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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#1
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881142/ethnoagroforestry-integration-of-biocultural-diversity-for-food-sovereignty-in-mexico
#2
Ana Isabel Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas, Alexis Daniela Rivero-Romero, Yessica Angélica Romero-Bautista, Selene Rangel-Landa, Roberto Alexander Fisher-Ortíz, Fernando Alvarado-Ramos, Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Dídac Santos-Fita
BACKGROUND: Documenting the spectrum of ecosystem management, the roles of forestry and agricultural biodiversity, TEK, and human culture for food sovereignty, are all priority challenges for contemporary science and society. Ethnoagroforestry is a research approach that provides a theoretical framework integrating socio-ecological disciplines and TEK. We analyze in this study general types of Agroforestry Systems of México, in which peasants, small agriculturalist, and indigenous people are the main drivers of AFS and planning of landscape diversity use...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868444/-plant-based-diets-a-review
#3
Zoltán Szabó, Attila Erdélyi, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Tamás Ungár, Éva Lászlóné Polyák, Szilvia Szekeresné Szabó, Réka Erika Kovács, László Bence Raposa, Mária Figler
Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833908/exploratory-analysis-of-the-links-among-food-consumption-profiles-prenatal-androgens-and-selected-measures-of-quality-of-life
#4
Klaudia Modlinska, Wojciech Pisula
Prenatal sex steroids play a vital role in the development of the whole organism, and therefore also the brain. Exposure of the fetus to testosterone seems to be of special importance both for typical development and pathology. The key factor impacting offspring development (including prenatal androgen levels) appears to be diet, both in terms of shortage and excessive intake of certain food products. Prenatal steroid levels are measured using the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754409/diet-quality-the-greeks-had-it-right
#5
John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622958/nutrient-dense-plant-rich-dietary-intervention-effective-at-reducing-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-for-worksites-a-pilot-study
#6
Jay Thomas Sutliffe, Joel Harvey Fuhrman, Mary Jo Carnot, Raena Marie Beetham, Madison Sarah Peddy
UNLABELLED: conduct interventions for health promotion and disease prevention to ameliorate chronic risk factors for disease, such as for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Likewise, nutrient-dense, plant-rich (NDPR) dietary patterns have been shown to be effective at preventing and improving chronic-disease conditions, including CVD. Objective • The study's aim was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an NDPR dietary intervention for worksites to lower CVD risk factors. Design • The study was a 6-wk pilot intervention using a pretest and posttest design...
September 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597745/can-families-eat-better-without-spending-more-improving-diet-quality-does-not-increase-diet-cost-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-among-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-and-their-parents
#7
Tonja R Nansel, Leah M Lipsky, Miriam H Eisenberg, Aiyi Liu, Sanjeev N Mehta, Lori M B Laffel
BACKGROUND: Although cost is a frequently cited barrier to healthful eating, limited prospective data exist. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diet cost with diet quality change. DESIGN: An 18-month randomized clinical trial evaluated a dietary intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Youth with type 1 diabetes duration ≥1 year, age 8.0 to 16.9 years, receiving care at an outpatient tertiary diabetes center in Boston, MA, participated along with a parent from 2010 to 2013 (N=136)...
November 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520992/bacillus-wiedmannii-sp-nov-is-a-new-psychrotolerant-and-cytotoxic-bacillus-cereus-group-species-isolated-from-dairy-foods-and-environments-in-the-usa
#8
Rachel A Miller, Sarah M Beno, David J Kent, Laura M Carroll, Nicole H Martin, Kathryn J Boor, Jasna Kovac
A facultative anaerobic, spore-forming Bacillus strain FSL W8-0169T, collected from raw milk stored in a silo at a dairy powder processing plant in the Northeastern US was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on a partial sequence of rpoB, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Analysis of core genome SNPs clustered this strain separately from known B. cereus group species. Pairwise Average nucleotide identity blast values obtained for FSL W8-0169T compared to type strains of existing B. cereus group species were < 95%, and predicted DNA-DNA hybridization values were < 70%, suggesting that this strain represented a novel B...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451171/-1-h-nmr-foodomics-reveals-that-the-biodynamic-and-the-organic-cultivation-managements-produce-different-grape-berries-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-sangiovese
#9
Gianfranco Picone, Alessia Trimigno, Paola Tessarin, Silvia Donnini, Adamo Domenico Rombolà, Francesco Capozzi
The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442423/five-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences-from-diospyros-genome-organization-and-comparative-analysis
#10
Jianmin Fu, Huimin Liu, Jingjing Hu, Yuqin Liang, Jinjun Liang, Tana Wuyun, Xiaofeng Tan
Diospyros is the largest genus in Ebenaceae, comprising more than 500 species with remarkable economic value, especially Diospyros kaki Thunb., which has traditionally been an important food resource in China, Korea, and Japan. Complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from D. kaki, D. lotus L., D. oleifera Cheng., D. glaucifolia Metc., and Diospyros 'Jinzaoshi' were sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. This is the first cp genome reported in Ebenaceae. The cp genome sequences of Diospyros ranged from 157,300 to 157,784 bp in length, presenting a typical quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats each separated by one large and one small single-copy region...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319582/functional-foods-and-health-effects-a-nutritional-biochemistry-perspective
#11
F Granado-Lorencio, E Hernández-Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Increased consumer´s interest in health has driven the development of foods that offer specific beneficial effects. The list of foods and ingredients includes essential and non-essential nutrients, plant and marine components, whole foods, microorganisms, microalgae and technological approaches. Traditionally, health outcomes focussed on the prevention of chronic diseases but health targets have expanded to cover areas such as brain health, inflammation, eye health, women´s health, healthy ageing and beauty...
June 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299701/plant-based-dietary-patterns-and-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-us-men-and-women-results-from-three-prospective-cohort-studies
#12
Ambika Satija, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Eric B Rimm, Donna Spiegelman, Stephanie E Chiuve, Lea Borgi, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets have been recommended to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, not all plant foods are necessarily beneficial. We examined the association of an overall plant-based diet and hypothesized healthful and unhealthful versions of a plant-based diet with T2D incidence in three prospective cohort studies in the US. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 69,949 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012), 90,239 women from the Nurses' Health Study 2 (1991-2011), and 40,539 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2010), free of chronic diseases at baseline...
June 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27264059/international-variability-in-diet-and-requirements-of-manganese-causes-and-consequences
#13
Jean H Freeland-Graves, Tamara Y Mousa, Sangyoung Kim
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is critical for human health and development. At the turn of the century when diets were based on whole grains, cereals and other traditional foods, Mn intakes (8-9mg/d) were much greater than that prevalent today (2mg/d). As societies have developed, diets have shifted as part of a nutrition transition, to those that are high in processed foods, fat, and sugar. These foods are virtually devoid of Mn. Thus, dietary Mn has declined substantially throughout the world, as confirmed by several wide-scale, total diet studies...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263468/chalcone-based-selective-inhibitors-of-a-c4-plant-key-enzyme-as-novel-potential-herbicides
#14
G T T Nguyen, G Erlenkamp, O Jäck, A Küberl, M Bott, F Fiorani, H Gohlke, G Groth
Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world's most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2',3',4',3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2',3',4'-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258142/whole-genome-dna-sequence-analysis-of-salmonella-subspecies-enterica-serotype-tennessee-obtained-from-related-peanut-butter-foodborne-outbreaks
#15
Mark R Wilson, Eric Brown, Chris Keys, Errol Strain, Yan Luo, Tim Muruvanda, Christopher Grim, Junia Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Karen Jarvis, Laura Ewing, Gopal Gopinath, Darcy Hanes, Marc W Allard, Steven Musser
Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213007/solanum-venturii-a-suitable-model-system-for-virus-induced-gene-silencing-studies-in-potato-reveals-stmkk6-as-an-important-player-in-plant-immunity
#16
David Dobnik, Ana Lazar, Tjaša Stare, Kristina Gruden, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers, Jana Žel
BACKGROUND: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops, therefore studies performing functional analysis of its genes are very important. However, the majority of potato cultivars used in laboratory experimental setups are not well amenable to available VIGS systems, thus other model plants from Solanaceae family are used (usually Nicotiana benthamiana)...
2016: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159643/whole-food-approach-for-type-2-diabetes-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Pan Xi, Rui Hai Liu
Diet is intimately associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, attention has focused on the contributions of individual nutrients, food groups and eating patterns to the outcome of T2D. High consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts are each independently associated with the reduced risk of T2D in high risk, glucose intolerant individuals. Experimental and clinical trials have given insight to the diverse mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed protective effects of certain foods on T2D, including nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber, weight control, enhanced satiety and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150300/the-importance-of-animal-source-foods-for-nutrient-sufficiency-in-the-developing-world-the-zambia-scenario
#18
Zhiying Zhang, Peter D Goldsmith, Alex Winter-Nelson
There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available...
May 5, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144980/where-is-my-food-brazilian-flower-fly-steals-prey-from-carnivorous-sundews-in-a-newly-discovered-plant-animal-interaction
#19
Andreas Fleischmann, Fernando Rivadavia, Paulo M Gonella, Celeste Pérez-Bañón, Ximo Mengual, Santos Rojo
A new interaction between insects and carnivorous plants is reported from Brazil. Larvae of the predatory flower fly Toxomerus basalis (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae) have been found scavenging on the sticky leaves of several carnivorous sundew species (Drosera, Droseraceae) in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, SE Brazil. This syrphid apparently spends its whole larval stage feeding on prey trapped by Drosera leaves. The nature of this plant-animal relationship is discussed, as well as the Drosera species involved, and locations where T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136579/post-stroke-depression-modulation-and-in-vivo-antioxidant-activity-of-gallic-acid-and-its-synthetic-derivatives-in-a-murine-model-system
#20
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Antoni Sureda, Sedigheh Khanjani, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties...
2016: Nutrients
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