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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942046/chronic-ethanol-exposure-increases-inhibition-of-optically-targeted-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-and-medial-shell-ex-vivo
#1
James R Melchior, Sara R Jones
Dopamine signaling encodes reward learning and motivated behavior through modulation of synaptic signaling in the nucleus accumbens, and aberrations in these processes are thought to underlie obsessive behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. The nucleus accumbens is divided into core and shell sub-regions with overlapping but also divergent contributions to behavior. Here we optogenetically targeted dopamine projections to the accumbens allowing us to isolate stimulation of dopamine terminals ex vivo. We applied 5 pulse (phasic) light stimulations to probe intrinsic differences in dopamine release parameters across regions...
September 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937748/bio-optics-and-bio-inspired-optical-materials
#2
Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Joseph M Slocik, Maneesh K Gupta, Rajesh R Naik, Srikanth Singamaneni
Through the use of the limited materials palette, optimally designed micro- and nanostructures, and tightly regulated processes, nature demonstrates exquisite control of light-matter interactions at various length scales. In fact, control of light-matter interactions is an important element in the evolutionary arms race and has led to highly engineered optical materials and systems. In this review, we present a detailed summary of various optical effects found in nature with a particular emphasis on the materials and optical design aspects responsible for their optical functionality...
September 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936647/3d-imaging-of-whole-mount-ovules-at-cellular-resolution-to-study-female-germline-development-in-rice
#3
Ethel Mendocilla-Sato, Wenjing She, Célia Baroux
Recent advances in fluorescence-based staining of cellular compartments coupled with confocal microscopy imaging have allowed the visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures with cellular resolution in various intact plant tissues and species. Such approaches are of particular interest for the analysis of the reproductive lineage in plants including the meiotic precursor cells deeply embedded within the ovary of the gynoecium enclosed in the flower. Yet, their relative inaccessibility and the lack of optical clarity of plant tissues prevent robust staining and imaging across several cell layers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932339/penetrating-keratoplasty-for-keratoconus-excimer-versus-femtosecond-laser-trephination
#4
Berthold Seitz, Achim Langenbucher, Tobias Hager, Edgar Janunts, Moatasem El-Husseiny, Nora Szentmáry
BACKGROUND: In case of keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses as the correction method of first choice allow for a good visual acuity for quite some time. In a severe stage of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no more tolerated. In case of existing contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. METHODS: In case of advanced keratoconus - especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet's membrane - penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) still is the surgical method of first choice...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931809/automatic-and-adaptive-heterogeneous-refractive-index-compensation-for-light-sheet-microscopy
#5
Duncan P Ryan, Elizabeth A Gould, Gregory J Seedorf, Omid Masihzadeh, Steven H Abman, Sukumar Vijayaraghavan, Wendy B Macklin, Diego Restrepo, Douglas P Shepherd
Optical tissue clearing has revolutionized researchers' ability to perform fluorescent measurements of molecules, cells, and structures within intact tissue. One common complication to all optically cleared tissue is a spatially heterogeneous refractive index, leading to light scattering and first-order defocus. We designed C-DSLM (cleared tissue digital scanned light-sheet microscopy) as a low-cost method intended to automatically generate in-focus images of cleared tissue. We demonstrate the flexibility and power of C-DSLM by quantifying fluorescent features in tissue from multiple animal models using refractive index matched and mismatched microscope objectives...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930883/reproducibility-and-agreement-of-anterior-segment-parameter-measurements-obtained-using-the-casia2-and-spectralis-oct2-optical-coherence-tomography-devices
#6
Benjamin Y Xu, Derek D Mai, Rafaella C Penteado, Luke Sanders, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility and agreement of measurement values obtained from the Tomey CASIA2 and Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) devices. METHODS: Twenty eyes from ten subjects ranging from age 28 to 45 years with no history of eye conditions or intraocular surgery were included. Two scans were obtained with each device in a standardized dark-room environment after a period of dark adaptation. One AS-OCT image along the horizontal (temporal-nasal) meridian was analyzed per eye and per scan...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#7
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925378/spectroscopically-forbidden-infra-red-emission-in-au-vertical-graphene-hybrid-nanostructures
#8
A K Sivadasan, Santanu Parida, Subrata Ghosh, Ramanathaswamy Pandian, Sandip Dhara
Implementation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is a subject for frontier plasmonic research due to its fascinating optical properties. Herein, the present study deals with plasmonic assisted emission properties of Au NPs-vertical graphene (VG) hybrid nanostructures. The influence of effective polarizability of Au NPs on the surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence properties is investigated. In addition, a remarkable infra-red (IR) emission in the hybrid nanostructures is observed and interpreted on the basis of intra-band transitions in Au NPs...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925265/janus-electrochemistry-asymmetric-functionalization-in-one-step
#9
David Ibañez, Elisa Vallés, Elvira Gómez, Alvaro Colina, Aranzazu Heras
Janus structures represent an overwhelming member of materials with adaptable chemical and physical properties. The development of new synthesis routes has allowed the fabrication of Janus architectures with specific characteristics depending on the final applications. In the case of the membranes, the improvement of wet routes has been limited to the capillary effect, in which the solution can gradually penetrate through the membrane avoiding a double modification, different at each face of the membrane. In this work, we propose a new electrochemical methodology to circumvent the capillary limitation and to obtain a double electrochemical functionalization in only one step in a controlled way...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924666/brain-slice-staining-and-preparation-for-three-dimensional-super-resolution-microscopy
#10
Christopher L German, Manasa V Gudheti, Annette E Fleckenstein, Erik M Jorgensen
Localization microscopy techniques-such as photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), fluorescent PALM (FPALM), ground state depletion (GSD), and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)-provide the highest precision for single-molecule localization currently available. However, localization microscopy has been largely limited to cell cultures due to the difficulties that arise in imaging thicker tissue sections. Sample fixation and antibody staining, background fluorescence, fluorophore photoinstability, light scattering in thick sections, and sample movement create significant challenges for imaging intact tissue...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924567/rearrangeable-and-exchangeable-optical-module-with-system-on-chip-for-wearable-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-system
#11
Tsukasa Funane, Takashi Numata, Hiroki Sato, Shinsuke Hiraizumi, Yuichi Hasegawa, Hidenobu Kuwabara, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Masashi Kiguchi
We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions...
January 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920404/effects-of-zearalenone-on-the-localization-and-expression-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-the-uteri-of-post-weaning-piglets
#12
Min Zhou, LiJie Yang, Weiren Yang, Libo Huang, Xuemei Zhou, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang
Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg•kg-1 diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored another mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914787/a-sparse-dictionary-learning-based-adaptive-patch-inpainting-method-for-thick-clouds-removal-from-high-spatial-resolution-remote-sensing-imagery
#13
Fan Meng, Xiaomei Yang, Chenghu Zhou, Zhi Li
Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents a sparse dictionary learning-based image inpainting method for adaptively recovering the missing information corrupted by thick clouds patch-by-patch. A feature dictionary was learned from exemplars in the cloud-free regions, which was later utilized to infer the missing patches via sparse representation...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913728/shoulder-strengthening-exercises-adapted-to-specific-shoulder-pathologies-can-be-selected-using-new-simulation-techniques-a-pilot-study
#14
Caecilia Charbonnier, Alexandre Lädermann, Bart Kevelham, Sylvain Chagué, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Nicolas Holzer
PURPOSE: Shoulder strength training exercises represent a major component of rehabilitation protocols designed for conservative or postsurgical management of shoulder pathologies. Numerous methods are described for exercising each shoulder muscle or muscle group. Limited information is available to assess potential deleterious effects of individual methods with respect to specific shoulder pathologies. Thus, the goal of this pilot study was to use a patient-specific 3D measurement technique coupling medical imaging and optical motion capture for evaluation of a set of shoulder strength training exercises regarding glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as elongation of the rotator cuff muscles...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903961/paediatric-optic-neuritis-factors-leading-to-unfavourable-outcome-and-relapses
#15
Delphine Averseng-Peaureaux, Marie Mizzi, Helene Colineaux, Laurence Mahieu, Maria Carmela Pera, David Brassat, Yves Chaix, Emilie Berard, Kumaran Deiva, Emmanuel Cheuret
OBJECTIVES: To identify prognostic factors associated with poor visual recovery and chronic relapsing diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis (MS), in children with optic neuritis (ON) at onset. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective study included 102 children with a first ON episode between 1990 and 2012. The primary criterion was poor visual recovery determined by visual acuity, and the secondary was relapses following ON. RESULTS: Median age was 11 years, 66% were girls and mean follow-up was 24 months...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900746/electrophysiological-features-and-multimodal-imaging-in-ritonavir-related-maculopathy
#16
Céline Faure, Michel Paques, Isabelle Audo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report a case of ritonavir-related retinal toxicity followed over a year. Electrophysiological features and multimodal imaging, including adaptive optics, are provided and discussed. METHODS: Electrophysiological recordings and multimodal imaging were performed and repeated over 1 year. RESULTS: Fundus examination revealed crystalline maculopathy in conjunction with pigment disruption. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography displayed thinning of the macula without cysts...
September 12, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899087/molecular-ion-formation-by-photo-induced-electron-transfer-at-the-tetracyanoquinodimethane-au-111-interface
#17
David Gerbert, Petra Tegeder
Optically-induced processes in organic materials are essential for light harvesting, switching, and sensor technologies. Here we studied the electronic properties of the tetracyanoquinodimethane(TCNQ)/Au(111) interface by using two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. We found a significant increase of the sample work function due to UV light illumination, while the electronic structure of the TCNQ-derived states remain unaffected. Thereby the work function of this interface can be tuned over a wide range via the photon dose...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898357/photoreceptor-layer-thickness-changes-during-dark-adaptation-observed-with-ultrahigh-resolution-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Chen D Lu, ByungKun Lee, Julia Schottenhamml, Andreas Maier, Edward N Pugh, James G Fujimoto
Purpose: To examine outer retinal band changes after flash stimulus and subsequent dark adaptation with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Methods: Five dark-adapted left eyes of five normal subjects were imaged with 3-μm axial-resolution UHR-OCT during 30 minutes of dark adaptation following 96%, 54%, 23%, and 0% full-field and 54% half-field rhodopsin bleach. We identified the ellipsoid zone inner segment/outer segment (EZ[IS/OS]), cone interdigitation zone (CIZ), rod interdigitation zone (RIZ), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Bruch's membrane (BM) axial positions and generated two-dimensional thickness maps of the EZ(IS/OS) to the four bands...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893377/induced-sensorimotor-cortex-plasticity-remediates-chronic-treatment-resistant-visual-neglect
#19
Jacinta O'Shea, Patrice Revol, Helena Cousijn, Jamie Near, Pierre Petitet, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Gilles Rode, Yves Rossetti
Right brain injury causes visual neglect - lost awareness of left space. During prism adaptation therapy, patients adapt to a rightward optical shift by recalibrating right arm movements leftward. This can improve left neglect, but the benefit of a single session is transient (~1 day). Here we show that tonic disinhibition of left motor cortex during prism adaptation enhances consolidation, stabilizing both sensorimotor and cognitive prism after-effects. In three longitudinal patient case series, just 20 min of combined stimulation/adaptation caused persistent cognitive after-effects (neglect improvement) that lasted throughout follow-up (18-46 days)...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888365/functional-reconstitution-of-cell-free-synthesized-purified-kv-channels
#20
Stéphane Renauld, Sandra Cortes, Beate Bersch, Xavier Henry, Michel De Waard, Béatrice Schaack
The study of ion channel activity and the screening of possible inhibitor molecules require reliable methods for production of active channel proteins, their insertion into artificial membranes and for the measurement of their activity. Here we report on cell-free expression of soluble and active Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 channels and their efficient insertion into liposomes. Two complementary methods for the determination of the electrical activity of the proteoliposome-embedded channels were compared using Kv1.1 as a model system: (1) single channel recordings in droplet interface bilayers (DIB) and (2) measurement of the membrane voltage potential generated by a potassium ion diffusion potential using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye oxonol VI...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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