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Pradeep Venkatesh, Brijesh Takkar, Shreyas Temkar
Current imaging advancements have led to emergence of pachychoroid as an association of important vision threatening diseases like chronic serous chorioretinopathy and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. While the precise relation between thick choroid and such disorder is being investigated, the etiology behind pachychoroid remains elusive. We hypothesize pachychoroid to be a resultant of impeded vascular outflow due to thick sclera and increased scleral rigidity. We discuss our hypothesis in the perspective of other choroidal manifestations of anomalously thick scleral structure...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Noel Padrón-Pérez, Luis Arias, Marcos Rubio, Daniel Lorenzo, Pere García-Bru, Jaume Català-Mora, José M Caminal
Purpose: We evaluate changes in choroidal thickness after intravitreal injection (IVI) therapy for pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV). Methods: An observational, retrospective, consecutive case series was studied of 18 patients (18 eyes) who underwent anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for PNV. The 18 fellow eyes in these patients were used as controls. All eyes were evaluated with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Wataru Saito, Yuki Hashimoto, Kiriko Hirooka, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: To evaluate chronological changes in choroidal thickness in a patient with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) who was later diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) during follow-up. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old man complained of metamorphopsia in the left eye. Funduscopy showed several punctate white subretinal lesions at the macula, but no macular serous retinal detachment in the left eye. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormality without serous retinal detachment at the macula on optical coherence tomography and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on indocyanine green angiography suggested PPE in the left eye...
February 21, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Hidetaka Matsumoto, Takashi Hiroe, Masahiro Morimoto, Kensuke Mimura, Arisa Ito, Hideo Akiyama
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept therapy using a treat-and-extend regimen on treatment-naïve pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV) and Type 1 neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 42 eyes with PNV and 60 eyes with Type 1 neovascular AMD. We assessed best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), central choroidal thickness (CCT), and total number of injections over 2 years...
February 6, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Orly Gal-Or, Kunal K Dansingani, Dov Sebrow, Rosa Dolz-Marco, K Bailey Freund
PURPOSE: To study zones of reduced inner choroidal flow signal, foci of reduced inner choroidal thickness, and pathologically dilated Haller layer vessels (pachyvessels) in eyes with pachychoroid disease using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography. METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive pachychoroid disease were recruited. All patients prospectively underwent swept-source OCT and OCT angiography. Zones of reduced choriocapillaris flow were labeled and enumerated...
January 30, 2018: Retina
Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Timothy Y Y Lai, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Shih-Jen Chen, Youxin Chen, K Bailey Freund, Fomi Gomi, Adrian H Koh, Won-Ki Lee, Tien Yin Wong
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtype and is seen particularly in Asians. Previous studies have suggested disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents between PCV and typical AMD, and thus, the preferred treatment for PCV has remained unclear. Recent research has provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of PCV, and imaging studies based on OCT suggest that PCV belongs to a spectrum of conditions characterized by pachychoroid, in which disturbance in the choroidal circulation seems to be central to its pathogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, K Bailey Freund, Rosa Dolz-Marco, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Pearse A Keane, Catherine A Egan, Sandeep Randhawa, Jay M Stewart, Qingyun Liu, Alex P Hunyor, Allan Kreiger, Aaron Nagiel, Robert Lalane, Mansour Rahimi, Won Ki Lee, Lee Merrill Jampol, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To describe the features of peripapillary pachychoroid syndrome (PPS), a novel pachychoroid disease spectrum (PDS) entity. METHODS: Medical records of 31 eyes (16 patients) with choroidal thickening associated with intraretinal and/or subretinal fluid in the nasal macula extending from the disk were reviewed (patients with PPS). Choroidal thickness was compared with 2 age-matched cohorts: typical PDS (17 eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy or pachychoroid neovasculopathy) and 19 normal eyes...
November 10, 2017: Retina
Fuyan Zhang, Yuxing Qiu, Jay M Stewart
PURPOSE: To report the findings in a patient with peripapillary pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy who demonstrated a retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) that was present at some times but not other times. METHODS: A review of 24 months of the clinical course and findings on multimodal imaging, including color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography...
November 10, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Serra Arf, Murat Karacorlu, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas
Pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) is considered to be a forme fruste of central serous chorioretinopathy. Tamoxifen (Soltamax; Midatech Pharma, Raleigh, NC) has an anti-estrogenic effect on cytoplasmic estrogen receptors. Serum total testosterone, cortisol, and cortisone levels increase during tamoxifen therapy. Tamoxifen may cause hormone disturbance leading to the development of disorders in the pachychoroid spectrum. The authors present two cases of PPE associated with tamoxifen therapy. A 65-year-old woman (Patient 1) and a 52-year-old woman (Patient 2) had a recent history of tamoxifen therapy...
October 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Stephen James Talks, Akhunzada Muhammad Aftab, Imran Ashfaq, Taha Soomro
The use of imaging for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) depends on how it benefits clinical management and on reimbursement. The latter should relate to the former. This review assesses how different forms of AMD can be imaged and what information this provides. For nonneovascular AMD high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence, and near infrared imaging can identify the type of drusen, such as reticular pseudodrusen, which influences prognosis, and the amount of atrophy, for which phase 3 trials are underway...
November 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Sibel Demirel, Özge Yanık, Hilal Nalcı, Figen Batıoğlu, Emin Özmert
PURPOSE: The study objective was to compare dye angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in detecting choroidal neovascuarization (CNV) in patients presenting with pachychoroid features and flat irregular pigment epithelial detachment (PED). METHODS: Nineteen eyes of 17 patients, presenting with flat PED and pachychoroid features, and without age-related macular degeneration or any other degenerative change, were analyzed. Fuorescein angiography (FA)/Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCTA were performed during the same visit...
December 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Sezen Akkaya
PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review of the literature examining about the pachychoroid diseases spectrum. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the Medline database. A total of four studies directly relevant to our search are reviewed here. RESULTS: A structurally and functionally intact choroid tissue is vitally important for the retina function. While central retinal artery is responsible to supply the 2/3, internal part of the retina, choroidal vein network is responsible for the remaining 1/3 external part...
August 1, 2017: International Ophthalmology
M Giray Ersoz, Serra Arf, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Murat Karacorlu
PURPOSE: To compare choroidal hyperpermeability and vessel density between eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), those with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) and those with uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed indocyanine green angiography images of 60 patients with unilateral active CSC who had PPE (36 eyes) or UCP (24 eyes) in their fellow eyes. We used color thresholding of indocyanine green angiography images to determine choroidal vessel density...
July 18, 2017: Retina
Yasuo Yanagi, Aditi Mohla, Won-Ki Lee, Shu Yen Lee, Ranjana Mathur, Choi Mun Chan, Ian Yeo, Tien Yin Wong, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of subclinical nonexudative neovascularization and associated choroidal vascular changes in the fellow eyes of patients presenting with unilateral typical exudative AMD (tAMD) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: We recruited patients presenting with tAMD or PCV in a prospective clinical study. The diagnosis in the presenting eye was determined based on clinical, fluorescein angiography (FA), and ICGA findings...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ahmet Colakoglu, Banu Cosar
BACKGROUND: Atypical serous chorioretinopathy can present with symptoms similar to those of other pachychoroid diseases; however, a proper differential diagnosis will prevent unnecessary intensive treatments. To this end, we report on the shallowness of anterior chamber and transitory anterior vitreous cells in a patient with atypical severe serous retinal detachment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman presented with unilateral visual loss accompanied by mild, vague eye pain for 4 days...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Francesco Pichi, Mariachiara Morara, Chiara Veronese, Antonio P Ciardella
PURPOSE: To describe the OCT angiography characteristics of flat irregular pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs), an overlapping tomographic feature of various macular disorders. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a dimpled retinal pigment epithelium profile on OCT, referred for a second opinion, were enrolled. Fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were performed in all patients and compared to previous examinations, when available. In all patients, enhanced depth imaging-OCT and OCT angiography were performed upon referral and at subsequent follow-ups...
May 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh, Francesco Parisi, Flavio Mantelli, Andrea Perdicchi, Gianluca Scuderi
PURPOSE: To describe an 8-year-old girl with diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) presenting with glaucoma, abnormal iris vessels, diffuse choroidal hemangioma, and small white dot-shaped "microdrusen-like" alterations of the retina in the right eye. PATIENT AND METHODS: Complete ophthalmological examination was performed with slit-lamp anterior segment assessment and fundus ophthalmoscopy. Near infrared reflectance (NIR) and enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were carried out...
December 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
George J Manayath, Vanee Sheth Shah, Veerappan R Saravanan, Venkatapathy Narendran
PURPOSE: To study multimodal imaging features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) associated with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) in the same eye. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of cases of suspected PCV which underwent indocyanine green angiography, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography was done, to look for simultaneous typical CSC-like active leak in the same eye. The relevant history, best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography findings were analyzed...
April 25, 2017: Retina
M Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas
PURPOSE: To compare the average thicknesses of central inner retinal layers in eyes with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE), with uncomplicated pachychoroid (UCP), and of healthy subjects. METHODS: Medical records of patients with PPE and UCP were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-nine eyes with foveal PPE, 30 eyes with UCP, and 29 eyes of healthy subjects were included. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used for all optical coherence tomography scans...
April 19, 2017: Retina
Masayuki Hata, Kenji Yamashiro, Sotaro Ooto, Akio Oishi, Hiroshi Tamura, Manabu Miyata, Naoko Ueda-Arakawa, Ayako Takahashi, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Purpose: To investigate the difference in intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration between pachychoroid neovasculopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and its associations with responses to three monthly anti-VEGF injections as an initial treatment for the two conditions. Methods: This study included nine eyes with treatment-naïve pachychoroid neovasculopathy and 21 eyes with treatment-naïve nAMD. Before the initial intravitreal anti-VEGF injection, aqueous humor samples were collected and the concentration of VEGF was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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