en-hanced fluorescence accompanied by the development of a red-shifted emission band arising from an excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) process in the hydrogen bonded probe-analyte complex. The two urea groups of 1 form a cleft-like binding pocket (Kb >1010 L2 mol-2 for 1:2 complex). Imprinting of 1 in presence of ethyl ester- and fluorenylmethyloxycarbon-yl- (Fmoc) protected phosphorylated tyrosine (Fmoc-pTyr-OEt) as the template, methacrylamide as comonomer and eth-yleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker yields few-nanometer-thick molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shells on silica core microparticles with excellent selectivity for the tem-plate in a buffered biphasic assay...
September 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869261/microfluidic-bead-trap-as-a-visual-bar-for-quantitative-detection-of-oligonucleotides
#16
Zichen Zhao, Yuanye Bao, Lok Ting Chu, John Kin Lim Ho, Ching-Chang Chieng, Ting-Hsuan Chen
We demonstrate a microfluidic bead trap capable of forming a dipstick-type bar visible to the naked eye for simple and quantitative detection of oligonucleotides. We use magnetic microparticles (MMPs) and polystyrene microparticles (PMPs) that are connected and form MMPs-targets-PMPs when target oligonucleotides are present, leaving free PMPs with a number inversely proportional to the amount of targets. Using a capillary flow-driven microfluidic circuitry consisting of a magnetic separator to remove the MMPs-targets-PMPs, the free PMPs can be trapped at the narrowing nozzle downstream, forming a visual bar quantifiable based on the length of PMP accumulation...
September 4, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856618/large-scale-deployment-of-a-rice-6%C3%A2-k-snp-array-for-genetics-and-breeding-applications
#17
Michael J Thomson, Namrata Singh, Maria S Dwiyanti, Diane R Wang, Mark H Wright, Francisco Agosto Perez, Genevieve DeClerck, Joong Hyoun Chin, Geraldine A Malitic-Layaoen, Venice Margarette Juanillas, Christine J Dilla-Ermita, Ramil Mauleon, Tobias Kretzschmar, Susan R McCouch
BACKGROUND: Fixed arrays of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have advantages over reduced representation sequencing in their ease of data analysis, consistently higher call rates, and rapid turnaround times. A 6 K SNP array represents a cost-benefit "sweet spot" for routine genetics and breeding applications in rice. Selection of informative SNPs across species and subpopulations during chip design is essential to obtain useful polymorphism rates for target germplasm groups...
August 30, 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856032/optimizing-pulse-compressibility-in-completely-all-fibered-ytterbium-chirped-pulse-amplifiers-for-in-vivo-two-photon-laser-scanning-microscopy
#18
A Fernández, L Grüner-Nielsen, M Andreana, M Stadler, S Kirchberger, C Sturtzel, M Distel, L Zhu, W Kautek, R Leitgeb, A Baltuska, K Jespersen, A Verhoef
A simple and completely all-fiber Yb chirped pulse amplifier that uses a dispersion matched fiber stretcher and a spliced-on hollow core photonic bandgap fiber compressor is applied in nonlinear optical microscopy. This stretching-compression approach improves compressibility and helps to maximize the fluorescence signal in two-photon laser scanning microscopy as compared with approaches that use standard single mode fibers as stretcher. We also show that in femtosecond all-fiber systems, compensation of higher order dispersion terms is relevant even for pulses with relatively narrow bandwidths for applications relying on nonlinear optical effects...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855282/discovery-of-a-novel-stem-rust-resistance-allele-in-durum-wheat-that-exhibits-differential-reactions-to-ug99-isolates
#19
Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala, Jyoti Saini, Maria Newcomb, Pablo Olivera, Sam Gale, Daryl Klindworth, Elias Elias, Luther Talbert, Shiaoman Chao, Justin Faris, Steven Xu, Yue Jin, Matthew N Rouse
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24 However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK...
August 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854366/the-deacetylase-hdac6-mediates-endogenous-neuritic-tau-pathology
#20
Jui-Heng Tseng, Ling Xie, Sheng Song, Youmei Xie, Lauren Allen, Deepa Ajit, Jau-Shyong Hong, Xian Chen, Rick B Meeker, Todd J Cohen
The initiating events that promote tau mislocalization and pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not well defined, partly because of the lack of endogenous models that recapitulate tau dysfunction. We exposed wild-type neurons to a neuroinflammatory trigger and examined the effect on endogenous tau. We found that tau re-localized and accumulated within pathological neuritic foci, or beads, comprised of mostly hypo-phosphorylated, acetylated, and oligomeric tau. These structures were detected in aged wild-type mice and were enhanced in response to neuroinflammation in vivo, highlighting a previously undescribed endogenous age-related tau pathology...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
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