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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108330/pleiotropic-responses-to-methionine-restriction
#1
Gene Ables, Jay Johnson
Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan across different species. The main responses of rodent models to MR are well-documented in adipose tissue (AT) and liver, which have reduced mass and improved insulin sensitivity, respectively. Recently, molecular mechanisms that improve healthspan have been identified in both organs during MR. In fat, MR induced a futile lipid cycle concomitant with beige AT accumulation, producing elevated energy expenditure. In liver, MR upregulated fibroblast growth factor 21 and improved glucose metabolism in aged mice and in response to a high-fat diet...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107028/interrelationship-of-clinical-radiographic-and-hematological-features-in-patients-under-bisphosphonate-therapy
#2
Valesca Sander Koth, Maria Antonia Figueiredo, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Karen Cherubini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical, radiographic and hematological aspects of patients under bisphosphonate therapy. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted where the records of patients taking bisphosphonates were analyzed considering the occurrence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Evaluation included panoramic and periapical radiographies, hematological exams and clinical features. Radiographies were analyzed determining the presence or absence of bone sclerosis, osteolysis, persisting alveolar socket, narrowing of the mandibular canal, widening of the periodontal ligament space, periradicular radiolucency, sequestrum, and thickening of the lamina dura...
January 20, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104917/overexpression-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-3b-bmp-3b-in-adipose-tissues-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#3
J Hino, M Nakatani, Y Arai, K Tsuchida, M Shirai, M Miyazato, K Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and has several activities that differ from those of other BMPs. We previously found that BMP-3b is highly expressed in adipocytes, its level is increased during obesity, and it inhibits adipogenesis by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in vitro. However, the function of BMP-3b in adipose tissues in vivo remains unknown. METHODS: To determine the role of BMP-3b overexpression in adipose tissues in vivo, we generated transgenic mice (BMP-3b Tg) by using a conditional overexpression approach in fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-expressing adipocytes...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065384/the-effects-of-fat-induced-obesity-on-bone-metabolism-in-rats
#4
Wei Li, Peng Xu, Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Yajuan Gu, Yan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jianxin Xie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of obesity, induced via a high-fat diet, on bone metabolism in rats. METHODS: Two hundred healthy Wistar male rats aged 4 weeks were fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet. At specific time points (week 0, 4, 6, 8, and 10), plasma was collected to determine the levels of glucose and lipid metabolism. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunoassays were performed to determine the plasma levels of adipocyte and bone metabolism factors...
January 3, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064096/high-glucose-induced-lif-suppresses-osteoblast-differentiation-via-regulating-stat3-socs3-signaling
#5
Changlu Liu, Dianming Jiang
High glucose (HG) is conceived to regulate bone metabolism in patients with diabetic mellitus (DM). In the present study, we examined the level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a pleiotropic cytokine in interleukin (IL)-6 family, in T2DM patients and investigated the regulation by HG on the induction of LIF/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Then we determined the regulation of HG and LIF on the osteoblast differentiation via measuring the ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) in human osteoblast MG-63 cells...
January 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033252/18f-fdg-super-bone-marrow-uptake-a-highly-potent-indicator-for-the-malignant-infiltration
#6
Mohammed Shah Alam, Lilan Fu, Yun-Yan Ren, Hu-Bing Wu, Quan-Shi Wang, Yan-Jiang Han, Wen-Lan Zhou, Hong-Sheng Li, Zhen Wang
The present study was performed to investigate whether the markedly 2-deoxy-2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-FDG) uptake in the bone marrow (BM) is a presentation of malignant infiltration (MI).Super bone marrow uptake (super BMU) was used to name the markedly F-FDG uptake on BM, which was similar to or higher than that of the brain. From April 2008 to December 2015, 31 patients with such presentation were retrospectively reviewed. The F-FDG uptake was semiquantified using SUVmax and BM to cerebellum (BM/C) ratio...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017632/relationship-between-plasma-osteocalcin-glycaemic-control-and-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-nigerians-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Chinelo P Onyenekwu, Elaine C Azinge, Ephraim U Egbuagha, Henry C Okpara
AIMS: To determine the levels of plasma osteocalcin (OC) in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and compare these to levels in non-diabetic controls (NDM). To assess the relationship of OC to glycaemic control and parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare its levels in Nigerians with and without MetS. METHODS: The waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure of 200 study participants were taken. Plasma osteocalcin, fasting glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglyceride (TG) levels were determined...
December 15, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997722/pitavastatin-suppresses-hyperglycemia-induced-podocyte-injury-via-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-preservation
#8
Makoto Ohigashi, Miyuki Kobara, Tamotsu Takahashi, Hiroe Toba, Takehiko Wada, Tetsuo Nakata
BACKGROUND: Podocytes form the essential components of the glomerular filtration barrier and play a critical role in diabetic nephropathy. Recent evidence suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) exert renoprotective effects. We investigated whether pitavastatin directly suppresses hyperglycemia-induced podocyte injury using cultured podocytes and, if so, the mechanism of the beneficial effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cultured podocytes were exposed to media containing normal (NG; 5 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose for one week...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995146/comparison-of-experimental-diabetic-periodontitis-induced-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-mice
#9
Qi Wang, Peng Zhang, Ray Aprecio, Dongjiao Zhang, Hao Li, Ning Ji, Omaima Mohamed, Wu Zhang, Yiming Li, Yi Ding
Periodontitis is one of the severe complications in diabetic patients and gingival epithelium plays an initial role on the onset and progression of this disease. However the potential mechanism is yet sufficiently understood. Meanwhile, the research on the correlational experimental animal models was also insufficient. Here, we established periodontitis with type 2 diabetes in db/db and Tallyho/JngJ (TH) mice and periodontitis with type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetes C57BL/6J (STZ-C57) mice by oral infection of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W50...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956363/incorporation-of-fast-dissolving-glucose-porogens-into-an-injectable-calcium-phosphate-cement-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
Brandon T Smith, Marco Santoro, Eline C Grosfeld, Sarita R Shah, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken, John A Jansen, Antonios G Mikos
: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been extensively investigated as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering in light of their chemical composition closely resembling the mineral component of bone extracellular matrix. Yet, the degradation kinetics of many CPCs is slow compared to de novo bone formation. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the use of porogens within CPCs has been suggested as a potential strategy to increase scaffold porosity and promote surface degradation. This study explored the usage of glucose microparticles (GMPs) as porogens for the introduction of macroporosity within CPCs, and characterized the handling properties and physicochemical characteristics of CPCs containing GMPs...
December 10, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941771/hyperglycemia-as-a-possible-risk-factor-for-mold-infections-the-potential-preventative-role-of-intensified-glucose-control-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
S Fuji, J Löffler, B N Savani, H Einsele, M Kapp
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is well-known as a disorder that increases the risk of infectious diseases. Various reports have shown that innate immunity is impaired in patients with DM, which is considered to be a major cause of increased risk of infectious diseases. However, there is a paucity of data about the actual risk of mold infections in patients with DM. Several treatment procedures, such as solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are intrinsically associated with a high risk of mold infections and also correlated with an increased risk of post-transplant DM...
December 12, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930548/primary-central-nervous-system-alk-positive-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-in-an-adult-a-rare-case-report
#12
Xiaoqin Dong, Jun Li, Na Huo, Yan Wang, Zhao Wu, Xiaohong Lin, Hong Zhao
RATIONALE: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It mostly invades lymph nodes with extranodal involvement observed in the soft tissue, bone, and skin. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with headache, diplopia, and vomit. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis via lumbar puncture showed elevated CSF pressure, elevated CSF protein concentrations, decreased CSF glucose and chloride concentration significantly, and pleocytosis of 68 to 350 × 10/L, in which lymphocytes and monocytes were predominant...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#13
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894216/bone-effects-of-canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
November 28, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889689/osteoarthritis-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-what-are-the-links
#15
REVIEW
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder and one of the leading cause of disability. During a long time, it was considered as the consequence of aging and mechanical stress on cartilage. Recent advances in the knowledge of OA have highlighted that it is a whole joint disease with early modifications of synovium and subchondral bone but also that it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome through systemic mechanisms. In the past year, type 2 diabetes has been described in two meta-analyzes as an independent risk factor for OA...
December 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860330/phenotype-based-selection-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-smooth-muscle-cells-for-elastic-matrix-regenerative-repair-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#16
Ganesh Swaminathan, Ivan Stoilov, Tom Broekelmann, Robert Mecham, Anand Ramamurthi
Chronic proteolytic disruption of elastic fibers within the abdominal aortic wall results in wall vessel expansion to form rupture-prone abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Arresting AAA growth is not possible since adult vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) poorly auto-regenerate and repair elastic fibers. Thus, there is a need to identify alternate cell sources capable of robust elastic matrix assembly to overcome elastolysis in the AAA wall. Previously, we demonstrated the superior elastogenic properties of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC)-derived SMCs (BM-SMCs) relative to aneurysmal and healthy rat aortic SMCs...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845859/cross-talk-between-muscle-and-bone-in-postmenopausal-women-with-hypovitaminosis-d
#17
M Vuksanovic, G Mihajlovic, T Beljic Zivkovic, A Gavrilovic, B Arsenovic, J Zvekic Svorcan, M Marjanovic Petkovic, S Vujovic
OBJECTIVES: Visceral fat is more harmful than subcutaneous fat. Women with high amounts of visceral fat have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance and low level of serum vitamin D. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized and controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 101) aged 45-70 years were included. The assessed parameters were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) status, serum insulin and HOMA-IR, bone mineral density, total fat mass, fat mass index (FMI) measured by DXA, and muscle strength...
November 15, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835579/a-novel-benzofuran-derivative-acdb-induces-apoptosis-of-human-chondrosarcoma-cells-through-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Chen-Ming Su, Chien-Yu Chen, Tingting Lu, Yi Sun, Weimin Li, Yuan-Li Huang, Chun-Hao Tsai, Chih-Shiang Chang, Chih-Hsin Tang
Chondrosarcoma is one of the bone tumor with high mortality in respond to poor radiation and chemotherapy treatment. Here, we analyze the antitumor activity of a novel benzofuran derivative, 2-amino-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)benzofuran-4-yl acetate (ACDB), in human chondrosarcoma cells. ACDB increased the cell apoptosis of human chondrosarcomas without harm in chondrocytes. ACDB also enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was characterized by varieties in the cytosolic calcium levels and induced the expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) and calpain...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832314/diets-high-in-fat-or-fructose-differentially-modulate-bone-health-and-lipid-metabolism
#19
Aditi Jatkar, Irwin J Kurland, Stefan Judex
Diets high in fat or carbohydrates can lead to obesity and diabetes, two interrelated conditions that have been associated with osteoporosis. Here, we contrasted the effects of a high fat (HF) versus fructose-enriched carbohydrate (CH) versus regular chow (SC) diet on bone morphology, fat content and metabolic balance in BALB/cByJ mice over a 15-week period. For 13 weeks, there were no differences in body mass between groups with small differences in the last 2 weeks. Even without the potentially confounding factor of altered body mass and levels of load bearing, HF consumption was detrimental to bone in the distal femur with lower trabecular bone volume fraction and thinner cortices than controls...
January 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818742/methodological-considerations-when-studying-the-skeletal-response-to-glucose-intolerance-using-the-diet-induced-obesity-model
#20
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Brenda J Smith
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise, and as a result, research aimed at understanding the molecular basis for the co-morbidities has become an area of much scientific interest. Among the more recently recognized chronic complications of T2DM is the increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture, that has been reported independent of bone mineral density (BMD). A widely used animal model to study how the development and progression of impaired glucose tolerance affect the skeleton has been the diet-induce obesity (DIO) model...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
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