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ankle extensor

Pinar Akpinar, Arzu Atici, Feyza U Ozkan, Ilknur Aktas, Duygu G Kulcu, Kubra Neslihan Kurt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). DESIGN: Observational reliability study of the SCATS . SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation unit at an education and research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 47 subjects between the ages of 18 and 88 years with spinal cord injury, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale grades from A to D with spasticity, and at least 6 months post injury...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
We investigated the effects of foot muscle relaxation and contraction on muscle activities in the hand on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The subjects sat in an armchair with hands in the pronated position. They were able to freely move their right/left hand and foot. They performed three tasks for both ipsilateral (right hand and right foot) and contralateral limb coordination (left hand and right foot for a total of six tasks). These tasks involved: (1) wrist extension from a flexed (resting) position, (2) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle dorsiflexion from a plantarflexed (resting) position, and (3) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle relaxation from a dorsiflexed position...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Joachim Van Cant, Laurent Pitance, Véronique Feipel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported strength deficit in hip abduction, extension and external rotation in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) when compared with healthy control; however, there is conflicting evidence for a decrease in hip muscle endurance. Therefore, it seems important to evaluate hip muscle endurance in females with PFP. Moreover, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance have not yet been evaluate in females with PFP. OBJECTIVE: To compare hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance between females with and without PFP...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Marjorie Kerzoncuf, Laurent Bensoussan, Jean Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Christiane Rossi Durand
OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effects of intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin-type A on spasticity can be largely explained by its blocking action at the neuromuscular junction. BTx-A is assumed also to have a central action by affecting the functional organization of the CNS. The objective was to assess its action on spinal motor networks by investigating the post-activation depression (post-AD) of the soleus H-reflex in post-stroke patients. Post-AD that is a presynaptic mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of Ia-motoneuron transmission is involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Nathaniel T Pickle, Jason M Wilken, Jennifer M Aldridge Whitehead, Anne K Silverman
Sloped walking requires altered strategies for maintaining dynamic balance relative to level-ground walking, as evidenced by changes in sagittal-plane whole-body angular momentum (H) in able-bodied individuals. The ankle plantarflexor muscles are critical for regulating H, and functional loss of these muscles from transtibial amputation affects this regulation. However, it is unclear if a powered prosthesis, which more closely emulates intact ankle function than a passive energy-storage-and-return prosthesis, affects H differently during sloped walking...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Kristof Kipp, Chad Harris
Lifting greater loads during weightlifting exercises may theoretically be achieved through increasing the magnitudes of net joint impulses or manipulating the joints' effective mechanical advantage (EMA). The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle-specific EMA and joint impulse as well as impulse-momentum characteristics of the lifter-barbell system across a range of external loads during the execution of the clean. Collegiate-level weightlifters performed sub-maximal cleans at 65, 75, and 85% of their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) while data from a motion analysis system and a force plate were used to calculate lifter-barbell system impulse and velocity, as well as net extensor impulse generated at the hip, knee, and ankle joints and the EMA of the gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps, and triceps surae muscles...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Fang-Yu Cheng, Yea-Ru Yang, Li-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Shih-Jung Cheng, Ray-Yau Wang
Two different training strategies to improve turning performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) were designed and investigated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a specific exercise group, turning-based training group, or control group to receive training that emphasized balance and strengthening, turning-based treadmill training, and general exercise training, respectively. A total of 12 30-min training sessions followed by 10 min of turning training on a level surface were administered over 4 to 6 weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
Soofia Naghdi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Sedighe Ghorbani-Rad, Maryam Senobari, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
The reliability of the Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS) has not been examined in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to assess intra-rater reliability of the MTS in the assessment of lower limb spasticity in patients with MS. Data from 30 patients with MS (18 women, mean age = 41.5) were used to assess intra-rater reliability. An inexperienced physiotherapist in the scale randomly examined the hip adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors on each subject twice with at least a 7-day interval...
September 12, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Harsh H Buddhadev, Philip E Martin
During walking older adults rely less on ankle and more on hip work than young adults. Disproportionate declines in plantarflexor strength may be a mechanism underlying this proximal work redistribution. We tested the hypothesis that proximal redistribution is more apparent in older compared to young adults and in sedentary compared to active individuals over multiple walking speeds. We recruited 18 young (18-35 yrs) and 17 older (65-80 yrs) physically active and sedentary adults. Participants completed five trials at four walking speeds as marker positions and ground reaction forces were collected...
September 1, 2016: Gait & Posture
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to examine lower limb joint kinetics during the block and first stance phases in athletic sprinting. Ten male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.50 ± 0.27 s) performed maximal sprint starts from blocks. External force (1000 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) were recorded in both the block (utilising instrumented starting blocks) and subsequent first stance phases. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment, power and work were calculated at the rear and front leg during the block phase and during first stance using inverse dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Sang-Kyoon Park, Dylan Kobsar, Reed Ferber
BACKGROUND: The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients...
October 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 weeks of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), participants started with 10 weeks of power training followed by 10 weeks of detraining (n = 16) and participants started with a 10-week control period followed by 10 weeks of power training (n = 16)...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sarah A Schloemer, Julie A Thompson, Amy Silder, Darryl G Thelen, Robert A Siston
Age-related increased hip extensor recruitment during gait is a proposed compensation strategy for reduced ankle power generation and may indicate a distal-to-proximal shift in muscle function with age. Extending beyond joint level analyses, identifying age-related changes at the muscle level could capture more closely the underlying mechanisms responsible for movement. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare muscle forces and induced accelerations during gait in healthy older adults with those of young adults...
August 29, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Olga Gajewska-Woźniak, Kamil Grycz, Julita Czarkowska-Bauch, Małgorzata Skup
The effects of stimulation of low-threshold proprioceptive afferents in the tibial nerve on two types of excitatory inputs to α-motoneurons were tested. The first input is formed by glutamatergic Ia sensory afferents contacting monosynaptically α-motoneurons. The second one is the cholinergic input originating from V0c-interneurons, located in lamina X of the spinal cord, modulating activity of α-motoneurons via C-terminals. Our aim was to clarify whether enhancement of signaling to ankle extensor α-motoneurons, via direct electrical stimulation addressed predominantly to low-threshold proprioceptive fibers in the tibial nerve of awake rats, will affect Ia glutamatergic and cholinergic innervation of α-motoneurons of lateral gastrocnemius (LG)...
2016: PloS One
Juliette Ding, Antoine Moraux, Éric Nectoux, Xavier Demondion, Élisa Amzallag-Bellenger, Nathalie Boutry
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new sonographic feature for a traumatic lesion of the ankle in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a retrospective review of superior extensor retinaculum (SER) avulsions diagnosed by ultrasound (US) as a cause of subperiosteal haematoma (SPH) and periosteal apposition of the distal fibula in seven children (3 girls and 4 boys, mean age 13.4 years; age range 10-15 years) after an inversion trauma of the ankle. Two children were subsequently examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Sujit Kumar Tripathy, Ramesh Kumar Sen, Tarun Goyal
Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG) osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Cathleen Buckon, Susan Sienko, Anita Bagley, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Eileen Fowler, Loretta Staudt, Kent Heberer, Craig M McDonald, Michael Sussman
BACKGROUND: In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging...
2016: PLoS Currents
Suzanne M Schneider, Stuart M C Lee, Alan H Feiveson, Donald E Watenpaugh, Brandon R Macias, Alan R Hargens
Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol performed against LBNPEX 6 days week(-1) would attenuate losses in leg lean mass (LLM), strength, and endurance during 6° head-down tilt BR, with similar benefits for men and women...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Zachary Lerner, Diane Damiano, Hyung-Soon Park, Andrew Gravunder, Thomas Bulea
Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Steven M Jackson, M Samuel Cheng, A Russell Smith, Morey J Kolber
Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon...
July 21, 2016: Manual Therapy
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