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Magnetic imaging

Elena Boto, Niall Holmes, James Leggett, Gillian Roberts, Vishal Shah, Sofie S Meyer, Leonardo Duque Muñoz, Karen J Mullinger, Tim M Tierney, Sven Bestmann, Gareth R Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes
Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation)...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Marcelo A Queiroz, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Carlos Alberto Buchpiguel, Giovanni Guido Cerri
The new technology of PET/MRI is a prototype of hybrid imaging, allowing for the combination of molecular data from PET scanning and morphofunctional information derived from MRI scanning. Recent advances regarding the technical aspects of this device, especially after the development of MRI-compatible silicon photomultipliers of PET, permitted an increase in the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI translated into dose reduction and higher imaging quality. Among several clinical applications, PET/MRI gains ground initially in oncology, where MRI per se plays an essential role in the assessment of primary tumors (which is limited in the case of PET/CT), including prostate, rectal and gynecological tumors...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Rafael Alves Cordeiro, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Marcos Vinícius Fernandes Garcia, Hilton Muniz Leão Filho, Eduardo Ferreira Borba
Peliosis hepatis is a rare benign disorder characterized by the presence of multiple cavities filled with blood with no preferential localization in the liver parenchyma. It may be related to several etiologic conditions, especially infections and toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. To our knowledge, there are only three articles reporting the association between peliosis hepatis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this report, we describe a case of this rare condition, highlighting the importance of magnetic resonance imaging...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Emma Boyd, Verena Endmayr, Yaping Shi, Vasiliki Ikonomidou, Guanhua Chen, Siddharama Pawate, Hans Lassmann, Seth Smith, E Brian Welch
T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging and its reciprocal R2* are used in brain imaging due to their sensitivity to iron content. In patients with multiple sclerosis who display pathological alterations in iron and myelin contents, the use of R2* may offer a unique way to untangle mechanisms of disease. Coronal slices from 8 brains of deceased multiple sclerosis patients were imaged using a whole-body 7.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The scanning protocol included three-dimensional (3D) T2*-w multi-echo gradient-echo and 2D T2-w turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences...
2018: PloS One
Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
Sabina Ziemian, Norbert Löwa, Olaf Kosch, Daniel Bajj, Frank Wiekhorst, Gunnar Schütz
The optimization of iron oxide nanoparticles as tracers for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) alongside the development of data acquisition equipment and image reconstruction techniques is crucial for the required improvements in image resolution and sensitivity of MPI scanners. We present a large-scale water-based synthesis of multicore superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran (MC-SPIONs). We also demonstrate the preparation of single core superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in organic media, subsequently coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) gallic acid polymer and phase transferred to water (SC-SPIONs)...
March 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
Youkyung Bae, Gwenlyn Pfeil
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility/effectiveness of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to document velopharyngeal (VP) structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in velar length and thickness, levator veli palatini (LVP) length and thickness, velar volume, and intravelar muscular proportion along the course of CPAP therapy participation (Pre-CPAP, Post-CPAP, and withdrawal). RESULTS: Velar and LVP lengths remained nearly the same, with the median changes (Δ) less than 0...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Roger Alexander Bennett, Haitham Etman, Hannah Hicks, Leah Richards, Chen Wu, Martin R Castell, Sarnjeet S Dhesi, Francesco Maccherozzi
The growth and reactive dewetting of ultra-thin films of iron oxides supported on Re(0001) surfaces have been imaged in-situ in real time. Initial growth forms a non-magnetic stable FeO (wüstite like) layer in a commensurate network upon which high aspect ratio nanowires of several microns length but less than 40nm width can be fabricated. The nanowires are closely aligned with the substrate crystallography and imaging by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows that each contain a single magnetic domain. The driving force for dewetting appears to be the minimization of strain energy of the Fe3O4 crystallites and follows the Tersoff and Tromp model in which strain is minimized at constant height by extending in one epitaxially matched direction...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Matilde Inglese, Maria Petracca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical MRI is of paramount importance for multiple sclerosis diagnosis but lacks the specificity to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression. The application of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences allows the characterization of diverse and complex pathological mechanisms, granting insights into multiple sclerosis natural history and response to treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: This review provides an update on the most recent international guidelines for optimal standard imaging of multiple sclerosis and discusses advantages and limitations of advanced imaging approaches for investigating inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Je Jin Lee, Seho Lim, Yeon Sil Lee, Hwa-Yong Shin, Chong-Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, Yong-Hee Park
RATIONALE: Myoclonic movement is a rare side effect after general anesthesia. Since we use various intravenous agents during general anesthesia recently, it is troublesome to find out the exact cause of this neurologic complication. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old female patient without any past medical history underwent hip arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. DIAGNOSES: Although there was no specific event during the operation, she showed a sudden myoclonic movement confined to left upper extremity in recovery room...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dan Lu, Jun Liu, Yuan Chen, Fei Chen, Hui Yang
RATIONALE: Ganglioneuroblastoma is usually located in the adrenal gland, retroperitoneal ganglia, or posterior mediastinum, but rarely occurs in the parapharyngeal space. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 4-year-old girl presented with complaint of progressive inspiratory dyspnea and dysphagia, accompanying left-side Horner's syndrome. DIAGNOSE: Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a giant mass with irregular low density in left oropharyngeal and posterior pharyngeal wall...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Vinay Prabhu, Douglas Kondziolka, Travis C Hill, Carolina G Benjamin, Matthew S Shinseki, John G Golfinos, J Thomas Roland, Girish M Fatterpekar
BACKGROUND: Hearing preservation is a goal for many patients with vestibular schwannoma. We examined pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and posttreatment hearing outcome after stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS: From 2004 to 2014, a cohort of 125 consecutive patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) treated via stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) were retrospectively reviewed. MRIs containing three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state or equivalent within 1 year before treatment were classified by two radiologists for pretreatment characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Leila Saadatpour, Usama Tariq, Alicia Parker, Leilani Doty, Kenneth M Heilman
Mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA) is characterized by decreased spontaneous speech, impaired naming, and poor comprehension, but with intact repetition. MTA has been reported to be the sequela of left hemisphere watershed infarction that isolates Wernicke's perisylvian arc. We report a 55-year-old right-handed woman who began having word-finding difficulty and then gradually developed impaired spontaneous speech, comprehension, and naming, but with intact repetition. Magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy in the left frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Tina Laga, Sandrina Lambrechts, Annouschka Laenen, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Sileny N Han, Ignace Vergote
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of macroscopically complete (R0) secondary debulking surgery (SDS) in a single-center cohort of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The performances of existing prediction models (DESKTOP score, Tian model) for R0 SDS were evaluated in this cohort. METHODS: Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of 102 patients undergoing SDS for recurrent ovarian cancer at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1997 and 2014 were collected...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
David A Ross, Benjamin J Tamber-Rosenau, Thomas J Palmeri, JieDong Zhang, Yaoda Xu, Isabel Gauthier
Visual object expertise correlates with neural selectivity in the fusiform face area (FFA). Although behavioral studies suggest that visual expertise is associated with increased use of holistic and configural information, little is known about the nature of the supporting neural representations. Using high-resolution 7-T functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded the multivoxel activation patterns elicited by whole cars, configurally disrupted cars, and car parts in individuals with a wide range of car expertise...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Hongxia Lei, Frédéric Preitner, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Rolf Gruetter, Bernard Thorens
Glucose transporter 2 ( Glut2)-positive cells are sparsely distributed in brain and play an important role in the stimulation of glucagon secretion in response to hypoglycemia. We aimed to determine if Glut2-positive cells can influence another response to hypoglycemia, i.e. increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF of adult male mice devoid of Glut2, either globally ( ripglut1:glut2- / - ) or in the nervous system only (NG2KO), and their respective controls were studied under basal glycemia and insulin-induced hypoglycemia using quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging at 9...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Alejandro Cabrera-García, Elisa Checa-Chavarria, Jesús Pacheco-Torres, Ángela Bernabeu-Sanz, Alejandro Vidal-Moya, Eva Rivero-Buceta, Germán Sastre, Eduardo Fernández, Pablo Botella
The development of contrast agents (CAs) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with T1-T2 dual-mode relaxivity requires the accurate assembly of T1 and T2 magnetic centers in a single structure. In this context, we have synthesized a novel hybrid material by monitoring the formation of Prussian Blue analogue Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6] nanoparticles with tailored shape (from nanocrosses to nanorods) and size, and further protection with a thin and homogeneous silica coating through hydrolysis and polymerization of silicate at neutral pH...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
G V Ponomarev, T V Lalayan, S A Dambinova, A A Skoromets
The study aimed at assessing the level of glutamate receptors antibodies (Abs) in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with spinal cord ischemia along with traditional diagnostic approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with spinal cord ischemia (10 with spinal stroke and 30 with subacute and chronic course of the disease) were enrolled. After exclusion of some participants, 27 patients continued the study. Comparison groups included 30 patients with ischemic stroke and 30 patients with radiculopathy...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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