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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057348/lower-extremity-control-during-turns-initiated-with-and-without-hip-external-rotation
#1
Antonia M Zaferiou, Henryk Flashner, Rand R Wilcox, Jill L McNitt-Gray
The pirouette turn is often initiated in neutral and externally rotated hip positions by dancers. This provides an opportunity to investigate how dancers satisfy the same mechanical objectives at the whole-body level when using different leg kinematics. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity control strategies during the turn initiation phase of pirouettes performed with and without hip external rotation. Skilled dancers (n=5) performed pirouette turns with and without hip external rotation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049266/does-vitamin-d-affect-muscle-strength-and-architecture-an-isokinetic-and-ultrasonographic-study
#2
Murat Kara, Timur Ekiz, Özgür Kara, Tülay Tiftik, Fevziye Ünsal Malas, Sibel Özbudak Demir, Neşe Özgirgin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the association between 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and muscle strength/architecture. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men) were allocated into Group I (n=15, mean age; 44.4±9.4 years) and Group II (n=15, mean age; 39.0±9.9 years) according to the median of 25(OH)D (<13.7 ng/mL vs >13.7 ng/mL, respectively). Peak torque/body weight of the knee flexor/extensor muscles at 60°/sec and 180°/sec and those of ankle flexor/ extensor muscles at 30°/sec and 90°/sec were evaluated by using a Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043055/hip-mechanics-underlie-lower-extremity-power-training-induced-increase-in-old-adults-fast-gait-velocity-the-potsdam-gait-study-pogs
#3
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with slowed gait and old compared with young adults generally walk with greater positive hip work (H1) and reduced positive ankle work (A2). The role of exercise interventions on old adults' gait mechanics that underlie training-induced improvements in gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training and detraining on old adults' gait kinetics. METHODS: As part of the Potsdam Gait Study (POGS), healthy old adults completed a no-intervention control period (69...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004392/a-critical-period-of-corticomuscular-and-emg-emg-coherence-detection-in-9-25-week-old-healthy-infants
#4
Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anna Herskind, Xi Li, Maria Willerslev-Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard Olsen, Simon Francis Farmer, Jens Bo Nielsen
The early postnatal development of functional corticospinal connections in human infants is not fully clarified. We used EEG and EMG to investigate the development of corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence as indicators of functional corticospinal connectivity in healthy infants aged 1-66 weeks. EEG was recorded over leg and hand area of motor cortex. EMG recordings were made from right ankle dorsiflexor and right wrist extensor muscles. Quantification of the amount of corticomuscular coherence in the 20-40 Hz frequency band showed a significantly larger coherence for infants aged 9-25 weeks compared to younger and older infants...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998241/effects-of-24-weeks-of-whole-body-vibration-versus-multicomponent-training-on-muscle-strength-and-body-composition-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Elena Marín-Cascales, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
The purposes of this study were to analyze the impact of 24 weeks of vibratory and multicomponent training (MT) and to determine what type of training creates greater adaptations on body composition and isokinetic strength of the knee and ankle joints in postmenopausal women. Thirty-eight women (60.0 ± 6.3 years) were randomly assigned to whole body vibration group (WBVG), multicomponent training group (MTG), or a control group. A significant decrease in total fat mass was observed in experimental groups...
January 19, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992070/exercise-for-haemophilia
#6
REVIEW
Karen Strike, Kathy Mulder, Rojer Michael
BACKGROUND: Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder associated with haemorrhaging into joints and muscles. Exercise is often used to aid recovery after bleeds, and to improve joint function in the presence of arthropathy. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically review the available evidence on the safety and effectiveness of exercise for people with haemophilia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coagulopathies Trials Register and electronic databases PubMed, OVID-Embase, and CINAHL...
19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989337/review-of-drop-hallux-assessment-and-surgical-repair
#7
Carl A Kihm, Craig A Camasta
Peroneal nerve palsy is common. The hallmark clinical manifestation of peroneal nerve palsy is drop foot. In the drop foot condition, the ankle cannot flex, and the foot does not clear the ground during the swing phase of gait. Spontaneous nerve repair can yield complete or incomplete resolution of drop foot. Some patients with incomplete resolution are left with a drop hallux condition, in which the ankle can dorsiflex, but the hallux remains unable to dorsiflex. This has not been thoroughly discussed in the past, regarding surgical repair...
January 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935426/joint-stiffness-and-running-economy-during-imposed-forefoot-strike-before-and-after-a-long-run-in-rearfoot-strike-runners
#8
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#9
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889272/can-muscle-coordination-explain-the-advantage-of-using-the-standing-position-during-intense-cycling
#10
Nicolas A Turpin, Antony Costes, Pierre Moretto, Bruno Watier
OBJECTIVES: When compared to seated, the standing position allows the production of higher power outputs during intense cycling. We hypothesized that muscle coordination could explain this advantage. To test this hypothesis, we assessed muscle activity over a wide range of power outputs for both seated and standing cycling positions. DESIGN: Nine lower limb muscle activities from seventeen untrained volunteers were recorded during cycling sequences performed in the seated and the standing positions at power outputs ranging from ∼100 to 700W at 90±5 revolutions-per-minute (RPM)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871968/lateral-ligament-reconstruction-procedures-for-the-ankle
#11
REVIEW
Y Tourné, C Mabit
Capsule/ligament lesions of the lateral compartment of the ankle lead to lateral laxity, which is a prime contributor to chronic ankle instability. Lateral ligament reconstruction stabilizes the joint. Exhaustive preoperative clinical and paraclinical work-up is essential. The present article classifies, presents and criticizes the main techniques in terms of long-term stabilization and reduction of osteoarthritis risk. Anatomic ligament repair with reinforcement (mainly extensor retinaculum) or anatomic ligament reconstruction are the two recommended options...
November 18, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863279/evidence-of-compensatory-joint-kinetics-during-stair-ascent-and-descent-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Zachary J Conway, Peter A Silburn, Tim Blackmore, Michael H Cole
BACKGROUND: Stair ambulation is a challenging activity of daily life that requires larger joint moments than walking. Stabilisation of the body and prevention of lower limb collapse during this task depends upon adequately-sized hip, knee and ankle extensor moments. However, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with strength deficits that may impair their capacity to control the lower limbs and ultimately increase their falls risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate hip, knee and ankle joint moments during stair ascent and descent and determine the contribution of these joints to the body's support in people with PD...
November 9, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845481/unilateral-variation-in-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle
#13
A Banerje, S Singh, K Raza, N Rani, S Kaler
During a routine dissection of an adult embalmed male cadaver for educational purpose in the department of anatomy at AIIMS, New Delhi, India, a rare unilateral variation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was found which is a muscle of anterior compartment of the leg. There was a split tendon of EDL muscle in the anterior compartment of left leg which became a common tendon in front of the ankle joint. This common tendon of EDL muscle again divided into four slips and were inserted in to the lateral four toes...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816210/interrater-reliability-in-the-clinical-evaluation-of-myofascial-trigger-points-in-three-ankle-muscles
#14
David Rodríguez Sanz, César Calvo Lobo, Daniel López López, Carlos Romero Morales, Carlos Sosa Marín, Irene Sanz Corbalán
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and extensor digitorum longus muscles. METHODS: A reliability research study was performed. Three physical therapists with clinical experience in myofascial pain functioned as raters and randomly and bilaterally evaluated the ankles of 40 subjects in the Madrid public health care system. The absence or presence of MTrPs, nodules in taut bands, patterns of referred pain, local twitch response (LTR), and jump-sign were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815704/relationships-between-lower-body-strength-and-the-energy-cost-of-treadmill-walking-in-a-cohort-of-healthy-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#15
Nicolas Berryman, Louis Bherer, Sylvie Nadeau, Séléna Lauzière, Lora Lehr, Florian Bobeuf, Marie Jeanne Kergoat, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: Gait speed is associated with survival in older adults and it was suggested that an elevated energy cost of walking (Cw) is an important determinant of gait speed reduction. Thus far, little is known about the factors that contribute to a lower Cw but it was shown that lower body strength training could reduce the Cw. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower body strength and the Cw in a cohort of healthy older adults. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were included in this study (70...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785862/relationship-between-physical-function-and-biomechanical-gait-patterns-in-boys-with-haemophilia
#16
D Stephensen, S Taylor, M Bladen, W I Drechsler
INTRODUCTION: The World Federation of Haemophilia recommends joint and muscle health is evaluated using X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, together with clinical examination scores. To date, inclusion of performance-based functional activities to monitor children with the condition has received little attention. AIM: To evaluate test-retest repeatability of physical function tests and quantify relationships between physical function, lower limb muscle strength and gait patterns in young boys with haemophilia...
November 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744026/reliability-of-the-spinal-cord-assessment-tool-for-spastic-reflexes
#17
Pinar Akpinar, Arzu Atici, Feyza U Ozkan, Ilknur Aktas, Duygu G Kulcu, Kubra Neslihan Kurt
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). DESIGN: Observational reliability study of the SCATS. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation unit at an education and research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects (N=47) between the ages of 18 and 88 years with spinal cord injury (SCI) and with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grades from A to D with spasticity, who were at least 6 months postinjury...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693661/effect-of-muscle-relaxation-in-the-foot-on-simultaneous-muscle-contraction-in-the-contralateral-hand
#18
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
We investigated the effects of foot muscle relaxation and contraction on muscle activities in the hand on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The subjects sat in an armchair with hands in the pronated position. They were able to freely move their right/left hand and foot. They performed three tasks for both ipsilateral (right hand and right foot) and contralateral limb coordination (left hand and right foot for a total of six tasks). These tasks involved: (1) wrist extension from a flexed (resting) position, (2) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle dorsiflexion from a plantarflexed (resting) position, and (3) wrist extension with simultaneous ankle relaxation from a dorsiflexed position...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689604/hip-abductor-trunk-extensor-and-ankle-plantar-flexor-endurance-in-females-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain
#19
Joachim Van Cant, Laurent Pitance, Véronique Feipel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported strength deficit in hip abduction, extension and external rotation in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) when compared with healthy control; however, there is conflicting evidence for a decrease in hip muscle endurance. Therefore, it seems important to evaluate hip muscle endurance in females with PFP. Moreover, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance have not yet been evaluate in females with PFP. OBJECTIVE: To compare hip abductor, trunk extensor and ankle plantar flexor endurance between females with and without PFP...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676800/plastic-changes-in-spinal-synaptic-transmission-following-botulinum-toxin-a-in-post-stroke-spastic-patients
#20
Marjorie Kerzoncuf, Laurent Bensoussan, Jean Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Christiane Rossi Durand
OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effects of intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin-type A on spasticity can be largely explained by its blocking action at the neuromuscular junction. BTx-A is assumed also to have a central action by affecting the functional organization of the CNS. The objective was to assess its action on spinal motor networks by investigating the post-activation depression (post-AD) of the soleus H-reflex in post-stroke patients. Post-AD that is a presynaptic mechanism controlling the synaptic efficacy of Ia-motoneuron transmission is involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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