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whole foods plant based

John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Jay Thomas Sutliffe, Joel Harvey Fuhrman, Mary Jo Carnot, Raena Marie Beetham, Madison Sarah Peddy
UNLABELLED: conduct interventions for health promotion and disease prevention to ameliorate chronic risk factors for disease, such as for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Likewise, nutrient-dense, plant-rich (NDPR) dietary patterns have been shown to be effective at preventing and improving chronic-disease conditions, including CVD. Objective • The study's aim was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an NDPR dietary intervention for worksites to lower CVD risk factors. Design • The study was a 6-wk pilot intervention using a pretest and posttest design...
September 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Tonja R Nansel, Leah M Lipsky, Miriam H Eisenberg, Aiyi Liu, Sanjeev N Mehta, Lori M B Laffel
BACKGROUND: Although cost is a frequently cited barrier to healthful eating, limited prospective data exist. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diet cost with diet quality change. DESIGN: An 18-month randomized clinical trial evaluated a dietary intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Youth with type 1 diabetes duration ≥1 year, age 8.0 to 16.9 years, receiving care at an outpatient tertiary diabetes center in Boston, MA, participated along with a parent from 2010 to 2013 (N=136)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Rachel A Miller, Sarah M Beno, David J Kent, Laura M Carroll, Nicole H Martin, Kathryn J Boor, Jasna Kovac
A facultative anaerobic, spore-forming Bacillus strain FSL W8-0169T, collected from raw milk stored in a silo at a dairy powder processing plant in the Northeastern US was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on a partial sequence of rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Analysis of core genome SNPs clustered this strain separately from known B. cereus group species. Pairwise Average nucleotide identity blast values obtained for FSL W8-0169T compared to type strains of existing B. cereus group species were < 95%, and predicted DNA-DNA hybridization values were < 70%, suggesting that this strain represented a novel B...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Gianfranco Picone, Alessia Trimigno, Paola Tessarin, Silvia Donnini, Adamo Domenico Rombolà, Francesco Capozzi
The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Jianmin Fu, Huimin Liu, Jingjing Hu, Yuqin Liang, Jinjun Liang, Tana Wuyun, Xiaofeng Tan
Diospyros is the largest genus in Ebenaceae, comprising more than 500 species with remarkable economic value, especially Diospyros kaki Thunb., which has traditionally been an important food resource in China, Korea, and Japan. Complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from D. kaki, D. lotus L., D. oleifera Cheng., D. glaucifolia Metc., and Diospyros 'Jinzaoshi' were sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. This is the first cp genome reported in Ebenaceae. The cp genome sequences of Diospyros ranged from 157,300 to 157,784 bp in length, presenting a typical quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats each separated by one large and one small single-copy region...
2016: PloS One
F Granado-Lorencio, E Hernández-Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Increased consumer´s interest in health has driven the development of foods that offer specific beneficial effects. The list of foods and ingredients includes essential and non-essential nutrients, plant and marine components, whole foods, microorganisms, microalgae and technological approaches. Traditionally, health outcomes focussed on the prevention of chronic diseases but health targets have expanded to cover areas such as brain health, inflammation, eye health, women´s health, healthy ageing and beauty...
June 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Eric B Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial. We examined the association of an overall plant-based diet and hypothesized healthful and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet with T2D incidence in three prospective cohort studies in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 69,949 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012), 90,239 women from the Nurses' Health Study 2 (1991-2011), and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), free of chronic diseases at baseline...
June 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jean H Freeland-Graves, Tamara Y Mousa, Sangyoung Kim
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is critical for human health and development. At the turn of the century when diets were based on whole grains, cereals and other traditional foods, Mn intakes (8-9mg/d) were much greater than that prevalent today (2mg/d). As societies have developed, diets have shifted as part of a nutrition transition, to those that are high in processed foods, fat, and sugar. These foods are virtually devoid of Mn. Thus, dietary Mn has declined substantially throughout the world, as confirmed by several wide-scale, total diet studies...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
G T T Nguyen, G Erlenkamp, O Jäck, A Küberl, M Bott, F Fiorani, H Gohlke, G Groth
Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world's most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2',3',4',3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2',3',4'-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mark R Wilson, Eric Brown, Chris Keys, Errol Strain, Yan Luo, Tim Muruvanda, Christopher Grim, Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Karen Jarvis, Laura Ewing, Gopal Gopinath, Darcy Hanes, Marc W Allard, Steven Musser
Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S...
2016: PloS One
David Dobnik, Ana Lazar, Tjaša Stare, Kristina Gruden, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, Jana Žel
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops, therefore studies performing functional analysis of its genes are very important. However, the majority of potato cultivars used in laboratory experimental setups are not well amenable to available VIGS systems, thus other model plants from Solanaceae family are used (usually Nicotiana benthamiana)...
2016: Plant Methods
Pan Xi, Rui Hai Liu
Diet is intimately associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, attention has focused on the contributions of individual nutrients, food groups and eating patterns to the outcome of T2D. High consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts are each independently associated with the reduced risk of T2D in high risk, glucose intolerant individuals. Experimental and clinical trials have given insight to the diverse mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed protective effects of certain foods on T2D, including nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber, weight control, enhanced satiety and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zhiying Zhang, Peter D Goldsmith, Alex Winter-Nelson
There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available...
May 5, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Andreas Fleischmann, Fernando Rivadavia, Paulo M Gonella, Celeste Pérez-Bañón, Ximo Mengual, Santos Rojo
A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T...
2016: PloS One
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Antoni Sureda, Sedigheh Khanjani, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties...
2016: Nutrients
Alexander Medina-RemÓn, Richard Kirwan, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Ramón Estruch
Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach to examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns...
April 29, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Shiori Yabe, Masanori Yamasaki, Kaworu Ebana, Takeshi Hayashi, Hiroyoshi Iwata
Acceleration of genetic improvement of autogamous crops such as wheat and rice is necessary to increase cereal production in response to the global food crisis. Population and pedigree methods of breeding, which are based on inbred line selection, are used commonly in the genetic improvement of autogamous crops. These methods, however, produce a few novel combinations of genes in a breeding population. Recurrent selection promotes recombination among genes and produces novel combinations of genes in a breeding population, but it requires inaccurate single-plant evaluation for selection...
2016: PloS One
Seockmo Ku, Hyun Ju You, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Ginsenosides are the major active ingredients in ginseng used for human therapeutic plant medicines. One of the most well-known probiotic bacteria among the various strains on the functional food market is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Biocatalytic methods using probiotic enzymes for producing deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Rd have a growing significance in the functional food industry. The addition of 2% cellobiose (w/v) to glucose-free de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broths notably induced β-glucosidase production from L...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Antonella Pasqualone, Cinzia Montemurro, Valentina di Rienzo, Carmine Summo, Vito Michele Paradiso, Francesco Caponio
In recent years, an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high-quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative-propagated plants distributed by nurseries and is a pre-requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatability issues and polymorphism degree...
August 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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