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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239781/validation-of-the-promis-%C3%A2-measures-of-self-efficacy-for-managing-chronic-conditions
#1
Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Craig Velozo, Sergio Romero, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. METHODS: PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions...
February 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239486/using-brothel-leadership-to-promote-condom-use-among-brothel-based-female-sex-workers-in-abuja-nigeria-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-pilot-trial
#2
Uchenna Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Ifeanyi Okekearu, Sylvia Adebajo, Adaora Uzoh, Egbe Aneotah Awo, Chukwuemeka Chima, Ogechukwu Agwagwa, Bart van den Borne
BACKGROUND: The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs) having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general population. METHODS/DESIGN: The clusters in the randomized pilot trial will be brothels and female sex workers (FSWs) residing in the brothels will be the participants of the study...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239228/doing-gender-online-new-mothers-psychological-characteristics-facebook-use-and-depressive-symptoms
#3
Sarah J Schoppe-Sullivan, Jill E Yavorsky, Mitchell K Bartholomew, Jason M Sullivan, Meghan A Lee, Claire M Kamp Dush, Michael Glassman
Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to "do motherhood." Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers' experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood...
March 2017: Sex Roles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239222/extended-family-support-networks-of-caribbean-black-adults-in-the-united-states
#4
Robert Joseph Taylor, Ivy Forysthe-Brown, Karen D Lincoln, Linda M Chatters
This paper investigates the extended family social support networks of Caribbean Black adults (Afro Caribbeans). Although there are several ethnographic accounts of familial ties and support exchanges among Black Caribbean immigrants, only a handful of studies utilize quantitative data. This paper utilizes data from the National Survey of American Life, which contains the first national probability sample of Caribbean Blacks in the United States. Age, gender, income, material hardship and immigration status were all associated with at least one of the four indicators of family support networks...
March 2017: Journal of Family Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238847/-sociability-affects-the-intensity-of-mate-choice-copying-in-female-guppies-poecilia-reticulata
#5
REVIEW
David J White, Eliza Watts, Kelsey Pitchforth, Samuel Agyapong, Noam Miller
Selecting a quality mate can involve acquiring and accessing large amounts of information; information that can be obtained either independently or socially. One means of learning about mates socially is to attend to other members of one's sex and copy their mate choices. It is possible however that not all individuals of a species benefit equally from, or are equally effective at, copying. We examined whether female guppies copied the mate choices of other females. Then, in a separate context we measured each female's 'sociability': their proclivity to affiliate with other guppies...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238817/the-relationship-between-maternal-responsivity-socioeconomic-status-and-resting-autonomic-nervous-system-functioning-in-mexican-american-children
#6
Megan Johnson, Julianna Deardorff, Elizabeth L Davis, William Martinez, Brenda Eskenazi, Abbey Alkon
Adversity, such as living in poor socioeconomic conditions during early childhood, can become embedded in children's physiology and deleteriously affect their health later in life. On the other hand, maternal responsivity may have adaptive effects on physiology during early childhood development. The current study tested both the additive and interactive effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal responsivity measured at 1year of age on resting autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and trajectory during the first 5years of life...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238116/the-immune-system-cytokines-and-biomarkers-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Anne Masi, Nicholas Glozier, Russell Dale, Adam J Guastella
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations...
February 25, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237745/brood-size-can-influence-maternal-behaviour-and-chick-s-development-in-precocial-birds
#8
Nadège Aigueperse, Florent Pittet, Emmanuel de Margerie, Céline Nicolle, Cécilia Houdelier, Sophie Lumineau
Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Variations of maternal behaviour can be due to numerous parameters, for instance costs are related to the size of a brood/litter, which in turn can influence the level of mothers' investment in each offspring. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. We compared two types of broods: small broods of three chicks (N=9) and large broods of six chicks (N=9)...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237016/the-situation-awareness-weighted-network-sawn-model-and-method-theory-and-application
#9
Alexander Kalloniatis, Irena Ali, Timothy Neville, Phuong La, Iain Macleod, Mathew Zuparic, Elizabeth Kohn
We introduce a novel model and associated data collection method to examine how a distributed organisation of military staff who feed a Common Operating Picture (COP) generates Situation Awareness (SA), a critical component in organisational performance. The proposed empirically derived Situation Awareness Weighted Network (SAWN) model draws on two scientific models of SA, by Endsley involving perception, comprehension and projection, and by Stanton et al. positing that SA exists across a social and semantic network of people and information objects in activities connected across a set of tasks...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236693/attachment-style-moderates-theory-of-mind-abilities-in-depression
#10
Katja Koelkebeck, Carla Liedtke, Waldemar Kohl, Judith Alferink, Mariska Esther Kret
INTRODUCTION: Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236578/social-correlates-of-health-status-quality-of-life-and-mood-states-in-patients-treated-with-cannabidiol-for-epilepsy
#11
Magdalena Szaflarski, Barbara Hansen, E Martina Bebin, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Social characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, play a role in the treatment and outcomes of patients with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about how these factors affect patients receiving cannabidiol (CBD) to treat seizures. This exploratory study examined the sociodemographic profile of patients treated with CBD (n=80) and associations between social factors and patient-centered outcomes - overall health status, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) - in this population...
February 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236511/do-patient-characteristics-moderate-the-effect-of-extended-release-naltrexone-xr-ntx-for-opioid-use-disorder
#12
Peter D Friedmann, Donna Wilson, Edward V Nunes, Randall Hoskinson, Joshua D Lee, Michael Gordon, Sean M Murphy, Richard J Bonnie, Donna T Chen, Tamara Y Boney, Charles P O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Extended release naltrexone (XR-NTX) injected intramuscularly monthly has been shown to reduce relapse in persons with opioid use disorder. Baseline factors, including patients' demographics, comorbidities and lifestyle, may help identify patients who will benefit most or least from XR-NTX treatment. METHODS: Potential moderators of XR-NTX's effect were examined in the largest North American randomized open-label effectiveness trial of XR-NTX. Relapse status (Yes/No) at 6-month follow-up was regressed on treatment group (XR-NTX, N=153; or Treatment-as-Usual [TAU], N=155), baseline covariates, and their two-way interaction to identify moderator effects...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236101/effect-of-social-stimuli-on-postural-responses-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Parisa Ghanouni, Amir-Hossein Memari, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Jandark Eghlidi, Pouria Moshayedi
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of social versus non-social stimuli on postural responses in 21 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (mean age of 11.6 ± 1.5) compared with 30 typically developing (TD) boys (mean age of 11.7 ± 1.8). Postural control of children was examined while they were standing on a force plate and viewing images of an object, male face, or female face in sequence. Each image was shown in two trials and each trial lasted for 20 s. Results indicated a significant interaction between group and task (p < 0...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235785/emergence-of-communities-and-diversity-in-social-networks
#14
Xiao Han, Shinan Cao, Zhesi Shen, Boyu Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Ross Cressman, H Eugene Stanley
Communities are common in complex networks and play a significant role in the functioning of social, biological, economic, and technological systems. Despite widespread interest in detecting community structures in complex networks and exploring the effect of communities on collective dynamics, a deep understanding of the emergence and prevalence of communities in social networks is still lacking. Addressing this fundamental problem is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in society...
February 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235589/short-and-long-term-behavioral-analysis-of-social-interaction-ultrasonic-vocalizations-and-social-motivation-in-a-chronic-phencyclidine-model
#15
Suzanne M Peters, Joe A Tuffnell, Ilona J Pinter, Johanneke E van der Harst, Berry M Spruijt
Phencyclidine (PCP) has been suggested to induce symptoms of schizophrenia. However, animal models using PCP administration have produced ambiguous results thus far. It seems that acute effects are similar to symptoms of schizophrenia, however, it is not clear if PCP can induce permanent behavioral changes that reflect schizophrenic-like symptoms. Therefore, we assessed the ability of chronic PCP administration (3mg/kg, 14 days) to induce short or long lasting behavioral changes in rats. Social behavior, including ultrasonic vocalizations and motivation for social contact were investigated at different time points, up to 29-36 days, after cessation of PCP treatment...
February 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235397/unsupportive-social-interactions-and-affective-states-examining-associations-of-two-oxytocin-related-polymorphisms
#16
Opal A McInnis, Robyn J McQuaid, Kimberly Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on oxytocin-related genes, specifically the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs53576 and the CD38 rs3796863 variants, have been associated with alterations in prosocial behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 476) to examine associations between the OXTR and CD38 polymorphisms and unsupportive social interactions and mood states. Results revealed no association between perceived levels of unsupportive social interactions and the OXTR polymorphism...
January 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231323/even-good-bots-fight-the-case-of-wikipedia
#17
Milena Tsvetkova, Ruth García-Gavilanes, Luciano Floridi, Taha Yasseri
In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#18
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230072/improved-social-interaction-recognition-and-working-memory-with-cannabidiol-treatment-in-a-prenatal-infection-poly-i-c-rat-model
#19
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Ilijana Babic, Xu-Feng Huang, Katrina Weston-Green
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229973/female-conspecifics-restore-rhythmic-singing-behaviour-in-arrhythmic-male-zebra-finches
#20
Neelu Anand Jha, Vinod Kumar
The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singing behaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitored the activity-rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific female under 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LL bright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibited a significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 h extension in the evening...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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