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Central line infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768131/a-new-scoring-system-to-predict-blood-stream-infections-in-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections-experience-from-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-china
#1
Jinjian Huang, Jianan Ren, Luise Brakert, Jiao Jiao, Qinjie Liu, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu, Steven W M Olde Damink
BACKGROUND: This purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blood stream infections (BSIs) on the prognosis of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) and to make predictions based on patients' characteristics on admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-seven patients with complicated IAI in 2014 and 2015 were included in our retrospective analysis, except for those diagnosed with central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs)...
May 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763915/serum-from-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-promotes-growth-and-proliferation-via-the-igf-ii-igf-ir-mek-erk-signaling-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Yuanyuan Ji, Zhidong Wang, Haiyan Chen, Lei Zhang, Fei Zhuo, Qingqing Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) plays a central role in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence implicates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II as a major risk factor for the growth and development of HCC. However, the relationship between HBV infection and IGF-II functions remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Levels of circulating IGF-II and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in healthy donors (HDs) and CHB patients were tested by ELISA...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762868/candidemia-in-children-epidemiology-prevention-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Elpis Mantadakis, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Theoklis Zaoutis
Candidemia is the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized children. The highest rates of candidemia have been recorded in neonates and infants <1 year of age. Candidemia is more frequent in neonates and young infants than in adults, and is associated with better clinical outcomes, but higher inpatient costs. Over the last 10 years, a declining trend has been noted in the incidence of pediatric candidemia in the US and elsewhere due to the hospital-wide implementation of central-line insertion and maintenance bundles that emphasize full sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin preparation during line insertion, meticulous site and tubing care, and daily discussion of catheter necessity...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753159/defining-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-an-outpatient-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-program
#4
Marissa K McDonald, Kathryn A Culos, Katie S Gatwood, Caleb Prow, Heidi Chen, Bipin N Savani, Michael Byrne, Adetola A Kassim, Brian G Engelhardt, Madan Jagasia, Gowri Satyanarayana
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients are at an increased risk of developing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) due to prolonged periods of myelosuppression, immunosuppression, and indwelling catheter days. CLABSIs are among the most serious complications in HCT recipients and can lead to prolonged hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, lengthy antimicrobial therapies, and increased mortality. There is a lack of data regarding the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSIs in the HCT population undergoing outpatient transplantation...
May 9, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735833/echinocandins-their-role-in-the-management-of-candida-biofilms
#5
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730142/implementation-of-tailored-interventions-in-a-statewide-programme-to-reduce-central-line-associated-blood-stream-infections
#6
Denise B Assis, Geraldine Madalosso, Maria Clara Padoveze, Renata D Lobo, Maura S Oliveira, Ícaro Boszczowski, Julio M Singer, Anna S Levin
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of studies exploring implementation strategies to central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in low or middle income countries. AIM: to implement tailored interventions to reduce CLABSI rates in adult intensive care units (ICU). METHODS: The implementation strategy of the State Health Department was performed in São Paulo State, Brazil over two cycles. Cycle 1 (56 hospitals) was exploratory and Cycle 2 (77 hospitals) was designed to confirm the hypothesis generated by the first cycle, with 3 phases each (pre-intervention, intervention, post-intervention)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727261/virtual-telemedicine-visits-in-pediatric-home-parenteral-nutrition-patients-a-quality-improvement-initiative
#7
Bram P Raphael, Caitlin Schumann, Sara Garrity-Gentille, Jennifer McClelland, Carolyn Rosa, Christina Tascione, Mary Gallotto, Melissa Takvorian-Bené, Alexandra N Carey, Patrick McCarthy, Christopher Duggan, Al Ozonoff
BACKGROUND: Despite being less costly than prolonged hospitalization, home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is associated with high rates of post-discharge complications, including frequent readmissions and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Telemedicine has been associated with improved outcomes and reduced healthcare utilization in other high-risk populations, but no studies to date have supported effectiveness of telemedicine in pediatric HPN. METHODS: We prospectively collected data on pediatric patients managed at a single HPN program who participated in postdischarge telemedicine visits from March 1, 2014 to March 30, 2016...
May 4, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723664/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-containing-protein-1-nod1-in-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer-cloning-ontogeny-and-expression-analysis-following-bacterial-infection-or-ligand-stimulation
#8
Anutosh Paria, M Makesh, Aparna Chaudhari, C S Purushothaman, K V Rajendran
NOD1 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1) is one of the most prominent intracellular Nod-like receptors (NLRs), responsible for detecting different microbial components and products arising from tissue injury. Here, we have identified and cloned NOD1 transcript in the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (AsNOD1), which consists of 3749 nucleotides and encodes for a predicted putative protein of 900 AA. The AsNOD1 possesses the typical structure of NLR family, consisting of N-terminal CARD domain, centrally located NACHT domain and C-terminal LRRs...
April 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718310/clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-children-with-culture-negative-septic-arthritis
#9
Evangelos Spyridakis, Jeffrey S Gerber, Emily Schriver, Robert W Grundmeier, Eric A Porsch, Joseph W St Geme, Kevin J Downes
Background: Septic arthritis is a serious infection, but the results of blood and joint fluid cultures are often negative in children. We describe here the clinical features and management of culture-negative septic arthritis in children at our hospital and their outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of children with septic arthritis who were hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between January 2002 and December 2014. Culture-negative septic arthritis was defined as a joint white blood cell count of >50000/μL with associated symptoms, a clinical diagnosis of septic arthritis, and a negative culture result...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712774/eif4e-binding-proteins-1-and-2-limit-macrophage-anti-inflammatory-responses-through-translational-repression-of-il-10-and-cyclooxygenase-2
#10
Mirtha William, Louis-Philippe Leroux, Visnu Chaparro, Julie Lorent, Tyson E Graber, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Charles M Dozois, Simona Stäger, Léon C van Kempen, Tommy Alain, Ola Larsson, Maritza Jaramillo
Macrophages represent one of the first lines of defense during infections and are essential for resolution of inflammation following pathogen clearance. Rapid activation or suppression of protein synthesis via changes in translational efficiency allows cells of the immune system, including macrophages, to quickly respond to external triggers or cues without de novo mRNA synthesis. The translational repressors eIF4E-binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 (4E-BP1/2) are central regulators of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis during viral and parasitic infections...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700002/zika-virus-selectively-kills-aggressive-human-embryonal-cns-tumor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Carolini Kaid, Ernesto Goulart, Luiz Carlos Caires-Júnior, Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Heloisa Maria Siqueira Bueno, Kayque Alves Telles Silva, Renato M Astray, Amanda F Assoni, Antonio F Ribeiro Júnior, Daniella Cristina Ventini, Ana L P Puglia, Roselane P Gomes, Mayana Zatz, Oswaldo K Okamoto
Zika virus (ZIKV) is largely known for causing brain abnormalities due to its ability to infect neural progenitor stem cells (NPC) during early development. Here we show that ZIKV is also capable of infecting and destroying stem-like cancer cells from aggressive human embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). When evaluating the oncolytic properties of Brazilian Zika virus strain (ZIKVBR) against human breast, prostate, colorectal, and embryonal CNS tumor cell lines, we verified a selective infection of CNS tumor cells followed by massive tumor cell death...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699490/the-magnitude-of-antibiotic-resistance-to-helicobacter-pylori-in-africa-and-identified-mutations-which-confer-resistance-to-antibiotics-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Hyasinta Jaka, Jee Ah Rhee, Linda Östlundh, Luke Smart, Robert Peck, Andreas Mueller, Christa Kasang, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Worldwide Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) treatment is of great challenge due to increased antibiotic resistance. The burden of H. pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa is high with unclear information regarding the real magnitude. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the magnitude of H.pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa to gain insight of the extent of the problem among H.pylori naïve treatment patients. METHOD: The search was performed in the academic databases, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science and Africa Wide Information...
April 24, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697029/effortless-and-effective-methodologies-in-the-discovery-of-novel-drug-targets-in-the-free-living-amoebae
#13
Abdul Mannan Baig
Despite advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic regimens, human infections caused by free-living amoebae (FLA) have high mortality rates (~95%). The FLA that cause fatal human cerebral infections include Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. Novel drug-target discovery remains the only viable option to tackle these central nervous system (CNS) infection in order to lower the mortality rates caused by the FLA. Of these FLA, N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while the A...
April 25, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696025/adrenergic-signaling-at-the-interface-of-allergic-asthma-and-viral-infections
#14
Didem Ağaç, Michelle A Gill, J David Farrar
Upper respiratory viral infections are a major etiologic instigator of allergic asthma, and they drive severe exacerbations of allergic inflammation in the lower airways of asthma sufferers. Rhinovirus (RV), in particular, is the main viral instigator of these pathologies. Asthma exacerbations due to RV infections are the most frequent reasons for hospitalization and account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in asthma patients. In both critical care and disease control, long- and short-acting β2-agonists are the first line of therapeutic intervention, which are used to restore airway function by promoting smooth muscle cell relaxation in bronchioles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680333/hydroelectrolytic-and-infectious-complications-in-one-year-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critical-care
#15
A López, J J Varela, M M Cid, M Couñago, N Gago
OBJECTIVE: Parenteral nutrition consists of the intravenous administration of macronutrients, micronutrients and electrolytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the biochemical alterations during the first ten days of initiation and to quantify the bacteremia related to the central venous catheter during the administration of parenteral nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of incidence and prevalence. We included 51 patients who started intravenous nutritional support therapy at Critical Care...
April 18, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665877/the-impact-of-2015-nhsn-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-cauti-definition-change-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-clabsi-rates-and-clabsi-prevention-efforts-at-an-academic-medical-center
#16
Sonali D Advani, Rachael A Lee, Martha Long, Mariann Schmitz, Bernard C Camins
The 2015 changes in the catheter-associated urinary tract infection definition led to an increase in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-related candidemia in some health systems due to the change in CLABSI attribution. However, our rates remained unchanged in 2015 and further declined in 2016 with the implementation of new vascular-access guidelines.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
April 18, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665727/changes-in-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-rates-among-children-with-immune-compromised-conditions-an-11-year-review
#17
Lauri A Linder, Cheryl Gerdy, Yeonjung Jo, Andrew Wilson
This article describes changes in central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates among common causative organisms over an 11-year period on a pediatric inpatient unit prior to and following CLABSI reduction strategies. The setting for this descriptive cohort design study was a 32-bed inpatient unit in a tertiary pediatric hospital serving children with immune compromised conditions, including cancer and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants. Between January 2006 and December 2016, 265 CLABSIs involving 189 patients were reported...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661634/assessing-patient-risk-of-central-line-associated-bacteremia-via-machine-learning
#18
Cole Beeler, Lana Dbeibo, Kristen Kelley, Levi Thatcher, Douglas Webb, Amadou Bah, Patrick Monahan, Nicole R Fowler, Spencer Nicol, Alisa Judy-Malcolm, Jose Azar
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) contribute to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and cost. Despite progress in understanding the risk factors, there remains a need to accurately predict the risk of CLABSIs and, in real time, prevent them from occurring. METHODS: A predictive model was developed using retrospective data from a large academic healthcare system. Models were developed with machine learning via construction of random forests using validated input variables...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659627/n6-methyladenosine-modification-and-the-ythdf2-reader-protein-play-cell-type-specific-roles-in-lytic-viral-gene-expression-during-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-infection
#19
Charles Hesser, John Karijolich, Dan Dominissini, Chuan He, Britt A Glaunsinger
Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is a highly prevalent and reversible modification within eukaryotic mRNAs that has been linked to many stages of RNA processing and fate. Recent studies suggest that m6A deposition and proteins involved in the m6A pathway play a diverse set of roles in either restricting or modulating the lifecycles of select viruses. Here, we report that m6A levels are significantly increased in cells infected with the oncogenic human DNA virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650343/safety-efficacy-and-management-of-subcutaneous-treprostinil-infusions-in-the-treatment-of-severe-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Marilyne Levy, Maria-Jesus Del Cerro, Sophie Nadaud, Karunakar Vadlamudi, Elizabeth Colgazier, Jeff Fineman, Damien Bonnet, Ian Adatia
BACKGROUND: Continuous intravenous epoprostenol was the first treatment approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but administration through a central venous line carries risks of thrombosis and sepsis, particularly in children. We sought to evaluate the safety, efficacy and management of subcutaneous (SC) treprostinil in children with PAH. METHODS: Fifty-six children (median age 65, range 1-200 months) were treated with SC treprostinil. Clinical status, echocardiography, NT-proBNP, and site pain and infection were evaluated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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