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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#1
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889272/can-muscle-coordination-explain-the-advantage-of-using-the-standing-position-during-intense-cycling
#2
Nicolas A Turpin, Antony Costes, Pierre Moretto, Bruno Watier
OBJECTIVES: When compared to seated, the standing position allows the production of higher power outputs during intense cycling. We hypothesized that muscle coordination could explain this advantage. To test this hypothesis, we assessed muscle activity over a wide range of power outputs for both seated and standing cycling positions. DESIGN: Nine lower limb muscle activities from seventeen untrained volunteers were recorded during cycling sequences performed in the seated and the standing positions at power outputs ranging from ∼100 to 700W at 90±5 revolutions-per-minute (RPM)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871968/lateral-ligament-reconstruction-procedures-for-the-ankle
#3
REVIEW
Yves Tourné, Christian Mabit
Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options...
November 18, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863279/evidence-of-compensatory-joint-kinetics-during-stair-ascent-and-descent-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Zachary J Conway, Peter A Silburn, Tim Blackmore, Michael H Cole
BACKGROUND: Stair ambulation is a challenging activity of daily life that requires larger joint moments than walking. Stabilisation of the body and prevention of lower limb collapse during this task depends upon adequately-sized hip, knee and ankle extensor moments. However, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with strength deficits that may impair their capacity to control the lower limbs and ultimately increase their falls risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate hip, knee and ankle joint moments during stair ascent and descent and determine the contribution of these joints to the body's support in people with PD...
November 9, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845481/unilateral-variation-in-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle
#5
A Banerje, S Singh, K Raza, N Rani, S Kaler
During a routine dissection of an adult embalmed male cadaver for educational purpose in the department of anatomy at AIIMS, New Delhi, India, a rare unilateral variation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was found which is a muscle of anterior compartment of the leg. There was a split tendon of EDL muscle in the anterior compartment of left leg which became a common tendon in front of the ankle joint. This common tendon of EDL muscle again divided into four slips and were inserted in to the lateral four toes...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816210/interrater-reliability-in-the-clinical-evaluation-of-myofascial-trigger-points-in-three-ankle-muscles
#6
David Rodríguez Sanz, César Calvo Lobo, Daniel López López, Carlos Romero Morales, Carlos Sosa Marín, Irene Sanz Corbalán
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and extensor digitorum longus muscles. METHODS: A reliability research study was performed. Three physical therapists with clinical experience in myofascial pain functioned as raters and randomly and bilaterally evaluated the ankles of 40 subjects in the Madrid public health care system. The absence or presence of MTrPs, nodules in taut bands, patterns of referred pain, local twitch response (LTR), and jump-sign were evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815704/relationships-between-lower-body-strength-and-the-energy-cost-of-treadmill-walking-in-a-cohort-of-healthy-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#7
Nicolas Berryman, Louis Bherer, Sylvie Nadeau, Séléna Lauzière, Lora Lehr, Florian Bobeuf, Marie Jeanne Kergoat, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: Gait speed is associated with survival in older adults and it was suggested that an elevated energy cost of walking (Cw) is an important determinant of gait speed reduction. Thus far, little is known about the factors that contribute to a lower Cw but it was shown that lower body strength training could reduce the Cw. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower body strength and the Cw in a cohort of healthy older adults. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were included in this study (70...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785862/relationship-between-physical-function-and-biomechanical-gait-patterns-in-boys-with-haemophilia
#8
D Stephensen, S Taylor, M Bladen, W I Drechsler
INTRODUCTION: The World Federation of Haemophilia recommends joint and muscle health is evaluated using X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, together with clinical examination scores. To date, inclusion of performance-based functional activities to monitor children with the condition has received little attention. AIM: To evaluate test-retest repeatability of physical function tests and quantify relationships between physical function, lower limb muscle strength and gait patterns in young boys with haemophilia...
November 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744026/reliability-of-the-spinal-cord-assessment-tool-for-spastic-reflexes
#9
Pinar Akpinar, Arzu Atici, Feyza U Ozkan, Ilknur Aktas, Duygu G Kulcu, Kubra Neslihan Kurt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). DESIGN: Observational reliability study of the SCATS . SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation unit at an education and research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 47 subjects between the ages of 18 and 88 years with spinal cord injury, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale grades from A to D with spasticity, and at least 6 months post injury...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693661/effect-of-muscle-relaxation-in-the-foot-on-simultaneous-muscle-contraction-in-the-contralateral-hand
#10
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
We investigated the effects of foot muscle relaxation and contraction on muscle activities in the hand on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The subjects sat in an armchair with hands in the pronated position. They were able to freely move their right/left hand and foot. They performed three tasks for both ipsilateral (right hand and right foot) and contralateral limb coordination (left hand and right foot for a total of six tasks). These tasks involved: (1) wrist extension from a flexed (resting) position, (2) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle dorsiflexion from a plantarflexed (resting) position, and (3) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle relaxation from a dorsiflexed position...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689604/hip-abductor-trunk-extensor-and-ankle-plantar-flexor-endurance-in-females-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#11
Joachim Van Cant, Laurent Pitance, Véronique Feipel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported strength deficit in hip abduction, extension and external rotation in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) when compared with healthy control; however, there is conflicting evidence for a decrease in hip muscle endurance. Therefore, it seems important to evaluate hip muscle endurance in females with PFP. Moreover, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance have not yet been evaluate in females with PFP. OBJECTIVE: To compare hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance between females with and without PFP...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676800/plastic-changes-in-spinal-synaptic-transmission-following-botulinum-toxin-a-in-post-stroke-spastic-patients
#12
Marjorie Kerzoncuf, Laurent Bensoussan, Jean Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Christiane Rossi Durand
OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effects of intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin-type A on spasticity can be largely explained by its blocking action at the neuromuscular junction. BTx-A is assumed also to have a central action by affecting the functional organization of the CNS. The objective was to assess its action on spinal motor networks by investigating the post-activation depression (post-AD) of the soleus H-reflex in post-stroke patients. Post-AD that is a presynaptic mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of Ia-motoneuron transmission is involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670646/whole-body-angular-momentum-during-sloped-walking-using-passive-and-powered-lower-limb-prostheses
#13
Nathaniel T Pickle, Jason M Wilken, Jennifer M Aldridge Whitehead, Anne K Silverman
Sloped walking requires altered strategies for maintaining dynamic balance relative to level-ground walking, as evidenced by changes in sagittal-plane whole-body angular momentum (H) in able-bodied individuals. The ankle plantarflexor muscles are critical for regulating H, and functional loss of these muscles from transtibial amputation affects this regulation. However, it is unclear if a powered prosthesis, which more closely emulates intact ankle function than a passive energy-storage-and-return prosthesis, affects H differently during sloped walking...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669187/muscle-specific-effective-mechanical-advantage-and-joint-impulse-in-weightlifting
#14
Kristof Kipp, Chad Harris
Lifting greater loads during weightlifting exercises may theoretically be achieved through increasing the magnitudes of net joint impulses or manipulating the joints' effective mechanical advantage (EMA). The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle-specific EMA and joint impulse as well as impulse-momentum characteristics of the lifter-barbell system across a range of external loads during the execution of the clean. Collegiate-level weightlifters performed sub-maximal cleans at 65, 75, and 85% of their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) while data from a motion analysis system and a force plate were used to calculate lifter-barbell system impulse and velocity, as well as net extensor impulse generated at the hip, knee, and ankle joints and the EMA of the gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps, and triceps surae muscles...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628128/positive-effects-of-specific-exercise-and-novel-turning-based-treadmill-training-on-turning-performance-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Fang-Yu Cheng, Yea-Ru Yang, Li-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Shih-Jung Cheng, Ray-Yau Wang
Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620726/intra-rater-reliability-of-the-modified-tardieu-scale-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Soofia Naghdi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Sedighe Ghorbani-Rad, Maryam Senobari, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
The reliability of the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) has not been examined in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to assess intra-rater reliability of the MTS in the assessment of lower limb spasticity in patients with MS. Data from 30 patients with MS (18 women, mean age = 41.5) were used to assess intra-rater reliability. An inexperienced physiotherapist in the scale randomly examined the hip adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on each subject twice with at least a 7-day interval...
September 12, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607304/effects-of-age-and-physical-activity-status-on-redistribution-of-joint-work-during-walking
#17
Harsh H Buddhadev, Philip E Martin
During walking older adults rely less on ankle and more on hip work than young adults. Disproportionate declines in plantarflexor strength may be a mechanism underlying this proximal work redistribution. We tested the hypothesis that proximal redistribution is more apparent in older compared to young adults and in sedentary compared to active individuals over multiple walking speeds. We recruited 18 young (18-35 yrs) and 17 older (65-80 yrs) physically active and sedentary adults. Participants completed five trials at four walking speeds as marker positions and ground reaction forces were collected...
September 1, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598715/lower-limb-joint-kinetics-in-the-starting-blocks-and-first-stance-in-athletic-sprinting
#18
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to examine lower limb joint kinetics during the block and first stance phases in athletic sprinting. Ten male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.50 ± 0.27 s) performed maximal sprint starts from blocks. External force (1000 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) were recorded in both the block (utilising instrumented starting blocks) and subsequent first stance phases. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment, power and work were calculated at the rear and front leg during the block phase and during first stance using inverse dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580452/relationship-between-lower-limb-muscle-strength-self-reported-pain-and-function-and-frontal-plane-gait-kinematics-in-knee-osteoarthritis
#19
Sang-Kyoon Park, Dylan Kobsar, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients...
October 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580150/kinematic-mechanisms-of-how-power-training-improves-healthy-old-adults-gait-velocity
#20
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 weeks of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), participants started with 10 weeks of power training followed by 10 weeks of detraining (n = 16) and participants started with a 10-week control period followed by 10 weeks of power training (n = 16)...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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