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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656549/sodium-nitroprusside-is-effective-in-preventing-and-or-reversing-the-development-of-schizophrenia-related-behaviors-in-an-animal-model-the-shr-strain
#1
Mariana C Diana, Fernanda F Peres, Veronica Justi, Rodrigo A Bressan, Acioly L T Lacerda, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Vanesssa Costhek Abilio
AIMS: The treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, the search for new treatments and prevention is crucial, and animal models are fundamental tools for this objective. Preclinical and clinical data evidence the antipsychotic profile of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. We aimed to investigate SNP in treating and/or preventing the schizophrenia-related behaviors presented by the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) strain...
April 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656260/racial-ethnic-differences-in-the-treatment-of-adolescent-major-depressive-disorders-mdd-across-healthcare-providers-participating-in-the-medicaid-program
#2
Aylin Yucel, Ekere J Essien, Swarnava Sanyal, Osaro Mgbere, Rajender R Aparasu, Vinod S Bhatara, Joy P Alonzo, Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: To examine whether racial/ethnic differences in receipt of MDD treatment could be explained by the specialty of provider diagnosing the adolescent. METHOD: Adolescents (10-20 years-old) with ≥2 MDD diagnoses were identified using 2005-2007 Medicaid data from Texas. Patients were categorized based on the types of provider who gave the initial MDD diagnosis (psychiatrist (PSY-I), social worker/psychologist (SWP-I), and primary care physician (PCP-I))...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656094/social-interaction-with-a-tutor-modulates-responsiveness-of-specific-auditory-neurons-in-juvenile-zebra-finches
#3
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656088/-ne-nnipadua-mmpe-the-body-hates-it-exploring-the-lived-experience-of-food-allergy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
George A Atiim, Susan J Elliott, Ann E Clarke
Allergic diseases have closely followed the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) especially in western societies. As prevalence of NCD is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), researchers are hinting that the same future may hold for (food) allergic disease in this world region. Already, researchers are beginning to record prevalence, though with little attention to the social experience of individuals and parents with food allergic children. This paper presents the first qualitative analysis of the daily realities of adults and parents of children with allergies in SSA using Ghana as a case study...
March 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656033/differences-in-the-theory-of-mind-profiles-of-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-individuals-on-the-autism-spectrum-a-meta-analytic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Felicity Sedgewick, Janet Treasure, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: This meta-analytic review examines the theory of mind profiles in both patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and autistic individuals. METHODOLOGY: The studies examining theory of mind were divided into the following categories: emotional theory of mind, understanding simple social situations, understanding complex social interactions, and implicit social attribution. All included studies investigated differences between healthy control (HCs) individuals and people with AN or autistic people...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655656/how-social-cultural-and-economic-environments-shape-infant-feeding-for-low-income-women-a-qualitative-study-in-north-carolina
#6
Annie Hardison-Moody, Lillian MacNell, Sinikka Elliott, Sarah Bowen
BACKGROUND: This study focuses on the cultural, social, and economic factors that shape infant feeding practices among low-income mothers. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to understand factors that inhibit or facilitate breastfeeding practices of low-income mothers, including how they are linked to broader social, cultural, and economic processes. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with women about their feeding practices and food environments, including their experiences with breastfeeding and formula feeding...
April 11, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655594/no-effect-of-prenatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-autism-relevant-behaviours-in-multiple-inbred-strains-of-mice
#7
M Langguth, M Fassin, S Alexander, K M Turner, T H J Burne
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders commonly characterised by verbal and non-verbal communication deficits, impaired social interaction and repetitive, stereotypic behaviours. The aetiology of ASD is most likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that prenatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of ASD. The overall aim of this study was to investigate prenatal vitamin D deficiency on ASD-related behavioural phenotypes in multiple inbred strains of mice...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653156/oestrous-phase-cyclicity-influences-judgment-biasing-in-rats
#8
Timothy Hugh Barker, Karen Lee Kind, Peta Danielle Groves, Gordon Stanley Howarth, Alexandra Louise Whittaker
The identification of cognitive bias has become an important measure of animal welfare. Negative cognitive biases develop from a tendency for animals to process novel information pessimistically. Judgment-bias testing is the commonplace methodology to detect cognitive biases. However, concerns with these methods have been frequently-reported; one of which being the discrepancy between male and female cognitive expression. The current study assessed the factors of social status and oestrus, to investigate whether oestrous cycle rotation, or subordination stress encouraged an increase in pessimistic responses...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651461/limiting-parental-interaction-during-vocal-development-affects-acoustic-call-structure-in-marmoset-monkeys
#9
Yasemin B Gultekin, Steffen R Hage
Human vocal development is dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies have revealed that vocal development is also influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys, suggesting vocal learning mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Marmoset infants that experience more contingent vocal feedback than their littermates develop vocalizations more rapidly, and infant marmosets with limited parental interaction exhibit immature vocal behavior beyond infancy...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651456/systematic-reconstruction-of-autism-biology-from-massive-genetic-mutation-profiles
#10
Weijun Luo, Chaolin Zhang, Yong-Hui Jiang, Cory R Brouwer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1% of world population and has become a pressing medical and social problem worldwide. As a paradigmatic complex genetic disease, ASD has been intensively studied and thousands of gene mutations have been reported. Because these mutations rarely recur, it is difficult to (i) pinpoint the fewer disease-causing versus majority random events and (ii) replicate or verify independent studies. A coherent and systematic understanding of autism biology has not been achieved. We analyzed 3392 and 4792 autism-related mutations from two large-scale whole-exome studies across multiple resolution levels, that is, variants (single-nucleotide), genes (protein-coding unit), and pathways (molecular module)...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651263/effect-and-performance-based-auditory-feedback-on-interpersonal-coordination
#11
Tong-Hun Hwang, Gerd Schmitz, Kevin Klemmt, Lukas Brinkop, Shashank Ghai, Mircea Stoica, Alexander Maye, Holger Blume, Alfred O Effenberg
When two individuals interact in a collaborative task, such as carrying a sofa or a table, usually spatiotemporal coordination of individual motor behavior will emerge. In many cases, interpersonal coordination can arise independently of verbal communication, based on the observation of the partners' movements and/or the object's movements. In this study, we investigate how social coupling between two individuals can emerge in a collaborative task under different modes of perceptual information. A visual reference condition was compared with three different conditions with new types of additional auditory feedback provided in real time: effect-based auditory feedback, performance-based auditory feedback, and combined effect/performance-based auditory feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650696/npy-induces-stress-resilience-via-down-regulation-of-i-h-in-principal-neurons-of-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#12
Heika Silveira Villarroel, Maria Bompolaki, James Mackay, Ana Pamela Miranda Tapia, Sheldon D Michaelson, Randy J Leitermann, Robert A Marr, Janice H Urban, William F Colmers
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression is tightly linked with the development of stress resilience in rodents and humans. Local NPY injections targeting the basolateral amygdala (BLA) produce long-term behavioral stress resilience in male rats via an unknown mechanism. Previously, we showed that activation of NPY Y1 receptors hyperpolarizes BLA principal neurons (PNs) through inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated, depolarizing H-current, Ih The present studies tested whether NPY treatment induces stress resilience by modulating Ih NPY (10 pmol) was delivered daily for 5 days bilaterally into the BLA to induce resilience; thereafter the electrophysiological properties of PNs and the expression of Ih in the BLA were characterized...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650504/interactive-two-way-mhealth-interventions-for-improving-medication-adherence-an-evaluation-using-the-behaviour-change-wheel-framework
#13
Nicole Chiang, Michael Guo, K Rivet Amico, Lou Atkins, Richard T Lester
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is an important but highly complex set of behaviors, which for life-threatening and infectious diseases such as HIV carry critical consequences for individual and public health. There is growing evidence that mobile phone text messaging interventions (mHealth) connecting providers with patients positively impact medication adherence, particularly two-way engagement platforms that require bidirectional communication versus one-way in which responses are not mandatory...
April 12, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650166/family-experiences-in-communicating-with-family-members-experiencing-social-isolation-after-hospitalization
#14
Mega Lestari Khoirunnisa, Achir Yani Syuhaimie Hamid, Novy Helena Catharina Daulima
OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia that is likely to persist after hospitalization. This study aimed to describe family experiences in communicating with post-hospitalized family members experiencing social isolation. METHOD: This study used a descriptive phenomenology qualitative approach. The research sample consisted of seven participants selected by a purposive sampling method. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with family members of people with schizophrenia who experienced social isolation after hospitalization...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650073/the-clinical-examination-and-socially-at-risk-populations-the-examination-matters-for-health-disparities
#15
REVIEW
Karly A Murphy, Alejandra Ellison-Barnes, Erica N Johnson, Lisa A Cooper
Data from the United States show that persons from low socioeconomic backgrounds, those who are socially isolated, belong to racial or ethnic minority groups, or identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender experience health disparities at a higher rate. Clinicians must transition from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial framework within the clinical examination to better address social determinants of health that contribute to health disparities. We review the characteristics of successful patient-clinician interactions...
May 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649946/author-accepted-manuscript-does-social-presence-or-the-potential-for-interaction-reduce-social-gaze-in-online-social-scenarios-introducing-the-live-lab-paradigm
#16
Nicola Gregory, Jastine V Antolin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649810/female-gender-marital-and-family-problems-and-feelings-of-guilt-are-related-to-self-immolation-suicide-attempts
#17
Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Amir Hosein Rahighi, Mohammad Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Self-immolation (SI) is considered one of the most painful, dramatic, and at the same time most inexplicable methods of suicide, with a high social impact. Prevalence rates are particularly high in Iran, and in north-western Iran specifically. Here, we report sociodemographic, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics of patients attempting self-immolation (PSIs), compared to patients with accident burns (PABs). METHOD: Patients referred to the Burns Emergency Unit of the Besat Hospital (Hamadan, Iran) were enrolled in the present study between winter 2015 and summer 2016...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649338/guilt-leads-to-enhanced-facing-the-viewer-bias
#19
Mowei Shen, Chengfeng Zhu, Huayu Liao, Haihang Zhang, Jifan Zhou, Zaifeng Gao
As an important moral emotion, guilt plays a critical role in social interaction. It has been found that people tended to exhibit prosocial behavior under circumstances of guilt. However, all extant studies have predominantly focused on the influence of guilt on macro-level behavior. So far, no study has investigated whether guilt affects people's micro-level perception. The current study closes this gap by examining whether guilt affects one's inclination to perceive approaching motion. We achieved this aim by probing a facing-the-viewer bias (FTV bias)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649179/nanocoatings-for-chronic-wound-repair-modulation-of-microbial-colonization-and-biofilm-formation
#20
REVIEW
Mara Mădălina Mihai, Mădălina Preda, Iulia Lungu, Monica Cartelle Gestal, Mircea Ioan Popa, Alina Maria Holban
Wound healing involves a complex interaction between immunity and other natural host processes, and to succeed it requires a well-defined cascade of events. Chronic wound infections can be mono- or polymicrobial but their major characteristic is their ability to develop a biofilm. A biofilm reduces the effectiveness of treatment and increases resistance. A biofilm is an ecosystem on its own, enabling the bacteria and the host to establish different social interactions, such as competition or cooperation. With an increasing incidence of chronic wounds and, implicitly, of chronic biofilm infections, there is a need for alternative therapeutic agents...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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