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Fatty acid omega 3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235871/increased-levels-of-circulating-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-protective-effects-against-future-cardiovascular-events-in-non-diabetics
#1
Muhammad Anas Kamleh, Olga McLeod, Antonio Checa, Damiano Baldassarre, Fabrizio Veglia, Karl Gertow, Steve E Humphries, Rainer Rauramaa, Ulf deFaire, Andries J Smit, Philippe Giral, Sudhir Kurl, Elmo Mannarino, Elena Tremoli, Angela Silveira, John Orvik, Anders Hamsten, Craig E Wheelock
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in individuals with diabetes. The current study objective was to determine the circulating metabolite profiles associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events, with emphasis on diabetes status. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis was performed by LC-HRMS in combination with targeted quantification of eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. Plasma from 375 individuals from the IMPROVE pan-European cohort were included in a case-control study design...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#2
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232261/long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cancer-any-cause-for-concern
#3
Simona Serini, Gabriella Calviello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, concerns have been raised with regard to the recommended doses of marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-omega-3 PUFAs) especially in relation to cancer risk and treatment. There is urgent need to clarify this point. This review considers the most recent evidence related to the potential risk of developing cancer with high LC-omega-3 PUFA intakes, and possible research strategies to better elucidate this matter. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest published recommendations have still highlighted the usefulness of an increased dietary intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of some cardiovascular diseases...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230323/baseline-oxidative-stress-is-associated-with-memory-changes-in-omega-3-fatty-acid-treated-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#4
Graham Mazereeuw, Nathan Herrmann, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, David W L Ma, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
Objective: This study investigated whether pretreatment oxidative stress, measured by lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-isoprostane (8-ISO), and malondialdehyde (MDA), was associated with improvement in immediate recall among n-3 PUFA-treated coronary artery disease patients. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the CAROTID trial (NCT00981383). Composite immediate recall, measured using the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, was assessed...
2017: Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229363/comparison-of-the-effects-of-flaxseed-oil-and-sunflower-seed-oil-consumption-on-serum-glucose-lipid-profile-blood-pressure-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Atefeh Akrami, Farzad Nikaein, Siavash Babajafari, Shiva Faghih, Hassan Yarmohammadi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. METHODS: This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229294/impact-of-dha-intake-in-a-mouse-model-of-synucleinopathy
#6
Katherine Coulombe, Olivier Kerdiles, Cyntia Tremblay, Vincent Emond, Manon Lebel, Anne-Sophie Boulianne, Mélanie Plourde, Francesca Cicchetti, Frédéric Calon
Polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to prevent, and partially reverse, neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal denervation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the accumulation of α-synuclein (αSyn) in cerebral tissues is equally important to the pathophysiology. To determine whether DHA intake improves various aspects related to synucleinopathy, ninety male mice overexpressing human αSyn under the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-αSyn) were fed one of three diets (specially formulated control, low n-3 PUFA or high DHA) and compared to non-transgenic C57/BL6 littermate mice exposed to a control diet...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229218/a-controlled-study-of-plasma-fatty-acids-in-indian-patients-with-depressive-episode
#7
Bichitra Nanda Patra, Sudhir K Khandelwal, Rakesh K Chadda, Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Ransi Ann Abraham
AIM: To study the plasma omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid levels in patients with depressive episode and in matched healthy controls. METHOD: Thirty patients with first episode depression and thirty healthy matched control subjects were recruited from a tertiary care hospital setting. We measured plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels of the study and the control group. RESULT: There were no significant differences in plasma omega 3 fatty acid levels between study group and control group...
December 8, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228998/capturing-health-and-eating-status-through-a-nutritional-perception-screening-questionnaire-npsq9-in-a-randomised-internet-based-personalised-nutrition-intervention-the-food4me-study
#8
Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Barbara Stewart-Knox, Audrey Rankin, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Marianne C Walsh, Christina P Lambrinou, George Moschonis, Yannis Manios, Miroslaw Jarosz, Hannelore Daniel, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Thomas E Gundersen, Christian A Drevon, Mike Gibney, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Julie A Lovegrove, Lynn J Frewer, John C Mathers, J Alfredo Martinez
BACKGROUND: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228948/influence-of-pharmacological-education-on-perceptions-attitudes-and-use-of-dietary-supplements-by-medical-students
#9
Z Stanojević-Ristić, S Stević, J Rašić, D Valjarević, M Dejanović, A Valjarević
BACKGROUND: The ready availability and use of dietary supplements (DS) by the public means that healthcare professionals require education in this area. In the Republic of Serbia, education related to use of DS is included in undergraduate medical training and it is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of this education. The aim of our survey was to investigate the influence of pharmacological education on the use, attitudes and perceptions of risks associated with DS among medical students...
December 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223557/efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-statin-treated-patients-with-residual-hypertriglyceridemia-romantic-rosuvastatin-omacor-in-residual-hypertriglyceridemia-a-randomized-double-blind-and-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Chee Hae Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Jaemyung Yu, Sang Hak Lee, Hui Kyung Jeon, Sang Hyun Kim, Seok Yeon Kim, Ki Hoon Han, Kyungheon Won, Dong-Bin Kim, Kwang-Jae Lee, Kyungwan Min, Dong Won Byun, Sang-Wook Lim, Chul Woo Ahn, SeongHwan Kim, Young Joon Hong, Jidong Sung, Seung-Ho Hur, Soon Jun Hong, Hong-Seok Lim, Ie Byung Park, In Joo Kim, Hyoungwoo Lee, Hyo-Soo Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of adding ω-3 fatty acids to rosuvastatin in patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia despite statin treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After a 4-week run-in period of rosuvastatin treatment, the patients who had residual hypertriglyceridemia were randomized to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg/d plus ω-3 fatty acids 4 g/d (ROSUMEGA group) or rosuvastatin 20 mg/d (rosuvastatin group) with a 1:1 ratio and were prescribed each medication for 8 weeks...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222889/effects-of-parenteral-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-postoperative-gastrointestinal-cancer-on-immune-function-and-length-of-hospital-stay-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hao Bai, Zhaoping Li, Yan Meng, Yue Yu, Huanhuan Zhang, Deqiang Shen, Liyong Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used in nutritional support. However, whether parenteral supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids is effective for gastrointestinal cancer patients remains uncertain. This study assessed the effects of this form of parenteral nutrition on immune function and clinical outcomes in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the reference lists of selected studies to identify randomized controlled trials that compared ω-3 fatty acids with a control, and that included immune indices, infectious complications, or length of hospital stay in the final outcomes...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218228/similar-adverse-events-from-two-disparate-agents-implicate-lipid-inflammatory-mediators-for-a-role-in-anxiety-states
#12
Gordon C McCarter, Lauren B Blanchard
We recently reported a case in which a 54-year-old male experienced maintenance insomnia, generalized anxiety and panic symptoms associated with consumption of a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We report here that the same patient has experienced identical but more severe symptoms in response to the use of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast, in accordance with other cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Since omega-3 fatty acids like EPA are precursors for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids including leukotrienes, a common factor to these psychiatric adverse events may be perturbations in this highly complex system of lipid inflammatory mediators...
November 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217656/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-brain-physiological-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-pharmacology
#13
REVIEW
Sophie Layé, Agnès Nadjar, Corinne Joffre, Richard P Bazinet
Classically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were largely thought to be relatively inert structural components of brain, largely important for the formation of cellular membranes. Over the past 10 years, a host of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, and docosahexaenoic acid, the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, known to regulate peripheral immune function, have been detected in the brain and shown to regulate microglia activation. Recent advances have focused on how PUFA regulate the molecular signaling of microglia, especially in the context of neuroinflammation and behavior...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217628/conversion-efficiency-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-to-omega-3-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-aerial-insectivore-chicks
#14
Cornelia W Twining, Peter Lawrence, David W Winkler, Alexander S Flecker, J Thomas Brenna
Food availability and quality are both critical for growing young animals. In nature, swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and other aerial insectivores feed on both aquatic insects, which are rich in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and terrestrial insects, which contain considerably lower amounts of omega-3 HUFA. Carnivorous mammals and fishes must obtain omega-3 HUFA from diet, as they have lost the capacity to convert the precursor omega-3 ALA into omega-3 HUFA. Thus, the relative value of aquatic versus terrestrial insects depends not only on the fatty acid composition of the prey, but also upon the capacity of consumers to convert ALA into omega-3 HUFA...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216635/deficits-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-during-adolescence-reduce-rat-forebrain-white-matter-microstructural-integrity-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#15
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Bart D Peters, Diana M Lindquist
Neuropsychiatric disorders that frequently initially emerge during adolescence are associated with deficits in the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), elevated proinflammatory signaling, and regional reductions in white matter integrity (WMI). This study determined the effects of altering brain DHA accrual during adolescence on WMI in the rat brain by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated the potential mediating role of proinflammatory signaling. During periadolescent development, male rats were fed a diet deficient in n-3 fatty acids (DEF, n = 20), a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20), or a control diet (CON, n = 20)...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215971/a-mediterranean-style-dietary-intervention-supplemented-with-fish-oil-improves-diet-quality-and-mental-health-in-people-with-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial-helfimed
#16
Natalie Parletta, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Jihyun Cho, Amy Wilson, Svetlana Bogomolova, Anthony Villani, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Theo Niyonsenga, Sarah Blunden, Barbara Meyer, Leonie Segal, Bernhard T Baune, Kerin O'Dea
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether a Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) supplemented with fish oil can improve mental health in adults suffering depression. METHODS: Adults with self-reported depression were randomized to receive fortnightly food hampers and MedDiet cooking workshops for 3 months and fish oil supplements for 6 months, or attend social groups fortnightly for 3 months. Assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months included mental health, quality of life (QoL) and dietary questionnaires, and blood samples for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis...
December 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215589/impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-gut-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Barbara Farinon, Nicolò Merendino
Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213183/screening-of-new-british-thraustochytrids-isolates-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-production
#18
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Jane L Polglase, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids isolated from hot tropical and sub-tropical waters have been well studied for DHA and biodiesel production in the last decades. However, little research has been performed on the oils of cold water thraustochytrids, in particular from the North Sea region. In this study, thraustochytrid strains from British waters showed high relative levels of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3). The relative levels of DHA (as % of total fatty acids, TFA) in the different British strains are hitherto amongst the highest recorded from any thraustochytrid screening study, with strain TL18 reaching up to 67% DHA in modified Glucose-Yeast Extract-Peptone (GYP) medium...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209514/fish-oil-supplementation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-feasibility-of-conducting-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Ashley S Fulton, Alison M Coates, Marie T Williams, Peter R C Howe, Manohar L Garg, Lisa G Wood, Peter Frith, Alison M Hill
Background: Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) may act as an effective adjunct therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition characterised by persistent airflow limitation and inflammation. However, the nature of this illness presents challenges for evaluating potential benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled trial of LCn-3PUFA supplementation in adults with COPD. Methods: A 16-week parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled dietary supplementation trial was conducted...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207548/the-role-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-developmental-psychopathology-a-systematic-review-on-early-psychosis-autism-and-adhd
#20
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Maria Nobile, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandra Tesei, Stefano Turolo, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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