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optic pit

Irene Ctori, Byki Huntjens
PURPOSE: Macular pigment (MP) spatial distribution varies considerably among individuals. We investigated ethnic variations in MP spatial distribution in relation to foveal architecture. METHODS: We measured MP optical density (MPOD) using heterochromatic flicker photometry (MAP test, City, University of London) in 76 white, 80 South Asian and 70 black volunteers (18 to 39 years). MPOD spatial profiles were classified objectively as exponential, ring-like or central dip, based on deviations away from an exponential fit...
2017: PloS One
Ieva Ailte, Anne Berit Dyve Lingelem, Audun Sverre Kvalvaag, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Andreas Brech, Gerbrand Koster, Paul Gunnar Dommersnes, Jonas Bergan, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
In this study, we have investigated how clathrin-dependent endocytosis is affected by exogenously added lysophospholipids (LPLs). Addition of LPLs with large head groups strongly inhibits transferrin (Tf) endocytosis in various cell lines, while LPLs with small head groups do not. Electron and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (EM and TIRF) reveal that treatment with lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) with the fatty acyl group C18:0 leads to reduced numbers of invaginated clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, fewer endocytic events per membrane area and increased lifetime of CCPs...
January 9, 2017: Traffic
Zafer Cebeci, Şerife Bayraktar, Merih Oray, Nur Kır
Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
Gilda Cennamo, Claudia Rossi, Pasquale Ruggiero, Giuseppe de Crecchio, Giovanni Cennamo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radial peripapillary capillary network with optical coherence tomography angiography (angio-OCT) in morning glory syndrome (MGS), optic disc colobomas and optic disc pits, and to explore possible correlations between the neural vascular structure and the pathogenesis of congenital optic disc anomalies. DESIGN: Prospective observational comparative case series. METHODS: Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with congenital optic disc anomalies were enrolled in this study...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Z Galazka, R Uecker, K Irmscher, D Klimm, R Bertram, A Kwasniewski, M Naumann, R Schewski, M Pietsch, U Juda, A Fiedler, M Albrecht, S Ganschow, T Markurt, C Guguschev, M Bickermann
We present the first-time growth of bulk BaSnO3 single crystals from the melt by direct solidification, their basic electrical and optical properties as well as their structural quality. Our measurement of the melting point (MP) of BaSnO3 amounts to 1855 °C  ±  25 K. At this temperature an intensive decomposition and non-stoichiometric evaporation takes place as the partial pressure of SnO(g) is about 90 times higher than that of BaO(g). X ray powder diffraction identified only the BaSnO3 perovskite phase, while narrow rocking curves having a full width at half maximum of 26 arcsec and etch pit densities below 10(6) cm(-2) confirm a high degree of structural perfection of the single crystals...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Marianne N Hove, Kevser Z Kilic-Biyik, Alana Trotter, Karen Grønskov, Birgit Sander, Michael Larsen, Joseph Carroll, Torben Bech-Hansen, Thomas Rosenberg
Purpose: To assess clinical characteristics, foveal structure, mutation spectrum, and prevalence rate of Åland eye disease (AED)/incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB). Methods: A retrospective survey included individuals diagnosed with AED at a national low-vision center from 1980 to 2014. A subset of affected males underwent ophthalmologic examinations including psychophysical tests, full-field electroretinography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
James M Campbell, Fiona C Meldrum, Hugo K Christenson
Heterogeneous nucleation is vital to a wide range of areas as diverse as ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols and the fabrication of high-performance thin films. There is excellent evidence that surface topography is a key factor in directing crystallization in real systems; however, the mechanisms by which nanoscale pits and pores promote nucleation remain unclear. Here, we use natural cleavage defects on Muscovite mica to investigate the activity of topographical features in the nucleation from vapor of ice and various organic crystals...
December 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Henan Wang, Yang Zheng, Jinghua Liu, Chengbao Jiang, Yan Li
The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe81Ga19, (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5, and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D03 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe2B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe81Ga19)98B2 and (Fe81Ga19)99.5(TaC)0.5 alloys, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ramazan Özelce, Vuslat Gürlü, Hande Güçlü, Sadık Altan Özal
A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with a complaint of glare in both eyes. Biomicroscopic examination of both the eyes revealed iris and lens colobomas in the inferior quadrant. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed an oval and gray inferotemporal optic pit and two choroid colobomas in the inferior quadrant. In the left eye, two choroid colobomas were detected that were inferior to the optic nerve head. Furthermore, a 21-year-old man presented to our clinic for a routine ophthalmologic examination...
September 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
E Arranz-Márquez, E Jarrín Hernández, A Pastor, J García Gil de Bernabé
CLINICAL CASE: A 71-year-old woman with normotensive primary open-angle glaucoma presented with an asymptomatic temporal peripapillary retinoschisis, associated with serous retinal detachment in the eye with the more advanced glaucoma. It was located at the inferior pole of the optic disc, in the proximity of a glaucomatous focal disc defect. DISCUSSION: Although congenital optic pits are strongly related with juxta-papillary retinoschisis, retinoschisis can also arise from acquired defects in the proximity of glaucomatous optic discs...
November 22, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Nikol Panou, Demetrios G Vavvas
Purpose. To describe a case of optic disk pit (ODP) with sudden central visual field scotoma. Methods. A 49-year-old woman presented, reporting sudden painless central visual field loss 3 months prior to presentation. Neuroophthalmologic, systematic, and laboratory evaluation and full imaging processes were performed. Results. Fundoscopy and color photography demonstrated an optic disk pit inferotemporally. Perimetry identified central visual field horizontal scotoma. OCT revealed absence of serous retinal detachment, but disclosed inner retina thinning corresponding to the area of the visual field loss...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Yoichiro Neo, Takahiro Matsumoto, Takeshi Watanabe, Makoto Tomita, Hidenori Mimura
Photonic structures created by coupling a narrow resonance to a broad resonance can significantly improve the sensitivity of optical sensors. We investigated a planar metal-insulator-metal (MIM) multilayered structure using attenuated total reflection to couple surface plasmon polaritons with the waveguide (WG) mode. A plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) to plasmon-induced adsorption (PIA) transformation was realized by controlling the coupling strength between the incident light and the WG mode. The results indicated that PIT and PIA have differing coupling strength and reflectance phase at surface plasmon resonance...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Gonzague Agez, Chloé Bayon, Michel Mitov
: Beetles from the genus Chrysina show vivid reflections from bright green to metallic silver-gold as a consequence of the cholesteric liquid crystal organization of chitin molecules. Particularly, the cuticle of Chrysina gloriosa exhibits green and silver stripes. By combining confocal microscopy and spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and numerical simulations, the relationship between the reflectance and the structural parameters for both stripes at the micro- and nanoscales are established...
November 14, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Stuart S Dunn, Denis R Beckford Vera, S Rahima Benhabbour, Matthew C Parrott
HYPOTHESIS: Accessing the phase inversion temperature by microwave heating may enable the rapid synthesis of small lipid nanoparticles. EXPERIMENTS: Nanoparticle formulations consisted of surfactants Brij 78 and Vitamin E TPGS, and trilaurin, trimyristin, or miglyol 812 as nanoparticle lipid cores. Each formulation was placed in water and heated by microwave irradiation at temperatures ranging from 65°C to 245°C. We observed a phase inversion temperature (PIT) for these formulations based on a dramatic decrease in particle Z-average diameters...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
N Dhingra, R Manoharan, S Gill, M Nagar
PurposeTo report clinical features, topographic findings and outcome of 10 eyes with peripapillary schisis in open-angle glaucoma.Patients and methodsA retrospective review of patients with open-angle glaucoma who were noted to have peripapillary schisis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were included. Serial peripapillary and macula infrared and OCT images, visual acuity, visual fields, and schisis appearance were reviewed.ResultsTen eyes of nine patients with open-angle glaucoma were detected to have the presence of peripapillary schisis...
November 11, 2016: Eye
Lei Liu, Wendy Marsh-Tootle, Elise N Harb, Wei Hou, Qinghua Zhang, Heather A Anderson, Thomas T Norton, Katherine K Weise, Jane E Gwiazda, Leslie Hyman
PURPOSE: High-quality optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular scans make it possible to distinguish a range of normal and diseased states by characterising foveal pit shape. Existing mathematical models lack the flexibility to capture all known pit variations and thus characterise the pit with limited accuracy. This study aimed to develop a new model that provides a more robust characterisation of individual foveal pit variations. METHODS: A Sloped Piecemeal Gaussian (SPG) model, consisting of a linear combination of a tilted line and a piecemeal Gaussian function (two halves of a Gaussian connected by a separate straight line), was developed to fit retinal thickness data with the flexibility to characterise different degrees of pit asymmetry and pit bottom flatness...
November 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Lakshmi Priya Sridhar, Joyson Moses, Bollam Nammalwar Rangeeth, Subramanian Sivakumar
INTRODUCTION: The occlusal surfaces of the teeth usually have pits and fissures which provide a good environment for demineralization with minimal salivary access and make them caries prone. The success of pit and fissure sealing materials is highly dependent on the marginal sealing ability of the fissures. AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the marginal sealing ability of two commercially available pit and fissure sealants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 human premolar teeth were used in this invitro study...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
G Kolhatkar, A Boucherif, C Dab, S Fafard, V Aimez, R Arès, A Ruediger
We use apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy to study the phase separation in chemical beam epitaxy grown Al0.1Ga0.9NxAs1-x alloys. Pits attributed to nitrogen-clustering observed on the Al0.1Ga0.9NxAs1-x surface grown at 420 °C become larger at higher growth temperatures, and 3D islands appear on the surface at 565 °C. Atomic force microscopy phase measurements reveal a composition difference between the islands and the pits, whereas the sample grown at 420 °C appears to be homogeneous. Confocal Raman spectra show that all the N atoms are bonded to Al instead of Ga...
October 27, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anastasia Pilat, Rebecca J McLean, Frank A Proudlock, Gail D E Maconachie, Viral Sheth, Yusuf A Rajabally, Irene Gottlob
Purpose: To investigate optic nerve (ON) and macular morphology in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subjects: Twenty-five participants with PD (19 males and 6 females; mean age 60.79; SD ± 9.24) and 25 sex-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods: A high-resolution SD-OCT device was used to acquire scans in 25 participants with PD (mean age 60.79; ± SD 9...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Robert A Sisk, Okan Toygar
Purpose. To introduce a clinical sign on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), which may indicate high risk for full-thickness macular hole formation after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods. The preoperative SDOCT images of two patients-one with multilaminar hemorrhage from ruptured retinal artery macroaneurysm and one with serous retinal detachment and severe macular schisis from optic pit maculopathy-who developed full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) after ILM peeling were evaluated retrospectively...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
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