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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335351/modified-nanoemulsions-with-iron-oxide-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Yongyi Fan, Rui Guo, Xiangyang Shi, Steven Allen, Zhengyi Cao, James R Baker, Su He Wang
A nanoemulsion (NE) is a surfactant-based, oil-in-water, nanoscale, high-energy emulsion with a mean droplet diameter of 400-600 nm. When mixed with antigen and applied nasally, a NE acts as a mucosal adjuvant and induces mucosal immune responses. One possible mechanism for the adjuvant effect of this material is that it augments antigen uptake and distribution to lymphoid tissues, where the immune response is generated. Biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles have been used as a unique imaging approach to study the dynamics of cells or molecular migration...
November 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335297/rotation-of-magnetization-derived-from-brownian-relaxation-in-magnetic-fluids-of-different-viscosity-evaluated-by-dynamic-hysteresis-measurements-over-a-wide-frequency-range
#2
Satoshi Ota, Ryoichi Kitaguchi, Ryoji Takeda, Tsutomu Yamada, Yasushi Takemura
The dependence of magnetic relaxation on particle parameters, such as the size and anisotropy, has been conventionally discussed. In addition, the influences of external conditions, such as the intensity and frequency of the applied field, the surrounding viscosity, and the temperature on the magnetic relaxation have been researched. According to one of the basic theories regarding magnetic relaxation, the faster type of relaxation dominates the process. However, in this study, we reveal that Brownian and Néel relaxations coexist and that Brownian relaxation can occur after Néel relaxation despite having a longer relaxation time...
September 10, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335291/multispectral-emissions-of-lanthanide-doped-gadolinium-oxide-nanophosphors-for-cathodoluminescence-and-near-infrared-upconversion-downconversion-imaging
#3
Doan Thi Kim Dung, Shoichiro Fukushima, Taichi Furukawa, Hirohiko Niioka, Takumi Sannomiya, Kaori Kobayashi, Hiroshi Yukawa, Yoshinobu Baba, Mamoru Hashimoto, Jun Miyake
Comprehensive imaging of a biological individual can be achieved by utilizing the variation in spatial resolution, the scale of cathodoluminescence (CL), and near-infrared (NIR), as favored by imaging probe Gd₂O₃ co-doped lanthanide nanophosphors (NPPs). A series of Gd₂O₃:Ln(3+)/Yb(3+) (Ln(3+): Tm(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+)) NPPs with multispectral emission are prepared by the sol-gel method. The NPPs show a wide range of emissions spanning from the visible to the NIR region under 980 nm excitation. The dependence of the upconverting (UC)/downconverting (DC) emission intensity on the dopant ratio is investigated...
September 6, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335240/gd-si-oxide-nanoparticles-as-contrast-agents-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Alejandro Cabrera-García, Alejandro Vidal-Moya, Ángela Bernabeu, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, Elisa Checa-Chavarria, Eduardo Fernández, Pablo Botella
We describe the synthesis, characterization and application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging of a novel type of magnetic nanoparticle based on Gd-Si oxide, which presents high Gd(3+) atom density. For this purpose, we have used a Prussian Blue analogue as the sacrificial template by reacting with soluble silicate, obtaining particles with nanorod morphology and of small size (75 nm). These nanoparticles present good biocompatibility and higher longitudinal and transversal relaxivity values than commercial Gd(3+) solutions, which significantly improves the sensitivity of in vivo magnetic resonance images...
June 8, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335228/fabricating-water-dispersible-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications-through-ligand-exchange-and-direct-conjugation
#5
Tina Lam, Pramod K Avti, Philippe Pouliot, Foued Maafi, Jean-Claude Tardif, Éric Rhéaume, Frédéric Lesage, Ashok Kakkar
Stable superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which can be easily dispersed in an aqueous medium and exhibit high magnetic relaxivities, are ideal candidates for biomedical applications including contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. We describe a versatile methodology to render water dispersibility to SPIONs using tetraethylene glycol (TEG)-based phosphonate ligands, which are easily introduced onto SPIONs by either a ligand exchange process of surface-anchored oleic-acid (OA) molecules or via direct conjugation...
May 26, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335204/multifunctional-inorganic-nanoparticles-recent-progress-in-thermal-therapy-and-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Kondareddy Cherukula, Kamali Manickavasagam Lekshmi, Saji Uthaman, Kihyun Cho, Chong-Su Cho, In-Kyu Park
Nanotechnology has enabled the development of many alternative anti-cancer approaches, such as thermal therapies, which cause minimal damage to healthy cells. Current challenges in cancer treatment are the identification of the diseased area and its efficient treatment without generating many side effects. Image-guided therapies can be a useful tool to diagnose and treat the diseased tissue and they offer therapy and imaging using a single nanostructure. The present review mainly focuses on recent advances in the field of thermal therapy and imaging integrated with multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles...
April 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#7
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#8
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334999/rewiring-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-with-acupuncture
#9
Yumi Maeda, Hyungjun Kim, Norman Kettner, Jieun Kim, Stephen Cina, Cristina Malatesta, Jessica Gerber, Claire McManus, Rebecca Ong-Sutherland, Pia Mezzacappa, Alexandra Libby, Ishtiaq Mawla, Leslie R Morse, Ted J Kaptchuk, Joseph Audette, Vitaly Napadow
Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#10
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334965/photosensitive-epilepsy-is-associated-with-reduced-inhibition-of-alpha-rhythm-generating-networks
#11
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Pietro Avanzini, Giuliana Gessaroli, Gaetano Cantalupo, Antonietta Coppola, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Stefano Meletti
Photosensitivity is a condition in which lights induce epileptiform activities. This abnormal electroencephalographic response has been associated with hyperexcitability of the visuo-motor system. Here, we evaluate if intrinsic dysfunction of this network is present in brain activity at rest, independently of any stimulus and of any paroxysmal electroencephalographic activity. To address this issue, we investigated the haemodynamic correlates of the spontaneous alpha rhythm, which is considered the hallmark of the brain resting state, in photosensitive patients and in people without photosensitivity...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334882/decreased-integration-and-information-capacity-in-stroke-measured-by-whole-brain-models-of-resting-state-activity
#13
Mohit H Adhikari, Carl D Hacker, Josh S Siegel, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334791/isolated-acth-deficiency-probably-induced-by-autoimmune-related-mechanism-evoked-with-nivolumab
#14
Keiko Kitajima, Kenji Ashida, Naoko Wada, Ryoko Suetsugu, Yukina Takeichi, Shohei Sakamoto, Hiroshi Uchi, Takamitsu Matsushima, Motoaki Shiratsuchi, Keizo Ohnaka, Masutaka Furue, Masatoshi Nomura
Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 antibody, is a breakthrough treatment for several malignancies. Its specific adverse effects caused by autoimmunity are termed immune-related adverse events, which involve several endocrine dysfunctions. Herein, we report two cases of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency induced by nivolumab for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man and Case 2 was a 50-year-old woman, both of whom presented with progressive melanoma...
February 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334642/partial-fasciectomy-is-a-useful-treatment-option-for-symptomatic-plantar-fibromatosis
#15
Haji Khairul Abd Kadir, Coonoor R Chandrasekar
Plantar fibromatosis is a rare, benign fibroproliferative disorder of the plantar fascia. It is considered as a low-grade tumour and it can be locally aggressive. It can present as painful swelling with impairment of local function. Upon failure of non-operative management, surgical treatment options include total fasciectomy or partial fasciectomy. Although surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment, recurrence rate can be up to 60%. The aim of this study was to determine the recurrence and complication rates of surgically treated plantar fibromatosis...
February 21, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334618/is-there-a-role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-deciding-to-stop-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-treatment-in-ileal-crohn-s-disease
#16
Jose C Gallego, Ana Echarri
PURPOSE: This study was performed to assess the ability of magnetic resonance enterography to predict the evolution of patients in whom anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy was suspended. METHODS: A prospective study of patients with ileal Crohn's disease was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were included. Patients who later relapsed showed higher magnetic resonance scores than those who did not relapse (4.2 vs. 2.5, respectively; p<0...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334616/comparison-of-mri-grading-for-cervical-neural-foraminal-stenosis-based-on-axial-and-oblique-sagittal-images-concordance-and-reliability-study
#17
Wooil Kim, Kyung-Sik Ahn, Chang Ho Kang, Woo Young Kang, Kyung-Sook Yang
The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading for cervical neural foraminal stenosis (CNFS) based on axial and oblique sagittal images and evaluate the reliability of each grading plane. CNFS was graded at C2-3 to C7-T1 levels based on axial and oblique sagittal images separately by three radiologists. The concordance between CNFS grading based on axial and oblique sagittal images was strong for all three observers (Kendall's W=0.80, 0.79, and 0.82), despite the tendency of higher grading with oblique sagittal images...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334490/mr-cholangiography-in-potential-liver-donors-quantitative-and-qualitative-improvement-with-administration-of-an-oral-effervescent-agent
#18
Heon-Ju Kwon, Kyoung Won Kim, Sang Hyun Choi, Jin-Hee Jung, So Yeon Kim, Se-Young Kim, Jeongjin Lee, Dong-Hwan Jung, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee
PURPOSE: To determine whether an oral effervescent agent improves magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) images, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in potential live liver donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. Seventy potential liver donors underwent 2D MRC before and after administration of an oral effervescent agent. One radiologist measured relative contrast ratio (rC) and relative signal intensity (rS) for right and left intrahepatic ducts (RHD and LHD), and common hepatic duct (CHD)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334381/mirroring-the-social-aspects-of-speech-and-actions-the-role-of-the-insula
#19
G Di Cesare, M Marchi, A Errante, F Fasano, G Rizzolatti
Action and speech may take different forms, being expressed, for example, gently or rudely. These aspects of social communication, named vitality forms, have been little studied in neuroscience. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the role of insula in processing action and speech vitality forms. In speech runs, participants were asked to listen or imaging themselves to pronounce action verbs gently or rudely. In action runs, they were asked to observe or imaging themselves to perform actions gently or rudely...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334293/what-s-behind-a-sign-perceiving-an-arithmetic-operator-recruits-brain-circuits-for-spatial-orienting
#20
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Monica Sigovan, Audrey Breton, Anne Cheylus, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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