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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430061/frozen-ethics-melting-the-boundaries-between-medical-treatment-and-organ-procurement
#1
George J Annas, Michael A Grodin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426645/announcement-world-malaria-day-april-25-2017
#2
(no author information available yet)
World Malaria Day is commemorated each year on April 25, the date in 2000 when leaders of 44 African nations met in Abuja, Nigeria, and committed their countries to reducing the number of malaria-related deaths. Approximately 90% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa (1). During the last 15 years, donors have collectively supported the procurement and distribution of billions of insecticide-treated bed nets and courses of artemisinin-based combination therapy globally. These improvements in malaria control are estimated to have saved an estimated 6...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424129/hospital-characteristics-affect-consent-and-conversion-rates-for-potential-organ-donors
#3
Jawad T Ali, Aileen Ebadat, Danilo Martins, Sadia Ali, Shannon Horton, Thomas B Coopwood, Carlos V R Brown
Consent and conversion rates of potential organ donors in the United States need to be maximized to match the number of individuals awaiting organ donation. Studies to date have not focused on characteristics of centers with better outcomes. We performed an 8-year (2006-2014) retrospective study of our local organ procurement organization database. We categorized hospitals in our region as academic centers versus nonacademic centers, trauma centers versus nontrauma centers, and large (≥400 beds) centers versus small (<400 beds) centers...
April 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419126/availability-and-affordability-of-antimalarial-and-antibiotic-medicines-in-malawi
#4
Felix Khuluza, Lutz Heide
BACKGROUND: Availability and affordability of medicines are key determinants of universal health coverage, yet achieving them presents a major challenge especially in low-income countries. We here present an analysis of availability and prices of antimalarial and antibiotic medicines in public, faith-based and private health facilities in Malawi. Medicines are provided free of charge in the public health care system of Malawi. In contrast, facilities of the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM) usually charge their patients for medicines, as do private for-profit facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412817/impact-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-exudate-on-the-formation-and-reactivity-of-iron-oxide-particles-following-fe-ii-and-fe-iii-addition
#5
Shikha Garg, Kai Wang, T David Waite
Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412135/moving-beyond-quality-control-in-diagnostic-radiology-and-the-role-of-the-clinically-qualified-medical-physicist
#6
REVIEW
H Delis, K Christaki, B Healy, G Loreti, G L Poli, P Toroi, A Meghzifene
Quality control (QC), according to ISO definitions, represents the most basic level of quality. It is considered to be the snapshot of the performance or the characteristics of a product or service, in order to verify that it complies with the requirements. Although it is usually believed that "the role of medical physicists in Diagnostic Radiology is QC", this, not only limits the contribution of medical physicists, but is also no longer adequate to meet the needs of Diagnostic Radiology in terms of Quality...
April 12, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403541/histopathological-evaluation-of-pretransplant-donor-biopsies-in-expanded-criteria-donors-with-high-kidney-donor-profile-index
#7
A Sánchez-Escuredo, A Sagasta, I Revuelta, L M Rodas, D Paredes, M Musquera, F Diekmann, J M Campistol, M Solé, F Oppenheimer
There is no consensus on the allocation of renal transplants from expanded criteria donors (ECD). The Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) is used without the need for pre-transplant donor biopsies (PTDB). We explored whether PTDB based on Remuzzi Score (RS) allows identification of those marginal kidneys in the highest calculated KDPI risk group (>91%) that appropriate for single transplantation. A retrospective study was conducted of 485 consecutive kidneys procured from a single center and transplanted if the RS was <4...
April 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401114/time-trends-in-organ-donation-after-neurologic-determination-of-death-a-cohort-study
#8
Andreas H Kramer, Ryan Baht, Christopher J Doig
BACKGROUND: The cause of brain injury may influence the number of organs that can be procured and transplanted with donation following neurologic determination of death. We investigated whether the distribution of causes responsible for neurologic death has changed over time and, if so, whether this has had an impact on organ quality, transplantation rates and recipient outcomes. METHODS: We performed a cohort study involving consecutive brain-dead organ donors in southern Alberta between 2003 and 2014...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397363/improved-time-to-notification-of-impending-brain-death-and-increased-organ-donation-using-an-electronic-clinical-decision-support-system
#9
J L Zier, A B Spaulding, M Finch, T Verschaetse, R Tarrago
Early referral of patients to an organ procurement organization (OPO) may positively impact donation outcomes. We implemented an electronic clinic decision support (CDS) system to automatically notify our OPO of children meeting clinical triggers indicating impending brain death. Medical records of all patients who died in a pediatric critical care unit or were referred for imminent death for three years prior to installation of the initial CDS (pre-CDS) and for one year after implementation of the final CDS (post-CDS) were reviewed...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395322/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#10
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390648/hospital-characteristics-associated-with-increased-conversion-rates-among-organ-donors-in-new-england
#11
Arturo J Rios-Diaz, Olubode A Olufajo, Jill Stinebring, Samantha Endicott, Brandon T McKown, David Metcalfe, Cheryl K Zogg, Ali Salim
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether hospital characteristics affect institutional performance with regard to organ donation. We sought to determine which hospital- and patient-level characteristics are associated with high organ donor conversion rates after brain death (DBD). METHODS: Data were extracted from the regional Organ Procurement Organization (2011-2014) and other sources. Hospitals were stratified into high-conversion hospitals (HCH; upper-tertile) and low-conversion hospitals (LCH; lower-tertile) according to conversion rates...
March 30, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390581/fungal-raw-materials-used-to-produce-allergen-extracts
#12
Robert E Esch, Rosa Codina
OBJECTIVE: To review the topic of fungal raw materials used for the production of allergen extracts and the associated challenges and highlight candidate areas for development before standardized fungal allergen extracts can be commercially produced. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed using focused keywords and combined with a review of regulatory documents and industry guidelines. Several books on mycology also were consulted. STUDY SELECTIONS: The information obtained through the literature, books, and industry was scrutinized and combined with personal experience and expertise to write this article...
April 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381305/fair-is-fair-we-must-re-allocate-livers-for-transplant
#13
Brendan Parent, Arthur L Caplan
The 11 original regions for organ allocation in the United States were determined by proximity between hospitals that provided deceased donors and transplant programs. As liver transplants became more successful and demand rose, livers became a scarce resource. A national system has been implemented to prioritize liver allocation according to disease severity, but the system still operates within the original procurement regions, some of which have significantly more deceased donor livers. Although each region prioritizes its sickest patients to be liver transplant recipients, the sickest in less liver-scarce regions get transplants much sooner and are at far lower risk of death than the sickest in more liver-scarce regions...
April 5, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379853/donation-after-circulatory-death-heart-transplantation
#14
Kumud K Dhital, Hong C Chew, Peter S Macdonald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite continued expansion in the use of extended-criteria donor hearts following donation after brain death, there remains an unacceptable discrepancy between the supply of suitable donor hearts and the demand from increasing recipient numbers on transplant wait lists. Until recently, the additional approach of utilizing organs following donation after circulatory death (DCD) had not been possible for clinical heart transplantation in the modern era. This review describes relevant advances in translational research and provides an update on the favourable adoption of this donation pathway for clinical heart transplantation...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366553/implications-and-outcomes-of-cardiac-grafts-refused-by-pediatric-centers-but-transplanted-by-adult-centers
#15
Farhan Zafar, Raheel Rizwan, Angela Lorts, Roosevelt Bryant, James S Tweddell, Clifford Chin, David L Morales
BACKGROUND: According to Organ Procurement Transplant Network policy, hearts from donors age <18 years are offered to pediatric recipients before being offered to adults of the same health status. We aimed to analyze differences in the use of adolescent donor hearts between adult and pediatric candidates and also to analyze the outcomes of pediatric candidates in which an adolescent donor heart was refused and later used in an adult recipient. METHODS: All adolescent donors (age 12-17 years) for 2000 to 2015 were identified using the standard United Network of Organ Sharing dataset and matched against the Potential Transplant Recipient dataset...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366459/the-paradoxical-relationship-between-donor-distance-and-survival-after-heart-transplantation
#16
Todd C Crawford, J Trent Magruder, Joshua C Grimm, Clinton D Kemp, Alejandro Suarez-Pierre, Kenton J Zehr, Kaushik Mandal, Glenn J Whitman, John V Conte, Robert S Higgins, Duke E Cameron, Christopher M Sciortino
BACKGROUND: Concerns over prolonged allograft ischemia have limited the widespread adoption of long-distance organ procurement in heart transplantation (HT). We sought to assess whether donor distance from the center of transplantation independently affects mortality. METHODS: We queried the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database for adults undergoing isolated HT from 2005 to 2012. Risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for the primary outcomes of 30-day and 1-year mortality, and the independent impact of donor distance from transplantation center at the time of procurement was assessed...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366202/human-predatory-behavior-and-the-social-implications-of-communal-hunting-based-on-evidence-from-the-td10-2-bison-bone-bed-at-gran-dolina-atapuerca-spain
#17
Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Palmira Saladié, Andreu Ollé, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell
Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364939/innovations-in-cold-chain-equipment-for-immunization-supply-chains
#18
REVIEW
Joanie Robertson, Lauren Franzel, Denis Maire
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. METHODS: This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363739/functional-status-of-united-states-children-supported-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device-at-heart-transplantation
#19
Anica Bulic, Katsuhide Maeda, Yulin Zhang, Sharon Chen, Doff B McElhinney, John C Dykes, Amanda M Hollander, Seth A Hollander, Jenna Murray, Olaf Reinhartz, Mary Alice Gowan, David N Rosenthal, Christopher S Almond
BACKGROUND: As survival with pediatric left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has improved, decisions regarding the optimal support strategy may depend more on quality of life and functional status (FS) rather than mortality alone. Limited data are available regarding the FS of children supported with LVADs. We sought to compare the FS of children supported with LVADs vs vasoactive infusions to inform decision making around support strategies. METHODS: Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data were used to identify all United States children aged between 1 and 21 years at heart transplant (HT) between 2006 and 2015 for dilated cardiomyopathy and supported with an LVAD or vasoactive infusions alone at HT...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361117/the-privilege-of-induction-avoidance-and-calcineurin-inhibitors-withdrawal-in-2-haplotype-hla-matched-white-kidney-transplantation
#20
Zaid Brifkani, Daniel C Brennan, Krista L Lentine, Timothy A Horwedel, Andrew F Malone, Rowena Delos Santos, Thin Thin Maw, Tarek Alhamad
BACKGROUND: White recipients of 2-haplotype HLA-matched living kidney transplants are perceived to be of low immunologic risk. Little is known about the safety of induction avoidance and calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in these patients. METHODS: We reviewed our experience at a single center and compared it to Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) registry data and only included 2-haplotype HLA-matched white living kidney transplants recipients between 2000 and 2013...
March 2017: Transplantation Direct
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