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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822079/interethnic-interaction-strategic-bargaining-power-and-the-dynamics-of-cultural-norms-a-field-study-in-an-amazonian-population
#1
John Andrew Bunce, Richard McElreath
Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms...
August 18, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821863/the-heat-shock-response-and-humoral-immune-response-are-mutually-antagonistic-in-honey-bees
#2
Mia McKinstry, Charlie Chung, Henry Truong, Brittany A Johnston, Jonathan W Snow
The honey bee is of paramount importance to humans in both agricultural and ecological settings. Honey bee colonies have suffered from increased attrition in recent years, stemming from complex interacting stresses. Defining common cellular stress responses elicited by these stressors represents a key step in understanding potential synergies. The proteostasis network is a highly conserved network of cellular stress responses involved in maintaining the homeostasis of protein production and function. Here, we have characterized the Heat Shock Response (HSR), one branch of this network, and found that its core components are conserved...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821809/impact-of-varying-social-experiences-during-life-history-on-behaviour-gene-expression-and-vasopressin-receptor-gene-methylation-in-mice
#3
Carina Bodden, Daniel van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Norbert Sachser
Both negative and positive social experiences during sensitive life phases profoundly shape brain and behaviour. Current research is therefore increasingly focusing on mechanisms mediating the interaction between varying life experiences and the epigenome. Here, male mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions until adulthood, when they were subdivided into groups exposed to situations that either matched or mismatched previous conditions. It was investigated whether the resulting four life histories were associated with changes in anxiety-like behaviour, gene expression of selected genes involved in anxiety and stress circuits, and arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (Avpr1a) gene methylation...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821648/bilingual-language-switching-in-the-lab-vs-in-the-wild-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-adaptive-language-control
#4
Esti Blanco-Elorrieta, Liina Pylkkänen
For a bilingual human, every utterance requires a choice about which language to use. This choice is commonly regarded as part of general executive control, engaging prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices similarly to many types of effortful task-switching. However, while language control within artificial switching paradigms has been heavily studied, the neurobiology of natural switching within socially cued situations has not been characterized. Additionally, although theoretical models address how language control mechanisms adapt to the distinct demands of different interactional contexts, these predictions have not been empirically tested...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821507/social-capital-neighbourhood-characteristics-and-utilisation-of-local-public-health-services-among-domestic-migrants-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Zhiyuan Hou, Senlin Lin, Donglan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between structural social capital and public health services use, and explored the modifiable effect of neighbourhood factors on this association among domestic migrants in China. METHODS: Data were from a 2014 nationally representative cross-sectional sample of domestic migrants aged 15-59 years in China. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between structural social capital, measured by participation in social organisations and social activities, and use of public health services...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820613/influence-of-paddock-size-on-social-relationships-in-domestic-horses
#6
Katarzyna Majecka, Aneta Klawe
The aim of this study was to explore whether the size of paddocks affected social interactions within a group of horses. Furthermore, the effects of the gender composition in groups on social behavior were investigated. The research was done in a horse-riding center. A total of 78 horses and ponies, forming 3 groups, were included in the study. The time of the observation was divided into 2 periods. The data obtained from the 1st period (the horses were on relatively small paddocks) and the 2nd period (the paddocks were significantly bigger) were compared...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#7
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
August 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819263/children-chimpanzees-and-bonobos-adjust-the-visibility-of-their-actions-for-cooperators-and-competitors
#8
Sebastian Grueneisen, Shona Duguid, Heiko Saur, Michael Tomasello
Chimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this in competitive interactions but this has rarely been directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the social context. In the cooperation condition, players' interests were matched: they had to make corresponding choices to be mutually rewarded...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819207/long-term-consistency-in-chimpanzee-consolation-behaviour-reflects-empathetic-personalities
#9
Christine E Webb, Teresa Romero, Becca Franks, Frans B M de Waal
In contrast to a wealth of human studies, little is known about the ontogeny and consistency of empathy-related capacities in other species. Consolation-post-conflict affiliation from uninvolved bystanders to distressed others-is a suggested marker of empathetic concern in non-human animals. Using longitudinal data comprising nearly a decade of observations on over 3000 conflict interactions in 44 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we provide evidence for relatively stable individual differences in consolation behaviour...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819196/specialized-odorant-receptors-in-social-insects-that-detect-cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-and-candidate-pheromones
#10
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#11
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817952/professional-socialization-a-grounded-theory-of-the-clinical-reasoning-processes-that-rns-and-lpns-use-to-recognize-delirium
#12
Mohamed El Hussein, Sandra Hirst, Joseph Osuji
Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition. It affects half of older adults in acute care settings and is a cause of increasing mortality and costs. Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) frequently fail to recognize delirium. The goals of this research were to identify the reasoning processes that RNs and LPNs use to recognize delirium, to compare their reasoning processes, and to generate a theory that explains their clinical reasoning processes. Theoretical sampling was employed to elicit data from 28 participants using grounded theory methodology...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817796/the-strange-case-of-aggression-and-the-brain
#13
Vinicius M A Carvalho, Thiago S Nakahara, Fabio Papes
Territorial male mice are aggressive toward intruding males, but socially bonded males are not. Through manipulation of activity in a subset of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus, Yang et al. (2017) report that social and physiological factors non-linearly interact to control male aggression.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817710/excessive-use-of-wechat-social-interaction-and-locus-of-control-among-college-students-in-china
#15
Juan Hou, Yamikani Ndasauka, Yingying Jiang, Zi Ye, Ying Wang, Lizhuang Yang, Xiaoming Li, Yongjun Zhang, Liangjun Pang, Yan Kong, Fei Xu, Xiaochu Zhang
In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817359/developing-the-storyline-for-an-advance-care-planning-video-for-surgery-patients-patient-centered-outcomes-research-engagement-from-stakeholder-summit-to-state-fair
#16
Rebecca A Aslakson, Anne L R Schuster, Thomas J Lynch, Matthew J Weiss, Lydia Gregg, Judith Miller, Sarina R Isenberg, Norah L Crossnohere, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Angelo E Volandes, Thomas J Smith, John F P Bridges
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) methods and social learning theory (SLT) require intensive interaction between researchers and stakeholders. Advance care planning (ACP) is valuable before major surgery, but a systematic review found no extant perioperative ACP tools. Consequently, PCOR methods and SLT can inform the development of an ACP educational video for patients and families preparing for major surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop and test acceptability of an ACP video storyline...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816558/effect-of-feedback-from-a-socially-interactive-humanoid-robot-on-reaching-kinematics-in-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy-a-pilot-study
#17
Yuping Chen, Sergio Garcia-Vergara, Ayanna M Howard
PURPOSE: To examine whether children with or without cerebral palsy (CP) would follow a humanoid robot's (i.e., Darwin) feedback to move their arm faster when playing virtual reality (VR) games. METHODS: Seven children with mild CP and 10 able-bodied children participated. Real-time reaching was evaluated by playing the Super Pop VR(TM) system, including 2-game baseline, 3-game acquisition, and another 2-game extinction. During acquisition, Darwin provided verbal feedback to direct the child to reach a kinematically defined target goal (i...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816510/treatment-recommendations-as-actions
#18
Tanya Stivers, John Heritage, Rebecca K Barnes, Rose McCabe, Laura Thompson, Merran Toerien
From the earliest studies of doctor-patient interaction (Byrne & Long, 1976), it has been recognized that treatment recommendations may be expressed in more or less authoritative ways, based on their design and delivery. There are clear differences between I'm going to start you on X and We can give you X to try and Would you like me to give you X? Yet little is known about this variation, its contexts, or its consequences. In this paper, we develop a basic taxonomy of treatment recommendations in primary care as a first step toward a more comprehensive investigation...
August 17, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816489/the-path-to-an-autism-spectrum-disorders-diagnosis-in-ethiopia-parent-perspective
#19
Waganesh A Zeleke, Tammy Hughes, Morgan Chitiyo
This study explores the common characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the available diagnostic and intervention currently practiced for children with ASDs in Ethiopia based on parents' experience. Data gathered from 100 parents in Ethiopia detail the difficulties families face when they suspect their child has an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The data indicate Ethiopian parents pursued a diagnosis of ASD after noting common ASD behaviors such as hand flapping and unusual attachments to objects...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816464/influence-of-father-infant-relationship-on-infant-development-a-father-involvement-intervention-in-vietnam
#20
Lynn A Rempel, John K Rempel, Toan Nang Khuc, Le Thi Vui
We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Psychology
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