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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044339/metabolic-acidosis-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-review
#1
Luiza Raksa Rezende, Pablo Brandão de Souza, Giselly Rosa Modesto Pereira, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon
Metabolic acidosis is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. The disorder is associated with increased mortality and its deleterious effects are already present in the predialysis phase of chronic kidney disease. Metabolic acidosis has been linked to progression of chronic kidney disease, changes in protein and glucose metabolism, bone and muscle disorders and cardiovascular disease. At present, the control of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis is mainly focused on the supply of bicarbonate during dialysis session, but further studies are needed to set the optimum target serum bicarbonate and the best concentration of the bicarbonate dialysate...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042442/1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-promotes-bone-formation-by-promoting-nuclear-exclusion-of-the-foxo1-transcription-factor-in-diabetic-mice
#2
Yi Xiong, Yixin Zhang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the active form of vitamin D, which is responsible for reducing the risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), decreasing insulin resistance, and improving insulin secretion. Previous studies have shown that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the activity of FoxO1, which has been implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, its function and mechanism of action in DM-induced energy disorders and also in bone development remains unclear. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches including osteoblast-specific, conditional FoxO1-knockout mice, we demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 ameliorates abnormal osteoblast proliferation in DM-induced oxidative stress conditions, and rescues the impaired glucose and bone metabolism through FoxO1 nuclear exclusion resulted from the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035781/lack-of-myeloid-fatp1-increases-atherosclerotic-lesion-size-in-ldlr-mice
#3
Liyang Zhao, Alyssa J Cozzo, Amy R Johnson, Taylor Christensen, Alex J Freemerman, James E Bear, Jeremy D Rotty, Brian J Bennett, Liza Makowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Altered metabolism is an important regulator of macrophage (MΦ) phenotype, which contributes to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Broadly, pro-inflammatory, classically-activated MΦs (CAM) are glycolytic while alternatively-activated MΦs (AAM) oxidize fatty acids, although overlap exists. We previously demonstrated that MΦ fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, Slc27a1) was necessary to maintain the oxidative and anti-inflammatory AAM phenotype in vivo in a model of diet-induced obesity...
October 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030155/high-glucose-impaired-estrogen-receptor-alpha-signaling-via-%C3%AE-catenin-in-osteoblastic-mc3t3-e1
#4
Rui Wang, Dong Gao, Yin Zhou, Lu Chen, Bin Luo, Yanrong Yu, Hao Li, Jiawei Hu, Qiren Huang, Ming He, Weijie Peng, Dan Luo
Diabetic Mellitus is a risk factor for osteoporosis. It has been suggested that altered estrogen or estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β) signaling may be involved in diabetic osteoporosis. The present study is to investigate the effects of high glucose on ERα/β signaling in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 and how the altered signaling of ERα/β affect osteoblastic bone formation. ERα/β signaling was demonstrated as ERα/β protein expression (Western Blotting) and ER transcription activity (Luciferase Reporter assays)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993954/obesity-alleviating-potential-of-asiatic-acid-and-its-effects-on-acc1-ucp2-and-cpt1-mrna-expression-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
P Rameshreddy, V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, S Vadivukkarasi, Ramavat Ravindarnaik, Pothani Suresh, K Swapna, A Kalaivani, Parimi Parvathi, P Tamilmani, Ganapathy Saravanan
The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Centella asiatica on lipid metabolism parameters in a rat model of obesity induced using a high fat diet (HFD) for 42 days. AA (20 mg/kg body weight [BW]) was administered orally once daily for 42 days, and an orlistat-treated group of rats (10 mg/kg BW) was included for comparison. Changes in BW, blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and leptin, adiponectin, amylase, and lipase levels in the blood; lipid profiles of plasma; liver antioxidants levels; and acetyl CoA carboxylase(ACC), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) mRNA expression were observed in the experimental rats...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965593/isoproterenol-exacerbates-hyperglycemia-and-modulates-chromium-distribution-in-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#6
Geng-Ruei Chang, Wen-Kai Chen, Po-Hsun Hou, Frank Chiahung Mao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Isoproterenol (ISO), a nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist for treating bradycardia and asthma, has been proposed to raise blood glucose level. Little is known regarding the relationship between ISO treatment, the induced chromium (Cr) redistribution, and changes in glucose metabolism. We aimed to characterize the effects of a single dose of ISO on glucose homeostasis and Cr level changes in an obesity mouse model. METHODS: Mice (C57BL6/j strain) were first fed for a continuous period of 12 weeks with either a high fat diet (HFD), to develop an obesity animal model, or a standard diet (SD), to develop a lean animal model as controls...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950016/effects-of-a-standard-high-fat-diet-with-or-without-multiple-deficiencies-on-bone-parameters-in-ovariectomized-mature-rat
#7
Ting Wang, Xiaohuan Zhu, Fang Dai, Chaofei Li, Dake Huang, Zhaohui Fang, Qiu Zhang, Yunxia Lu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a standard high fat diet (D12451) with or without vitamin D3, phosphorus, and calcium (i.e., high-fat diet [HFD] or high-fat deficient diet [HFDD]) on the bone parameters of ovariectomized female rats. Six-month-old of female Sprauge Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six study groups: sham operation with standard chow diet (SSCD), sham operation with a HFD (SHFD), sham operation with a HFDD (SHFDD), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with a HFD (OVX-HFD), and OVX with a HFDD (OVX-HFDD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#8
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927908/the-impact-of-the-standard-american-diet-in-rats-effects-on-behavior-physiology-and-recovery-from-inflammatory-injury
#9
Stacie K Totsch, Tammie L Quinn, Larissa J Strath, Laura J McMeekin, Rita M Cowell, Barbara A Gower, Robert E Sorge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a significant health concern in the Western world and the presence of comorbid conditions suggests an interaction. The overlapping distributions of chronic pain populations and obesity suggests that an interaction may exist. Poor quality diet (high carbohydrates, saturated fats, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) can lead to increased adiposity which can activate immune cells independent of the activating effect of the diet components themselves. This dual action can contribute to chronic inflammation that may alter susceptibility to chronic pain and prolong recovery from injury...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921338/the-effect-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-bone-mineral-density-in-subjects-with-prediabetes
#10
A U Larsen, G Grimnes, R Jorde
The rationale of this study was to determine the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD). Prediabetic males given vitamin D had significantly less reduction in BMD at the femoral neck compared to the controls. The clinical implications of our findings require further investigation. INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased fracture risk, and recent studies show crosstalk between bone and glucose metabolism. Few studies have investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the bone without additional calcium...
September 18, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917433/surveillance-imaging-in-patients-with-endometrial-cancer-in-first-remission
#11
Yazan Z Alabed, Su-Chun Cheng, Christopher Mudge, Christopher Sakellis, Annick D Van den Abbeele, Susana M Campos, Heather A Jacene
OBJECTIVE: The clinical benefit of surveillance imaging in endometrial cancer remains undefined. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of surveillance imaging in endometrial cancer. METHODS: A total of 128 patients in first remission after treatment for endometrial cancer (uterine papillary serous, clear cell, stage III endometroid) who had surveillance imaging were retrospectively identified. The surveillance period was defined from the time of first-negative scan after treatment to the time when treatment was started for recurrent disease...
August 24, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912917/the-low-dose-7-5-mg-day-pioglitazone-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Yanai, Hiroki Adachi
Pioglitazone is one of thiazolidinedione derivatives, which stimulates nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and improves glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis showed that pioglitazone therapy was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes. Further, in a cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone therapy was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894133/5-methoxytryptophan-protects-mscs-from-stress-induced-premature-senescence-by-upregulating-foxo3a-and-mtor
#13
Tzu-Ching Chang, Min-Fen Hsu, Chiu-Yueh Shih, Kenneth K Wu
5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP) is a newly discovered tryptophan metabolite which controls stress-induced inflammatory signals. To determine whether 5-MTP protects against stress-induced mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence, we incubated bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) in high-glucose medium or regular medium for 2 weeks followed by addiction of 5-MTP (10 μM) or vehicle for 48 h. 5-MTP reduced p16 and p21 expression, senescence-associated β-Gal (SA-β-Gal) and IL-6 secretion and increased BrdU incorporation...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893629/obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-not-a-diet-high-in-fat-sucrose-and-cholesterol-negatively-impacts-bone-outcomes-in-the-hyperphagic-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rat
#14
Laura C Ortinau, Melissa A Linden, Rebecca Dirkes, R Scott Rector, Pamela S Hinton
BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. METHODS: At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups...
September 9, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884559/artificial-neural-network-predicts-hemorrhagic-contusions-following-decompressive-craniotomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Jian-Li Wang, Guo-Liang Jin, Zi-Gang Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore relevant factors of hemorrhagic contusions following decompressive craniotomy (DC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and create an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model of the risk factors of hemorrhagic contusions. METHODS: This study analyzed 425 patients with TBI who underwent DC in the Neurosurgery Department of Shaoxing People's Hospital between 2009 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first postoperative CT scans: hemorrhage group and non-hemorrhage group...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875007/the-impact-of-confluence-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-bmmsc-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#16
Faten A M Abo-Aziza, Zaki A A
Background: In the field of cellular therapy, the impact of confluence degreeonharvesting or differentiation of BMMSCs and the effect of cell-to-cell contact remain controversial. Therefore, the effect of confluence on properties of BMMSCs was studied and efficiency of confluence-associated osteogenic differentiation was identified. Materials andMethods: The impact of 20, 50, 70, 80 and 100% confluences on proliferation properties of BMMSCs, expression of ERK and p-ERK proteins and glucose consumption rate was studied...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866834/insulin-and-osteocalcin-further-evidence-for-a-mutual-cross-talk
#17
Francesco L Bilotta, Biagio Arcidiacono, Sebastiano Messineo, Marta Greco, Eusebio Chiefari, Domenico Britti, Tomoko Nakanishi, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
PURPOSE: In the last few years, bone has been recognized as an endocrine organ that modulates glucose metabolism by secretion of osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific hormone, that influences fat deposition and blood sugar levels. To date, however, very few in vitro models have been developed to investigate, at the molecular levels, the relationship between glucose, insulin and osteocalcin. This study aims at covering this gap. METHODS: We studied osteogenic differentiation, osteocalcin gene expression, and osteblast-mediated insulin secretion, using cultured MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells that underwent glucotoxicity and insulin resistance...
September 2, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860954/distinct-clinical-outcomes-between-paramedullary-and-extramedullary-lesions-in-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma
#18
Khishigjargal Batsukh, Sung-Eun Lee, Gi June Min, Sung Soo Park, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Seok Lee, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Chang-Ki Min
This retrospective study aimed to compare the clinical features of paramedullary lesions (PLs) and extramedullary lesions (ELs) of plasmacytomas at diagnosis, using positron emission tomography integrated with computed tomography, using glucose labeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide (18)F ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), and to address their prognostic impact. Sixty-four patients with NDMM presenting ELs (n=22) and/or PLs (n=42) were included. Patients with ELs at initial presentation had unfavorable laboratory parameters of calcium and lactate dehydrogenase, a higher percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, and showed a trend toward advanced international staging system (ISS), compared to patients with PLs...
August 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859991/1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-promotes-osteogenesis-by-promoting-wnt-signaling-pathway
#19
Yi Xiong, Yixin Zhang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remarkably affects bone metabolism and causes multiple skeletal disorders, which are associated with the increased oxidative stress that activates Forkhead family of transcription factors (FoxOs). 1α,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D, plays a potential role in the prevention of glucose tolerance. However, its mechanism of action in high glucose-induced energy disorders remains unclear. In vitro study shows that 1,25(OH)2D3 promotes osteogenesis in high glucose-induced oxidative stress mainly results from increased osteoblasts proliferation and decreased apoptosis...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855315/eplerenone-prevented-obesity-induced-inflammasome-activation-and-glucose-intolerance
#20
Tsutomu Wada, Akari Ishikawa, Eri Watanabe, Yuto Nakamura, Yusuke Aruga, Hayate Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Onogi, Hiroe Honda, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Daisuke Koya, Hiroshi Tsuneki, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Obesity-associated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance; however, influences of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibition remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of MR inhibition using eplerenone, a selective MR antagonist, in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Eplerenone prevented excessive body weight gain and fat accumulation, ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and enhanced energy metabolism...
December 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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