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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729382/recommended-clinical-trial-end-points-for-dialysis-catheters
#1
Michael Allon, Deborah J Brouwer-Maier, Kenneth Abreo, Kevin M Baskin, Kay Bregel, Deepa H Chand, Andrea M Easom, Leonard Mermel, Michele H Mokrzycki, Priti R Patel, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Surendra Shenoy, Rudolph P Valentini, Haimanot Wasse
Central venous catheters are used frequently in patients on hemodialysis as a bridge to a permanent vascular access. They are prone to frequent complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection, catheter dysfunction, and central vein obstruction. There is a compelling need to develop new drugs or devices to prevent central venous catheter complications. We convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts to propose standardized definitions of catheter end points to guide the design of future clinical trials seeking approval from the Food and Drug Administration...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722585/school-children-s-intestinal-parasite-and-nutritional-status-1-year-after-complementary-school-garden-nutrition-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-in-burkina-faso
#2
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Andrea Leuenberger, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721474/single-stick-tunneled-central-venous-access-using-the-jugular-veins-in-infants-weighing-less-than-5%C3%A2-kg
#3
Will S Lindquester, C Matthew Hawkins, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Giridhar M Shivaram, F Glen Seidel, Matthew P Lungren
BACKGROUND: Despite the demonstrated feasibility of the single-stick technique in the femoral vein, its use in neonates and infants for placing central lines in internal and external jugular veins has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: Describe and assess the safety and efficacy of tunneled jugular central venous catheter placement performed under ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic guidance in neonates and infants weighing <5 kg using the single-stick technique at three tertiary pediatric hospitals...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721050/the-use-of-natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Rachel Brandstadter, Ilana Katz Sand
Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts as an α4 integrin antagonist to prevent leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. It is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab demonstrated high efficacy in Phase III trials by reducing the annualized relapse rate, preventing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion accumulation on magnetic resonance imaging, and decreasing the probability of sustained progression of disability...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709747/interaction-of-the-innate-immune-system-with-positive-strand-rna-virus-replication-organelles
#5
Enzo Maxim Scutigliani, Marjolein Kikkert
The potential health risks associated with (re-)emerging positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses emphasizes the need for understanding host-pathogen interactions for these viruses. The innate immune system forms the first line of defense against pathogenic organisms like these and is responsible for detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Viral RNA is a potent inducer of antiviral innate immune signaling, provoking an antiviral state by directing expression of interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 27, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708602/development-of-hepatoma-derived-bidirectional-oval-like-cells-as-a-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-hepatitis-c-virus-during-differentiation
#6
Masahiko Ito, Suofeng Sun, Takasuke Fukuhara, Ryosuke Suzuki, Miho Tamai, Toyohiko Yamauchi, Kenji Nakashima, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Shigetoshi Okazaki, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki
Directed differentiation of human stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatic cells potentially leads to acquired susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, cellular determinants that change their expression during cell reprogramming or hepatic differentiation and are pivotal for supporting the HCV life cycle remain unclear. In this study, by introducing a set of reprogramming factors, we established HuH-7-derived oval-like cell lines, Hdo-17 and -23, which possess features of bipotential liver precursors...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707497/complications-of-central-lines-in-neonates-admitted-to-a-level-iii-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#7
Beatriz Soares, Susana Pissarra, Ana Lídia Rouxinol-Dias, Sandra Costa, Hercília Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for central line related complications in neonates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of infants who underwent central line (CL) placement, from 1 July 2014 to 31 June 2016, was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Centro Hospitalar de São João. Infants hospitalized more than 2 days and CLs placed for more than 24 hours were included. Patients' demographic characteristics, hospital data and information on CLs were collected...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701405/propagation-of-astrovirus-va1-a-neurotropic-human-astrovirus-in-cell-culture
#8
Andrew B Janowski, Irma K Bauer, Lori R Holtz, David Wang
Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Studies of the pathogenicity of VA1 are currently impossible because there are no reported cell culture systems or in vivo models that support VA1 infection...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700998/a-decrease-of-histone-deacetylase-6-expression-caused-by-helicobacter-pylori-infection-is-associated-with-oncogenic-transformation-in-gastric-cancer
#9
Qing He, Guoqiang Li, Xin Wang, Shubin Wang, Jiang Hu, Lang Yang, Yuqi He, Yuanming Pan, Dedong Yu, Yun Wu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) plays a role in the progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between the level of HDAC6 expression and gastric tumorigenesis is still unclear. Here, we illustrate the potential correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and the variation of HDAC6 expression in different gastric lesions, as well as the clinical significance of HDAC6 expression in gastric cancer (GC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, 364 patients with different types of gastric lesions were enrolled in Baotou City Central Hospital...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698279/zika-virus-persistently-infects-and-is-basolaterally-released-from-primary-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#10
Megan C Mladinich, John Schwedes, Erich R Mackow
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that has emerged as the cause of encephalitis and fetal microencephaly in the Americas. ZIKV uniquely persists in human bodily fluids for up to 6 months, is sexually transmitted, and traverses the placenta and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to damage neurons. Cells that support persistent ZIKV replication and mechanisms by which ZIKV establishes persistence remain enigmatic but central to ZIKV entry into protected neuronal compartments. The endothelial cell (EC) lining of capillaries normally constrains transplacental transmission and forms the BBB, which selectively restricts access of blood constituents to neurons...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691657/a-relevant-in-vitro-human-model-for-the-study-of-zika-virus-antibody-dependent-enhancement
#11
Berlin Londono-Renteria, Andrea Troupin, Jenny C Cardenas, Alex Hall, Omar G Perez, Lucio Cardenas, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Scott B Halstead, Tonya M Colpitts
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been responsible for a serious outbreak of disease in South and Central America. Infection with ZIKV has been associated with severe neurological symptoms and the development of microcephaly in unborn fetuses. Many of the regions involved in the current outbreak are known to be endemic for another flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV), which indicates that a large percentage of the population may have pre-existing DENV immunity. Thus, it is vital to investigate what impact pre-existing DENV immunity has on ZIKV infection...
July 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689878/systematic-review-of-antimicrobial-lock-therapy-for-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-adult-and-pediatric-cancer-patients
#12
REVIEW
LeAnn B Norris, Farah Kablaoui, Maggie K Brilhart, P Brandon Bookstaver
BACKGROUND: Central venous catheter (CVC) use is commonplace in cancer patients. Antimicrobial lock therapy (ALT), the instillation of a concentrated antimicrobial solution into the catheter lumen, is one method for preventing infection among CVCs. This systematic review discusses the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ALT in cancer patients with CVCs. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the Medline database and Google Scholar from inception until April 2016...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687923/lapatinib-with-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-brain-metastases-from-breast-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-phase-ii-study-of-the-hellenic-cooperative-oncology-group-hecog
#13
Christos Christodoulou, Anna Kalogera-Fountzila, Vasilios Karavasilis, George Kouvatseas, Christos N Papandreou, Epaminontas Samantas, Kalliopi Varaki, Georgios Papadopoulos, Mattheos Bobos, Grigorios Rallis, Evangelia Razis, Athina Goudopoulou, Konstantine T Kalogeras, Konstantinos N Syrigos, George Fountzilas
Small molecules, mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are currently used in various malignancies. Lapatinib, a dual inhibitor of EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinases, has demonstrated effectiveness in brain metastases from HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. It also appears to sensitize EGFR-expressing cell lines to radiation. To evaluate the efficacy of lapatinib in combination with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and breast cancer, as assessed by volumetric analysis by MRI...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687213/prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#14
REVIEW
Taison Bell, Naomi P O'Grady
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used in critically ill patients and offer several advantages to peripheral intravenous access. However, indwelling CVCs have the potential to lead to blood stream infections, with the risk increasing with an array of characteristics such as catheter choice, catheter location, insertion technique, and catheter maintenance. Evidence-based guidelines have led to a significant reduction in the incidence of blood stream infections associated with CVCs. The combination of guideline implementation and newer technologies has the potential to further reduce morbidity and mortality from infections related to CVCs...
July 5, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686155/paediatric-venous-thromboembolism-a-report-from-the-italian-registry-of-thrombosis-in-children-riti
#15
Paola Giordano, Massimo Grassi, Paola Saracco, Angelo C Molinari, Chiara Gentilomo, Agnese Suppiej, Giuseppe Indolfi, Donatella Lasagni, Matteo Luciani, Fiammetta Piersigilli, Maria C Putti, Lidia L Rota, Stefano Sartori, Paolo Simioni
BACKGROUND: The Italian Registry of Thrombosis in Children (RITI) was established by a multidisciplinary team with the aims of improving knowledge about neonatal and paediatric thrombotic events in Italy and providing a preliminary source of data for the future development of specific clinical trials and diagnostic-therapeutic protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the subset of RITI data concerning paediatric systemic venous thromboembolic events that occurred between January 2007 and June 2013...
June 30, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684127/improving-central-line-maintenance-to-reduce-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#16
Frank A Drews, Jonathan Z Bakdash, Jeremy R Gleed
OBJECTIVE: A human factors engineering-based intervention aimed at the modification of task behavior to increase adherence to best practices and the reduction of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). The hypothesis was tested that a central line maintenance kit would improve adherence and reduce CLABSI compared with a standard, nonkit-based method of performing central line maintenance. DESIGN: The study design was a 29-month prospective, interventional, nonrandomized, observational, and clinical research study using a pre-post implementation assessment...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682223/-gut-microbiota-and-immune-crosstalk-in-metabolic-disease
#17
Rémy Burcelin
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679759/mutational-analysis-of-lassa-virus-glycoprotein-highlights-regions-required-for-alpha-dystroglycan-utilization
#18
Marissa Acciani, Jacob T Alston, Guohui Zhao, Hayley Reynolds, Afroze M Ali, Brian Xu, Melinda A Brindley
Lassa virus (LASV) is an enveloped RNA virus endemic to West Africa and responsible for severe cases of hemorrhagic fever. Virus entry is mediated by the glycoprotein complex consisting of a stable signal peptide, a receptor-binding subunit GP1, and a viral-host membrane fusion subunit GP2. Several cellular receptors can interact with the GP1 subunit and mediate viral entry, including alpha-dystroglycan (αDG) and lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). In order to define the regions within GP1 that interact with the cellular receptors, we implemented insertional mutagenesis, carbohydrate shielding, and alanine scanning mutagenesis...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676849/bloodstream-infection-incidence-of-different-central-venous-catheters-in-neonates-a-descriptive-cohort-study
#19
Gerdina H Dubbink-Verheij, Vincent Bekker, Iris C M Pelsma, Erik W van Zwet, Vivianne E H J Smits-Wintjens, Sylke J Steggerda, Arjan B Te Pas, Enrico Lopriore
Central venous catheters (CVCs) in neonates are associated with a risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Most reports on the incidence of CLABSI in neonates focus on umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for CLABSI in a cohort of neonates with femoral venous catheters (FVCs), UVCs, and PICCs, with a gestational age ≥34 weeks born between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2013. We included 2,986 neonates with a total of 656 catheters...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669363/the-effect-of-adding-comorbidities-to-current-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-risk-adjustment-methodology
#20
Sarah S Jackson, Surbhi Leekha, Laurence S Magder, Lisa Pineles, Deverick J Anderson, William E Trick, Keith F Woeltje, Keith S Kaye, Kristen Stafford, Kerri Thom, Timothy J Lowe, Anthony D Harris
BACKGROUND Risk adjustment is needed to fairly compare central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates between hospitals. Until 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) methodology adjusted CLABSI rates only by type of intensive care unit (ICU). The 2017 CDC models also adjust for hospital size and medical school affiliation. We hypothesized that risk adjustment would be improved by including patient demographics and comorbidities from electronically available hospital discharge codes...
July 3, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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