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Chizuka Obara, Kazuya Takizawa, Kenichi Tomiyama, Masaharu Hazawa, Ai Saotome-Nakamura, Takaya Gotoh, Takeshi Yasuda, Katsushi Tajima
The generation of induced-pluripotential stem cells- (iPSCs-) derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) is an attractive and promising approach for preparing large, uniform batches of applicable MSCs that can serve as an alternative cell source of primary MSCs. Appropriate culture surfaces may influence their growth and differentiation potentials during iMSC derivation. The present study compared molecular properties and differentiation potential of derived mouse iPS-MSCs by deriving on gelatin or collagen-coated surfaces...
2016: Stem Cells International
James P Bennett, Laura C O'Brien, David G Brohawn
Microneurotrophins (MNT's) are small molecule derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and do not have significant interactions with sex steroid receptors. MNT's retain high-affinity binding to protein tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors and can mimic many pleiotropic actions of neurotrophin (NT) proteins on neurons. MNT's offer therapeutic potential for diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) where motor neurons (MN) degenerate. MNT's cross artificial membranes mimicking the blood-brain barrier, are not major substrates for ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters and are metabolized rapidly by mouse but more slowly by human hepatocytes...
October 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
A M Stowman, M M Griffin, W A Kanner, G Tchernev, A A Chokoeva, U Wollina, T Lotti, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, G K Maximov, J W Patterson
Trichilemmoma and trichoblastoma are benign adnexal neoplasms derived from the hair follicle unit. While trichilemmomas are closely associated with the epidermis, trichoblastomas are found within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Both tumors have been reported to arise within nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (NSJ). We present a 42-year-old white male with a 5 mm crusted, erythematous papule on the right occipital scalp that had been present for years. A shave biopsy was performed and read as trichilemmoma involving the biopsy base...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
S Ohfuji
Spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in a seven-week-old female Chunky broiler chicken that was slaughtered for food. On post-mortem inspection, a spherical tumor mass attaching to a juvenile ovary was found in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologically, the tumor was comprised of immature mesenchymal stroma and a variety of mature tissue elements of mesodermal and ectodermal origin. In addition, there were multiple indistinguishable tissue elements, which showed no malignant cytological features but were unidentifiable as to corresponding embryological layer of origin...
2016: Open veterinary journal
David N Paglia, Xiaochuan Yang, Judith Kalinowski, Sandra Jastrzebski, Hicham Drissi, Joseph Lorenzo
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells...
August 2016: Endocrinology
Wen-Chung Wang, Yen-Chein Lai
The most accepted theory regarding mature cystic teratomas of the ovary is that they are of parthenogenetic origin from oocyte after the completion of first division. Our previous study demonstrated that the origin of mature cystic teratoma of the uterus is not related to the parthenogenetic process, but is most likely pluripotential stem cell or primordial germ cell before meiosis I. Further studies are needed to clarify the origin of benign mature cystic teratomas of the ovary in Taiwan. In the present study, we investigated the DNA profiles of 9 mature cystic teratomas of the ovary using short tandem repeat analysis with AmpFLSTR SGM Plus, Profiler PCR amplification kits...
June 2016: Human Pathology
Andreas C Joerger, Alan R Fersht
Inactivation of the transcription factor p53, through either direct mutation or aberrations in one of its many regulatory pathways, is a hallmark of virtually every tumor. In recent years, screening for p53 activators and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic perturbations of p53 function have opened up a host of novel avenues for therapeutic intervention in cancer: from the structure-guided design of chemical chaperones to restore the function of conformationally unstable p53 cancer mutants, to the development of potent antagonists of the negative regulators MDM2 and MDMX and other modulators of the p53 pathway for the treatment of cancers with wild-type p53...
June 2, 2016: Annual Review of Biochemistry
L K Surej Kumar, Suvy Manuel, Bindu J Nair, Vinod Nair S
INTRODUCTION: Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare and recently recognized type of developmental odontogenic cyst. Being odontogenic in origin, because of the pluripotentiality of the odontogenic epithelium it can show glandular or salivary features. PRESENTATION OF A CASE: A 46 year old female patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department with chief complaint of painless swelling in the right anterior region of maxilla, radiographically associated with teeth 12, 13...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jennifer L Baker, Katherine A Dunn, Joseph Mingrone, Bernard A Wood, Beverly A Karpinski, Chet C Sherwood, Derek E Wildman, Thomas M Maynard, Joseph P Bielawski
Genes encoding nuclear receptors (NRs) are attractive as candidates for investigating the evolution of gene regulation because they (1) have a direct effect on gene expression and (2) modulate many cellular processes that underlie development. We employed a three-phase investigation linking NR molecular evolution among primates with direct experimental assessment of NR function. Phase 1 was an analysis of NR domain evolution and the results were used to guide the design of phase 2, a codon-model-based survey for alterations of natural selection within the hominids...
June 2016: Genetics
Soroku Yagihashi, Wataru Inaba, Hiroki Mizukami
Diabetes is defined as a disease of hyperglycemic metabolic disorder caused by impaired insulin action or low insulin secretion, resulting in the occurrence of vascular complications. Based on this definition, diabetes therapy has long been oriented to correct hyperglycemia against the specific complications of diabetes. This definition has posed some difficulties, however, in understanding of the pathophysiology of this complicated disease and as such in the establishment of an effective treatment. With continuing efforts to explore the structural basis for diabetes onset and methodological development of immunohistochemistry, progressive decline of β-cells is now established as a salient feature of type 2 diabetes...
March 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ricky Bhajun, Laurent Guyon, Xavier Gidrol
Modularity, feedback control, functional redundancy and bowtie architecture have been proposed as key factors that confer robustness to complex biological systems. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved but functionally dispensable. These antinomic properties suggest that miRNAs fine-tune gene expression rather than act as genetic switches. We synthesize published and unpublished data and hypothesize that miRNA pluripotentiality acts to buffer gene expression, while miRNA degeneracy tunes the expression of targets, thus providing robustness to gene expression networks...
August 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yujun Shen, Shengkai Zuo, Yuanyang Wang, Hongfei Shi, Shuai Yan, Di Chen, Bing Xiao, Jian Zhang, Yanjun Gong, Maohua Shi, Juan Tang, Deping Kong, Luheng Lu, Yu Yu, Bin Zhou, Sheng-Zhong Duan, Claudio Schneider, Colin D Funk, Ying Yu
RATIONALE: Autologous adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) offer great promise as angiogenic cell therapy for ischemic diseases. Because of their limited self-renewal capacity and pluripotentiality, the therapeutic efficacy of ASCs is still relatively low. Thromboxane has been shown to play an important role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. However, little is known about the effects of thromboxane on ASC-mediated angiogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor (TP) in mediating the angiogenic capacity of ASCs in vivo...
April 15, 2016: Circulation Research
Eileen A Hebets, Andrew B Barron, Christopher N Balakrishnan, Mark E Hauber, Paul H Mason, Kim L Hoke
Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication--an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools...
March 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Emanuela A Greco, Andrea Lenzi, Silvia Migliaccio
During the last decades, obesity and osteoporosis have become important global health problems, and the belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently come into question. In fact, some recent epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that a high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the complex relationship between adipose tissue and bone. Indeed, adipose tissue secretes various molecules, named adipokines, which are thought to have effects on metabolic, skeletal and cardiovascular systems...
December 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Deepak Kumar, Tina P Dale, Ying Yang, Nicholas R Forsyth
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are conventionally expanded and maintained in vitro on biological substrates. Synthetic electrospun polymer nanofibers have the potential to act as non-biological substrates in the culture of hESCs. Three synthetic, FDA approved polymers: poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL), poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) were electrospun as nanofibers (random or aligned conformations) on glass coverslips and their supportive role in hESC culture examined. Clonogenicity experiments demonstrated that nanofibrous scaffolds (PCL aligned and random, PLLA aligned and PLGA aligned) supported hESC adhesion and expansion...
December 2015: Biomedical Materials
Joel A Aronowitz, Ryan A Lockhart, Cloe S Hakakian, Kevin C Hicok
INTRODUCTION: Pluripotential cells in adipose tissue may be important in long-term volume retention and regenerative effects of fat grafting. Unfortunately, graft harvest with lipoaspiration significantly depletes the population of stromal vascular cells, which includes adipose stem cells. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells may be isolated from excess lipoaspirate at the point of care and used to replenish fat grafts, a technique termed cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). Preclinical and clinical evidence supports the rationale of CAL but clinical adoption of the strategy requires evidence of clinical safety...
December 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Yasuo Sugita, Mizuhiko Terasaki, Ken Tanigawa, Koichi Ohshima, Motohiro Morioka, Koichi Higaki, Setsuko Nakagawa, Shoko Shimokawa, Susumu Nakashima
Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism...
February 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Aikaterini Mastoraki, Eleftheria Toliaki, Eleni Chrisovergi, Sotiria Mastoraki, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Nikolaos Danias, Vasilios Smyrniotis, Nikolaos Arkadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal lesions of the GI tract. They are considered to originate from neoplastic transformation of either the intestinal pacemaker cells of Cajal or the precursor pluripotential stem cells. The genetic basis of GIST growth is an activating mutation of two receptor tyrosine kinases. Recent epidemiologic studies demonstrate that the GIST prevalence is approximately 20/1000000/year. Although GISTs develop in every part of the GI tract, stomach remains the most common localization...
September 2015: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Guo-wei Lu, Guo Shao
Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) refers to exposure of organisms, systems, organs, tissues or cells to moderate hypoxia/ischemia that is able to result in a resistance to subsequent severe hypoxia/ischemia in tissues and cells. The effects exerted by HPC are well documented. The original local in situ (LiHPC) is now broadened to remote ectopic organs-tissues (ReHPC) and extended crossly to cross pluripotential HPC(CpHPC) induced by a variety of stresses other than hypoxia/ischemia, including cancer, for example...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Steven A Goldman, Maiken Nedergaard, Martha S Windrem
As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment, oligodendrocytes as well...
August 2015: Glia
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